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Preface …………………………………………………………………. 1
Ch.1 …………………………………………………………………. 2
Ch.2 …………………………………………………………………. 7
Ch.3 ………………………………...
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This is the solution notes for Assembly language book BY Ytha yu.
This book will helpful for University student .
This solution is useful for BSCS , BSSE and BSIT students.
it is useful for all university which contains BSCS , BSSSE OR BSIT.
It contains 10 chapter that is solved .
It consists of easy solution for Questions.
if you are student of BSCS , BSIT or BSSE , you can get help through these notes.it consists of 129 pages.

This is the solution notes for Assembly language book BY Ytha yu.
This book will helpful for University student .
This solution is useful for BSCS , BSSE and BSIT students.
it is useful for all university which contains BSCS , BSSSE OR BSIT.
It contains 10 chapter that is solved .
It consists of easy solution for Questions.
if you are student of BSCS , BSIT or BSSE , you can get help through these notes.it consists of 129 pages.

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SOLUTIONS_OF_Ytha_Yu_Charles_Marut_Assem.pdf

  1. 1. ! ! ! !" " " " # $ # $ # $ # $! ! ! !# $%&' # # $%&' # # $%&' # # $%&' #
  2. 2. Preface …………………………………………………………………. 1 Ch.1 …………………………………………………………………. 2 Ch.2 …………………………………………………………………. 7 Ch.3 …………………………………………………………………. 14 Ch.4 …………………………………………………………………. 17 Ch.5 …………………………………………………………………. 32 Ch.6 …………………………………………………………………. 37 Ch.7 …………………………………………………………………. 58 Ch.8 …………………………………………………………………. 84 Ch.9 …………………………………………………………………. 93 Ch.10 …………………………………………………………………. 110 Appendix A (How to run a program)………………… .. 112 Appendix B ( Some useful procedure)………………… 117
  3. 3. · · · · · · ·
  4. 4. ! " " # $ % &' # ( ! ) *+# % ,+ &' - # . ! ! ,+ # / " #
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  7. 7. 0 6 6 8 1 , 5 60 0. 4 66 ! 0,4 5 6( ,
  8. 8. 4 ( 16187 7 1 5 . ( 8 87 0 = = , . = - . = : # . = = 777 . = = 056 . = - . = : # . = = 4 4 > : # = : ? : # => @
  9. 9. 6 4 @ $ : # " 3 % # # A # 3 # & # B # " 3 $ : # : # - = ? = 2 3 # = : # - = ? = > " 3 # = : # = - : # - 5 = ,8(( 7, 7 ? ,8(( = ,5. 2 3 # = ,5. : # -5 , = 1 . 51 ? 1 . = ..8 > " 3 # = : # ..8 = - 66 , % " & ' ! ( ! " ) * + , - " ) * . , / & 0 12 !
  10. 10. 6 + " 3 # 9 " = 3 # & = $ : # 3 # 077, 0.. 0.. 4( ( - 7, ( - 07 0 0 > " # # - ( % -0 # = 4- .- @ $ " 3 $ : # - = 4- .-
  11. 11. 0.0 C " - C " C " .(( . C " C " (0 C " - 4 > " " " ) (( 4- ) .(( ( % .- " " - 4 ) 0 4- - 0.4 ) 0.0 % .- " & = 3 " 3 > " 3 04, = 2 3 15 = > " 3 4 07 = > " 3 6 1 = > " 3
  12. 12. ! " D , # 0 0 ( ( ( 0 0 . . .5 . 0 . $ 8 00 ., % # $ % ( = = . @ 3 % #
  13. 13. . E F = 3 = E F = 3 = @ 9+5 " 3 # 0 G ; ( . 0 4 6 5 1 8 , 7 HH#-A ( 5 18 ? 06 8? = " 8 " = 7 1? = " 1 " = 8 ?6= " " 6 = 1 ?0= " " 0 = 6 5? = " 5 " = 1 = 16187
  14. 14. 4 4. / 4 4. 3 .- 4 4. 3 · @ % # · # · I # & '( & 12+ 2 J % $ % - " .- 5 4- > 4 4.# C / 3 # 5C 3 " # 1C 3 # 8C &' #
  15. 15. ( ( 186 = " 2 = " K ? = ( K ? 186 = ( ? 186 = 0 ( 2 = 05 "# = 77 2 = " K ? = ) " K = 05 ) 77 K = 05 ) 77 = 6 45 77 6 45 = 5 2 = " K ? 9 " K = ) 9 " K = 05 ) 5 9 " K = 6 9 " = 6 ' = 6 6 5
  16. 16. . . 2 " = . 9 3 . ' " # # " ,! ( 2#5 2#5 2 " 5 ..8 2#5 1 2#5 0 @ 21 % &5 21 % % 5& 9 &5 21# 4 @ L # 7 4 4. 5 - " " " - " " 3 . J5 # & % ( -J5 4- "
  17. 17. 0 " " " M $ " " " M " N " " M " = . M " ) . M " ) ! M " ) M " ) " M " ) ! 777, M " ) " % " " M " ) ! 5 M " ) " % " M " ) 8O ( O 8 8O P 5 85 ( 1 85 P " " : % Q 8O (
  18. 18. 4 " 5,** ,R+ 0 9S ,R+ N@<&9 &9 ,99 S,D: ) * ( 0 51 5 N<: 1 N,: ( N*: . N*: 0 N : 3 # 3 # 5 3 # 1 N,: N : 0
  19. 19. 6 ( " " M " " M " " " " M " M : " " M " M " : 4- " M ' L . I C 5 9+5 C I C I C &>1 C >,S C I C I C 88 C 5 I 1 C
  20. 20. I C 5 88 C 5 88 C 5 88 C 0 I 5 C I C 5 9+5 C 8,1 C I C 0 I < &>@ < I 8* * I < &>@ < > @ % 3 ! "# I < &>@ < 88 * < M 3 % I 8* * I < &>@ <
  21. 21. 4 # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 9S 85 < 8< T@<, 9+ 7 T 1 85 P T >8 T 1 85 P T &9 T 9+ 85 P TDT #1 8, 2 1 I C U8 @ M L 89 I 89 C I < M NP: I 8* TPT &>@ < I < &>@ < M " I 1 * M &>@ < M " I 1 * M
  22. 22. 88 * 1 M % 9+5 * < M V I 9+ * M *, 8C 9S M " I < 6 &>@ < M 9S D I < 1< M 8 9 &>@ < ,>82 ,>8 V % % % % 0 @ 91&& 0 3 " * % .6 % % 3 9+5 " 91&& 6 6 #
  23. 23. 6 # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 9S 85 < 8< W,>@, @< ,, &>&@& *9 DW 1 85 P < 8< 1 85 P < 8< 1 85 P TDT #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M L 89 I 89 C I < 6 M 9S *, 8C 9S &>@ < I < M / # &>@ < I 1 * &>@ < M / # I 1 * &>@ < M / # I 1 *
  24. 24. I < M I 8* < &>@ < I 8* 8< &>@ < I < 6 M " D *, 8C 1 &>@ < I < 1< M 8 9 &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &>
  25. 25. ( # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 9S 85 < 8< T,>@, <,C 8&S&@ DT 9S 85 < 8< T&> 8,1& * &@ &9 T 1 85 P TDT #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M L 89 I 89 C I < 6 M 9S *, 8C 9S &>@ < I < M ! " ) 7 &>@ < 9+5 * < MV I 1 * M I < 6 M 9S D *, 8C 9S &>@ <
  26. 26. . I < 1< M 8 9 &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &> V 91&& 91&& 8 5 1 8 , 7 J % " % N : 9S
  27. 27. 0 # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 9@ 9 85 < 8< TVVVVVVVVVVT TDT #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M L 89 I 89 C I < 6 M *, 8C 9@ 9 &>@ < M V &>@ < &>@ < &>@ < &>@ < &>@ < &>@ < &>@ < &>@ < &>@ <
  28. 28. 4 I < 1< M 8 9 &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &> V % #. I 1C * &>@ < * 2 *
  29. 29. 6 # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 9@ 9 85 TVVVVVVVVVVVT < 8< TDT &8 85 T VVV T 1 85 P 1 85 P 1 85 P T VVVT < 8< TDT #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M L 89 I 89 C I < M / &>@ < I 1 * &>@ < I 1 * &>@ < I 1 * I < M 1 I 8* 8< &>@ <
  30. 30. I < 6 M M " " % M M % 3 *, 8C 9@ 9 &>@ < &>@ < &>@ < &>@ < &>@ < *, 8C &8 M M % &>@ < *, 8C 9@ 9 M " &>@ < &>@ < &>@ < &>@ < &>@ < I < 1< M 8 9 &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &>
  31. 31. 9 ! ;
  32. 32. " " = V ) + ,+ -+ + .+ C= 4 *= *= 77 *= 4 C= 0 5C= 51 *= 07 " C= 4 C= 7777 V $ % % % " 3 R R / R C= !! !!!! !!!! !!!! 5C= !! !!!! !!!! !!!! ? !! !!!! !!!! !!!! ! # ! C= 07 = 5C= . 8 = ? 87 8 = 1 = = 1 C = C = = 7 " 3 %
  33. 33. C= !! !!!! !!!! !!!! 5C= !! !!!! !!!! !!!! ? !! !!!! !!!! !!!! ,! C=68, = 5C= 5 . = ? = 1 = = 1 C = C = = 7 " 3 %
  34. 34. O : % # ( 1 = 4( = ? 6 5 = 5 $ " C % 1 = = R # C = 7 = " 1 = 17 = " 7 3 9 3 ! 3 " 3 @ 7 = ) / .+ + 6 5 488 5160 , 0 77
  35. 35. ( O : % # % % - 651 = 4 7, = - 605, = 5 $ " C % % % - % C % - C = 7 = " % = 17 = " 7 3 9 " 3 5 " # ) - = ? = 3 # @ " 3 7 =
  36. 36. . ) / .+ + 058 .404 605, 7
  37. 37. 0 1 2 C GS, ,>8X&7 I 5C - ,>8X&7 1 2 * G>* ,*9,X I < 77 G 2 ,>8X&7 ,*9,X I < ,>8X&7 1 2 * G* @<,>X I < G 2 ,>8X&7 @<,>X I < 77 ,>8X&7 1 2 8* : : G* ,>8X&7 1 2 8* :Y: GS ,>8X&7 I < M 8* &>@ < ,>8X&7
  38. 38. 4 1 2 C 5C GS, ,>8X&7 1 2 5C 1C GS, ,*9,X I C M G 2 ,>8X&7 ,*9,X I 5C ,>8X&7 1 2 C 5C G* @<,>X 1 2 5C 1C G* @<,>X I 8C M G 2 ,>8X&7 @<,>X I 8C ,>8X&7 1 2 C 5C G>* ,*9,X I C G 2 ,>8X&7 ,*9,X 1 2 5C 1C G>* ,*9,X
  39. 39. 6 I 5C G 2 ,>8X&7 ,*9,X I 1C ,>8X&7 1 2 C 5C G* @<,>X 1 2 5C 1C G* @<,>X I 1C G 2 ,>8X&7 @<,>X I C G 2 ,>8X&7 @<,>X I 5C ,>8X&7
  40. 40. I < M &>@ < 1 2 * : : M * # G, ,C,X1 1 2 * :5: G, ,C,X*7 M I < 1 M 8 9 &>@ < G 2 ,>8X1 9, ,C,X1 I < I 8* 8 &>@ < G 2 ,>8X1 9, ,C,X*7 I < I 8* &>@ < ,>8X1 9,
  41. 41. % % ) ' 4 ) ' = 6 I 1C 6 I C M I 5C * 88 5C M # % 88 C 5C * 2 *
  42. 42. ) ' ) ( '( = 6 I 1C 6 I C I 5C * 9+5 5C ( 88 C 5C * 2 * I 1C ( I 8C I C * 88 C * 2 *
  43. 43. I < &>@ < I < I 8* < M &>@ < I 8* 8< &>@ < I 8* * I 1C 4 8&92* Q &>@ < * 2 8&92* Q I 1C ( I < 0 MV * &>@ < * 2 * M---------------------------- I 8* TCT I 1C ( I < * &>@ < * 2 * V 0 : Z & % % " @ 91&& " *
  44. 44. ( I C M1C 3 5C 3 C ; % X 1 2 1C 5C G* ,>8XO<&*, &>1 C 9+5 1C 5C G 2 O<&*,X ,>8XO<&*, M " 8,5+S " . C 1C 1C M 1C 5C C 3 * 88 1C C 8,1 5C G>Y * M 3 C 5C 8,5+S
  45. 45. ( 0 I < I 1C 4 * &>@ < 1 2 * < M $ = * 2, * M % $ # " I < I 1C 4 * &>@ < 1 2 * 8< * 2>, * M % " Y7 ; 8< * 2>, #
  46. 46. . 4 # 8,* 9 ** #1 8, &> 2 1 I < I 8* TPT &>@ < M NP: I < &>@ < M # / 5* I 5* * &>@ < M # * M-------------------------- 1 2 5* * GS 9O&@1< M G 2 8&92* Q 9O&@1< C1<S * 5* 8&92* Q I < I 8* < M &>@ < I 8* 5* &>@ < I 8* *
  47. 47. 0 &>@ < +@X I < 1< &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &>
  48. 48. 4 6 # 8,* 9 ** #1 8, &> 2 1 M5< I 5< I < I 1C 07< M 0 # I 8* 4 < M 9@ I 5* 4 < 1 >@&>+, I 8* 5* &>@ < 8,1 1C &>1 8* I 5* 8* I 8* < M $ &>@ < &>1 5< 1 2 5< G, 1 +>@ 1 2 1C G>, 1 >@&>+, M P G 2 X 1 +>@ I 5< M " I 8* < M &>@ < I 8* 8< &>@ <
  49. 49. 6 G 2 1 >@&>+, X I < 1< &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &>
  50. 50. (
  51. 51. ( @&@*, R6 O &@@,> 5Q , *-J<9 5 < I#I # 8,* 9 ** #9@ 1J . M------------------------------------ #8 @ 1 ,R+ 8< *7 ,R+ < 85 1 *7 T,>@, <,C 8&S&@ T TDT 85 1 *7 T&> 8,1& * &@ &9 T 1 85 P TDT 85 1 *7 T8 Q + O >@ @ 8 &@ S &> P: 85 NQ'>T TDT 85 1 *7 T&**,S * 1< 1@, - ,>@, N 85 N ##6 ##7 T TDT ( 85 1 *7 T&> 8,1& * &@ &9 T 1 85 P TDT M----------------------------------- #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M& L 89 I 89 C 5,S&> I < 6 *, 8C &>@ < M-------- >,O I < M ! " &>@ < M--------
  52. 52. ( 1 2 * T T M 3 G* &**,S * 1 2 * T6T GS &**,S * M-------- I 1 * I < 6 *, 8C &>@ < M-------- 9S I < 6 M % " *, 8C &>@ < M--------- I < M &>@ < 1 2 * TQT G, 5,S&> 1 2 * T T G, 5,S&> G 2 ,>88 M # " M--------- &**,S * 1 2 * T T M 3 G* &**,S * 1 2 * T7T GS &**,S * 9+5 * < I 1 * M-------- I < 6
  53. 53. ( *, 8C ( &>@ < M--------- G 2 9S M-------- &**,S * I < 6 *, 8C &>@ < G 2 >,O ,>88 I < 1< &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &>
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
  55. 55. (( &>@ < M-------- >,O I < M ! " &>@ < M-------- 1 2 * T T M 3 G* &**,S * 1 2 * T6T GS &**,S * M-------- I 1 * I < 6 *, 8C &>@ < M-------- 9S I < 6 *, 8C &>@ < M--------- I < M % " &>@ < 1 2 * TQT G, 5,S&> 1 2 * T T G, 5,S&> G 2 ,>88 M--------- &**,S * 1 2 * T T G* &**,S * 1 2 * T7T
  56. 56. (. GS &**,S * 9+5 * < I 1 * M-------- I < 6 *, 8C ( &>@ < M--------- G 2 9S M-------- &**,S * I < 6 *, 8C &>@ < M - " &>1 5* 1 2 5* G, ,>888 G 2 >,O ,>888 I < 6 *, 8C . &>@ < ,>88 I < 1< &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &>
  57. 57. (0
  58. 58. (4 >8 C 5* 4 C 8C 4 > @ O 8 C O 8 7777 @,9@ C 7777 @,9@ 5C @,9@ 8C 4 @,9@ 8C 4 @,9@ 5* 77
  59. 59. (6 " * = = 15 * = = 6. * = = .( * = = 7 * = = 06 * = = 7 * = = 60 " * = = 76 ( 9<* 5( I 1* 9<* * 1* I C I 1* 9< C 1* I 5C - ( I 1* 9 5C 1* M9 $ "
  60. 60. . . * 8* 0 I 8* 5* I 1* 9<* 5* 1* M 5*= 45* 9<* 8* M 8*= 5* 88 5* 8* M 5*= 45*? 5* = 5* I 1* I < M < C 1* M <
  61. 61. . 4 # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 85 T@Q2, 1< 1@, T TDT 85 < 8< T@<, 91&& 1 8, 7 T 1 85 P T &> 5&> Q &9 T TDT 85 < 8< T@<, >+ 5, 7 5&@ &9 T 1 85 P TDT #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M& L 89 I 89 C I < 6 M *, 8C &>@ < M------------- I < M &>@ < I 5* * I 1 * M I < 6 M
  62. 62. . *, 8C &>@ < I 5< M : I 1C 4 I < * 9<* 5* M 5* G1 * I 8* T T &>@ < G 2 * * I 8* T T &>@ < &>1 5< M : * * 2 * 88 5< < M 3 # I 1 5< I < 6 M : *, 8C &>@ < M------------------- I < 1< M 8 9 &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &>
  63. 63. .
  64. 64. . 6 # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 85 < 8< T@Q2, 1< 1@, T TDT 85 < 8< T@<, 91&& 1 8, 7 T 1 85 P T &> <,C &9 T TDT #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M L 89 I 89 C M------------ 5,S&> I < 6 M *, 8C &>@ I < M # &>@ < 1 2 * 8< M 1 ! G, +@X I 1 * M # I 5* * M $ I < 6 M 9S *, 8C
  65. 65. .( &>@ < M------------- I 1* 9< 1 1* M MV % 88 1 < M 3 # I 8* 1 G 2 ,C, >8 5* 7< M 3 # 1 2 5* 6 M A6 5 1H## ! # GS , X 88 5* < M 3 # I 8* 5* G 2 ,C, ,C, I < M &>@ < G 2 ,C, I < &>@ < M G 2 5,S&> M $ % " M------------ , X 88 5* 0< M 3 5 1H# ! # I 8* 5* I < M
  66. 66. .. &>@ < G 2 5,S&> M $ % " +@X I < 1< M 8 9 &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &> V % : # 1 A6 % # S # 0 ELF 5 ! " % ,! L = 0 = .7
  67. 67. .0 # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 85 < 8< T@Q2, <,C >+ 5, - 7777 T TDT 85 < 8< T&> 5&> Q &@ &9 T TDT 85 < 8< T&**,S * <,C 8&S&@ @ Q S &> T TDT #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M L 89 I 89 C I < 6 M *, 8C &>@ < 9@ @ C 5C 5C I 1* I < &>@ < M O<&*,X 1 2 * 8< G, ,>8XO<&*, M ! 1 1 2 * T T M G* , 1 2 * T6T GS *,@@, >8 * 7< M" 3 G 2 9<&7@
  68. 68. .4 *,@@, 1 2 * T7T M " H5 GS , 1 2 * T T G* , 9+5 * 0< M" 3 9<&7@ 9<* 5C 1* M " 5* * &>@ < G 2 O<&*,X M " ! ,>8XO<&*, I < 6 M " *, 8C M &>@ < I 1C . M 5C I < 9< O 9<* 5C G1 >, I 8* T T &>@ < G 2 * 2 >, I 8* T T &>@ < * 2 * 2 9< O M . G 2 +@X
  69. 69. .6 , I < 6 *, 8C M 9S &>@ < G 2 9@ @ M " +@X I < 1< &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &>
  70. 70. 0 # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 85 < 8< T@Q2, 5&> Q 8&S&@ +2 @ .-5&@ T TDT 85 < 8< T&> <,C &@ &9 T TDT #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M L 89 I 89 C I < 6 M *, 8C &>@ < M-------------- I 5C M I < I 1C . * &>@ < 1 2 * 8< M G, +@X >8 * < M 3 9<* 5C M 5C 5* * * 2 *
  71. 71. 0 +@X I < 6 *, 8C &>@ < I 8< M % - " ! * I 1* I 8* 5< 9< 8* 1* I < 1 2 8* 6 M " GS *,@@, 88 8* < &>@ < G 2 * *,@@, 88 8* 0< &>@ < * * 5C 1* M" ! " 8,1 8< 1 2 8< G>, * M - " ! !
  72. 72. 0 I < 1< M 8 9 &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &>
  73. 73. 0 # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 5 85 P 5 85 P 85 < 8< T@Q2, 5&> Q >+ 5, +2 @ 4 8&S&@9 T TDT 85 < 8< T@<, 5&> Q 9+ &9 T TDT M-------------- #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M L 89 I 89 C I < 6 M *, 8C &>@ < I 5* I 1C 4 I < * &>@ < 1 2 * 8< G, +@ 9+5 * < M >8 * < 9<* 5* 5* * * 2 *
  74. 74. 0 +@ I 5 5* M # I < 6 M # &>@ < I 5* M # I 1C 4 I < * &>@ < 1 2 * 8< G, +@ 9+5 * < 9<* 5* 5* * * 2 * +@ I 5 5* M # I < 6 M % *, 8C &>@ < 88 5* 5 M5* # I < I 1C 4 * 9<* 5* M G1 >, I 8* T T &>@ < G 2 >, I 8* T T
  75. 75. 0( &>@ < * 2 * M----------------- I < 1< M 8 9 &>@ < &> ,>82 ,>8 &>
  76. 76. 0. & ; % ; $ Q : $ % ! #4 # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 85 < T@Q2, <,C >+ 5, -7777 DT 85 < T@<, 9+ &> <,C &9 DT 1 +>@, 85 >+ 8O P #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M L 89 I 89 C I < 6 M *, 8C &>@ < 1 ** , 8 I >+ 5C M # I < 6 M *, 8C &>@ < 1 ** , 8 M # M % 5C
  77. 77. 00 M----------- I < 6 M " *, 8C &>@ < 88 5C >+ M5C= >+ ? 5C G1 9< O1Q M I < M I 8* T T &>@ < G 2 >,C@ 9< O1Q I < I 8* T T &>@ < >,C@ 1 ** 9< O I < 1< M 8 9 &>@ < &> ,>82 M "
  78. 78. 04 M---------------------------------------- , 8 2 1 M ! " C 5C 5C I 1* I < &>@ < O<&*,X 1 2 * 8< G, ,>8XO 1 2 * T6T M ! GS *,@@, >8 * 7< G 2 9<&7@ *,@@, 9+5 * 0< 9<&7@ 9<* 5C 1* 5* * &>@ < G 2 O<&*,X ,>8XO ,@ , 8 ,>82 M------------------------------------ 9< O 2 1 M I 1* 9@ @ I 8* 5< 9< 8* 1* 1 2 8* 6 GS *,@@, 88 8* < G 2 9< O
  79. 79. 06 *,@@, 88 8* 0< 9< O I < &>@ < * 5C 1* 8,1 1 +>@, 1 2 1 +>@, G>, 9@ @ ,@ 9< O ,>82 M---------------------------------------- ,>8 &> V > @, $ " $ % (- !- " " # 9 " - ! - " % -> " = - " =
  80. 80. 4
  81. 81. 4 2 # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 85 < T,>@, 8,1& * 8&S&@ 9@ &>S DT 85 < T@<, 9+ 7 @<, 8&S&@ &> <,C &9 DT 1 +>@, 85 #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M L 89 I 89 C I < 6 M *, 8C &>@ < 1 ** , 8 I < 6 *, 8C M " &>@ < 1 ** 9< O I < 1< M 8 9 &>@ < &> ,>82
  82. 82. 4 M------------------------------------------ , 8 2 1 M " C 5C 5C O<&*,X I < &>@ < 1 2 * 8< G, ,>8XO >8 * 7< 15O M1 3 5 O M % T 5C * % 15O 88 5C C G 2 O<&*,X ,>8XO ,@ , 8 ,>82 M---------------------------------------- 9< O 2 1 I 1* 9@ @ I 8* 5< 9< 8* 1* 1 2 8* 6 GS *,@@, 88 8* < G 2 9< O *,@@, 88 8* 0< 9< O I <
  83. 83. 4 &>@ < * 5C 1* 8,1 1 +>@, 1 2 1 +>@, G>, 9@ @ ,@ 9< O ,>82 ,>8 &>
  84. 84. 4 92 = $ ' % 4 % C = 6 51 5C = 6 51 1C = (.04 92 = 7, O 92= 92= 777, # 2 " % 19 ! % 99 " " " # &2 = 92 = 4 O $
  85. 85. 4( ( &2 = 92 = &2 = 92 = . > ,@ 2 2XI *+, $ " L " 3 92 = ? 2 2XI *+, = . . 2 2 C 2+9< C 2 2 C 2 2 1C 2+9< 1C 2+9< C 2 2 C 2 2 5C 2+9< C 2+9< 5C
  86. 86. 4. 0 9 I,X ,S9 2 1 2 2 C M 3 2+9< 5C M 3 " $ 2+9< 1C 2+9< 8C 2+9< 9& 2+9< 8& 2+9< 52 2+9< 89 2+9< C M $ ,@ 9 I,X ,S9 ,>82 ,9@ ,X ,S9 2 1 2 2 C M 3 2 2 89 M " $ 2 2 52 2 2 8& 2 2 9& 2 2 8C 2 2 1C 2 2 5C 2+9< C M $ ,@ ,9@ ,X ,S9 ,>82
  87. 87. 40 > $ " % 0.0 % Z " " ' - ( ( # &>5&> Q 2 1 C 5C 5C 3 1C ( I < &>@ < O<&*,X 1 2 * 8< G, ,>8XO<&*, >8 * < 9<* 5C 5* * &>@ < * 2 O<&*,X ,>8XO<&*, ,@ &>5&> Q ,>82
  88. 88. 44 % " " >8 2 1 M C % " M C 2+9< 5C M 3 " 2+9< 8C 9<* C M I 8C C M" 9<* 8C M $ - - ( C C 8C M! - % - ( @,9@ 8C 4 M C - % - ( GY > @X >, C M - % G 2 1*X5 ( M - ( > @X >, >8 C 777,< M - % 1*X5 ( >8 C 0777< 2 2 8C M " 2 2 5C ,@ >8 ,>82
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  91. 91. 6 M--- 8,1 1 2 M - G, >,OX*&>, 8,1 1 1 2 1 G>, * G 2 +@X >,OX*&>, I < I 8* < M *7 &>@ < G 2 5 " +@X I < 1< &>@ < M------------------------- ,>82 M ! 1 - M@ : ] &>1*+8, 1 ]@,9@] >8 # 9 &>1*+8, 1 ]@,9@]&>5&> Q# 9 &>1*+8, 1 ]@,9@] +@5&># 9 ,>8
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  94. 94. 6 < * 77 , 7 3 3 % ( 8C 7777 . C 777 7( 774
  95. 95. 6( 0 I C ( M C=( & +* M C=(V 9+5 C 0 M C=(V -0 I C M =(V -0 I C M C= 9+5 C 5 M C= -5 88 5 M5=5? & +* 5 M C= -5 V 5? I 5 C M5= -5 V 5? I C 6 M C=6 & +* M C=6V I 5C . M5C=. 9+5 5C C M5C=.-6V I 5C M =.-6V
  96. 96. 6. I C M C= & +* C M C= ^ I C M = ^ I C 5 M C=5 & +* C M C=5^ I 5C C M5C=5^ 88 5C M5C=5^ ? ^ I C 1 M C=1 & +* C M C=1^ 1 2 5C C M ^ ?5^ =P 1^ G, 9,@X17 1*1 M1*, 17 G 2 ,>8X&7 9,@X17 9@1 M9,@ 17 ,>8X&7
  97. 97. 60 4 O $ 3 % # % $ 3 % 8C L 1 2 8C G>, U> @X8&S&@ # % $ 3 % G1 U> @X8&S&@ Q ! 1 E&>8,1 F
  98. 98. 64 6 # 8,* 9 ** #9@ 1J . #8 @ 85 < 8< T@<, @& , &9 DT #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ M L 89 I 89 C 1 ** &>8,1 I 8C M $ " 8C I 5C . M. V. = 8&I 5C 2+9< C 2+9< 8C M--------- I < 6 M *, 8C &>@ < 2 2 8C 2 2 C M C 1 ** +@8,1 2+9< 8C
  99. 99. 66 I < I 8* T T &>@ < M---------- 2 2 C I 5C . I 8C 8&I 5C 1 ** +@8,1 M C 2+9< 8C M----------- I < I 8* T T &>@ < 2 2 C 1 ** +@8,1 M C M---------- I < 1< M 8 9 &>@ < &> ,>82 &>1*+8, 1 ]@,9@] +@8,1# 9 &>1*+8, 1 ]@,9@]&>8,1# 9 ,>8 &> Q " 3 ! 1 @ ]
  100. 100. > < = ( R = ( 8 = > $ = ( 2 = # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 9@ @ 85 < 8< <*7 85 P T < T R+ 85 P T R T 8& 85 P T 8 T >&1 85 P T > $ T 2,> 85 P T 2 T TDT #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ I 89 C M------------------------------------------------- 1 ** &>8,1 M C I 5* ( M 8 8&I 5* 88 * M1 >I, @ @ 8&S&@ I <*7 *
  101. 101. M---------------------- I * < I < I 5* ( MR 8&I 5* 88 * I R+ * M--------------------- I * < I < I 5* M8& , 8&I 5* 88 * < I 8& * M------------------- I * < I < I 5* ( M $ 8&I 5* 88 * I >&1 * M---------------- 88 < I 2,> < M M--------------------------------------------------------- I < 6 M *, 8C 9@ @ &>@ <
  102. 102. M----------------- I < 1< &>@ < &> ,>82 &>1*+8, 1 ]@,9@]&>8,1# 9 ,>8 &>
  103. 103. # 8,* 9 ** #8 @ 85 < 8< T DT 85 < 8< T > DT 85 < 8< T ,9+*@ &9 DT #1 8, &> 2 1 I C U8 @ I 89 C I < 6 *, 8C &>@ < M-------- 1 ** &>8,1 M I 5C C M 5C I < 6 *, 8C &>@ < 1 ** &>8,1M > C 2+9< C M---------------- I < 6 *, 8C &>@ < I < M W # W I 8* T#T
  104. 104. ( &>@ < M---------------- 2 2 C C1<S C 5C M C 5C > O<&*,X I 1C I 8C & +* 1C M C= CV 8&I 5C 1 ** +@8,1 I C 8C M 1 2 8C G>, O<&*,X M---------------- M------------------------------ I < 1< &>@ < &> ,>82 &>1*+8, 1 ]@,9@]&>8,1# 9 &>1*+8, 1 ]@,9@] +@8,1# 9 ,>8 &>
  105. 105. . > : #" ('. 44'6 H
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  110. 110. #8 @ 9@X 8O ( 8+2 P #1 8, I 5C I 1C ( I 52 92 * I C O 8 2@ _52` I O 8 2@ 9@X _5C` C 88 52 88 5C * 2 *
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  116. 116. 0 &>8,1 2 1 M , 8 >+ 5, &> >S, - 0.4 @ 0.0 M M C = ; 3 2+9< 5C 2+9< 1C 2+9< 8C M U5,S&> I < I 8* TPT &>@ < M TPT M = C 5C 5C M5C M " 3 = C 1C 1C M1C " M # I < &>@ < M # 1 2 * T-T M " G, U &>+9 M " 1 2 * T?T M " G, U2*+9 M " # G 2 U ,2, @ M " # !
  117. 117. 4 U &>+9 I 1C U2*+9 &>@ < M U ,2, @ M # % T T T6T 1 2 * T T M A=T TP G>S, U> @X8&S&@ M " # 1 2 * T6T M B=T6T P G>*, U> @X8&S&@ M 3 " >8 C 7< 2+9< C M = V ? " I C +* 5C 2 2 5C 88 5C C M I < &>@ < 1 2 * 8< M1 G>, U ,2, @ M 1 I C 5C M " 3 1C 1C G, U,C&@ >,S C M U,C&@ 2 2 8C 2 2 1C
  118. 118. 6 2 2 5C ,@ M " U> @X8&S&@ I < I 8* 8< &>@ < I 8* < &>@ < G 2 U5,S&> &>8,1 ,>82
  119. 119. &>8,1 2 1 M , 8 >+ 5, &> >S, - 0.4 @ 0.0 M M C = ; 3 2+9< 5C 2+9< 1C 2+9< 8C M U5,S&> I < I 8* TPT &>@ < M TPT M = C 5C 5C M5C M " 3 = C 1C 1C M1C " M # I < &>@ < M # 1 2 * T-T M " G, U &>+9 M " 1 2 * T?T M " G, U2*+9 M " # G 2 U ,2, @ M " # U &>+9 I 1C ! " #! $
  120. 120. U2*+9 &>@ < M U ,2, @ M # % T T T6T 1 2 * T T M A=T TP G>S, U> @X8&S&@ M " # 1 2 * T6T M B=T6T P G>*, U> @X8&S&@ M 3 " >8 C 7< 2+9< C M = V ? " I C +* 5C M---------------------------- 1 2 8C G>, U> @X8&S&@ M-------------------------- 2 2 5C 88 5C C M------------------------- G1 U> @X8&S&@ M-------------------- M I < &>@ < 1 2 * 8< M1 G>, U ,2, @ M 1 I C 5C M " 3 1C 1C
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  123. 123. C C G>, U ,2, @ I < U2 &>@X* 2 2 2 8C 8* < &>@ < * 2 U2 &>@X* 2 2 2 8C 2 2 1C 2 2 5C 2 2 C ,@ +@8,1 ,>82
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  126. 126. 0 , 8X9@ 2 1 >, 2+9< 8& M = " 2+9< C M !=a C 5C 5C I < O<&*, &>@ < 1 2 * 8< G, ,>8XO<&*, 9@ 95 &>1 5C G 2 O<&*, ,>8XO<&*, 2 2 C 2 2 8& ,@ , 8X9@ ,>82
  127. 127. 4 8&92* QX9@ 2 1 >, 2+9< C M9& = 5,S&> 7 9@ &>S 2+9< 9& M&>2+@ 1C=a 7 1< @ 8&92* Q I < I 8* < &>@ < * * 895 I 8* * &>@ < * 2 * 2 2 9& 2 2 C ,@ 8&92* QX9@ ,>82
  128. 128. 6 @ $ " 5 O O , " -$ 6 ( (78 ( 2 , 39: ;:3;;<

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