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1-3-Physical Properties of Pharmaceutical-Related Materials.pdf

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1-3-Physical Properties of Pharmaceutical-Related Materials.pdf

  1. 1. Physical Properties of Pharmaceutical- Related Materials
  2. 2.  Classification of Matter  Properties of matter
  3. 3.  Specific types of matter  Described according to phase material types (solid, liquid, gas)
  4. 4. Contain only one type of matter Cannot be separated physically
  5. 5. Elements - simplest pure substances made of only one type of atom (Referred to Periodic Table)
  6. 6. Compounds - – two or more elements that are chemically combined (H2O, CuSO4)
  7. 7. Physical combination of two or more substances Can be separated physically
  8. 8. Substances can be easily distinguished and separated Example: sand and salt, iron and sugar, sand and gravel
  9. 9. Substances are well mixed and appear the same throughout mixture matrix  Example: Solution of sugar & salt
  10. 10. Solute dissolves in solvent to form solution. Concentrated solution contains more solute than dilute solution. Example: Kool-Aid, tea, coffee, sodium chloride
  11. 11. Depend on sample size Specific to a single object Example: length, mass, diameter
  12. 12. Do not depend on sample size Used to identify types of matter All physical and chemical properties are intensive
  13. 13. Describe substances undergoing physical changes Ex: density, color, texture, conductivity, malleability, ductility, boiling point, melting point
  14. 14. Describe substances undergoing chemical changes Ex: flammability, corrosiveness, volatility
  15. 15. Same substance remains after change Used to separate mixtures Ex: pounding, tearing, cutting, dissolving, evaporating, melting, boiling, pulling
  16. 16. Results in new substance with new properties Also known as a chemical reaction Ex: burning, digesting, fermenting, decomposing
  17. 17.  1. Precipitate forms (solid)  2. Gas evolves (bubbles)  3. Color change  4. Energy change Exothermic = releases energy Endothermic = absorbs energy  5. Odor produced (sometimes)
  18. 18. Matter is anything that has mass and volume Everything is made of matter 20
  19. 19. Characteristics used to describe an object Ex: color, odor, shape, size, texture,hardness 21
  20. 20. Mass, weight, volume, and density Properties are used to identify a substance 22
  21. 21. Mass is the amount of matter in an object Mass is constant Mass is also the measure of inertia 23
  22. 22. Inertia is the resistance of an object to changes in its motion The more mass the greater the inertia 24
  23. 23. How is mass related to inertia? Why are properties of an object important? 25
  24. 24. Which object has more inertia, an empty wagon or one loaded with rocks? Why? 27
  25. 25. What does a seatbelt do for a passenger when a car stops suddenly? 28
  26. 26. Why would the passenger move forward without the restraining force of the belt? 29
  27. 27. What would stop a passenger if the seatbelt were not in place? 30
  28. 28. What other safety features are present in a car in response to a person’s inertia in a moving vehicle? 31
  29. 29.  This is the measure of the force of gravity on the mass of an object  Weight changes with gravity  The metric unit for weight is a Newton (N) 32
  30. 30.  1 kg = 2.2 pounds  Weight is mass times gravity (9.8 m/s2)  W= m x g  What is your mass?  What is your weight in Newtons? 33
  31. 31.  The force of attraction between objects is gravity  All objects exert a gravitational force on each other 34
  32. 32. Why can’t you feel the attraction between you and other objects the same way you are pulled toward Earth? 35
  33. 33. The greater the mass of an object the greater the gravitational force 36
  34. 34. Why can’t we feel the pull of gravity from Jupiter even though it is so massive? 37
  35. 35. The pull of gravity weakens as the distance between objects increases gravity depends on mass and distance 38
  36. 36. The further an object is from the center of the earth, the less the object will weigh 39
  37. 37. Would you weigh less, more, or the same on top of Mount Everest? 40
  38. 38. The moon is smaller than the earth. How would your weight be different on the moon? 41
  39. 39. What are three properties of matter related to mass? 42
  40. 40. What is density and how is it calculated? 43
  41. 41. The density of water is 1.0 g/ml Objects with densities greater than 1.0 will sink in water 44
  42. 42. Objects with densities less than 1.0 g/ml will float on water 45
  43. 43. Ice floats therefore it is less dense than water Ice mostly remains underwater with only a portion of it being exposed 46
  44. 44. The planet Saturn has a density of less than 1.0 g/ml. If there was an ocean big enough to hold it, it would float! 47
  45. 45. If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is the density of gold? 48
  46. 46. If 96.5 g of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm3, what is the density of aluminum? 49
  47. 47. If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g/cm3, what would be the mass of a diamond whose volume is 0.5 cm3? 50
  48. 48. A comparison of the density of a substance and the density of water is specific gravity 51
  49. 49. How is density different from specific gravity? 52
  50. 50. Physical properties are those that can be observed without changing the identity of the substance 53
  51. 51.  Four phases of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma  solids have a definite shape and volume 54
  52. 52.  Solids are tightly packed and the particles vibrate  Two types of solids are crystalline and amorphous 55
  53. 53. Crystalline solids are arranged in repeating patterns called crystals (salt, sugar) Amorphous solids can lose their shape 56
  54. 54.  Tar, candle wax, glass, some drug crystals as sulphur  Shape changes under certain conditions (differences in temperature) 57
  55. 55. Liquids have particles that are close together, but are free to move 58
  56. 56. Describe the shape of a liquid. 59
  57. 57. Liquids do not have a definite shape, but they have a definite volume 60
  58. 58. What happens when one-liter of soda is poured into a four-liter container? 61
  59. 59. Liquids do not expand to fill the volume of a container Liquids are characterized by their ability to flow 62
  60. 60.  The resistance of a liquid to flow  The difficulty of a liquid to flow easily  Honey, motor oil, corn syrup have a high viscosity 63
  61. 61.  Cohesion is the force of attraction between LIKE particles  Adhesion is the force of attraction between UNLIKE particles 64
  62. 62. Tendency of particles to pull together at the surface of a liquid due to cohesion 65
  63. 63. Describe the viscosity of a liquid. Describe a liquid’s shape. 66
  64. 64. How is adhesion different from cohesion? Explain surface tension. 67
  65. 65. Gases do not have a definite shape or volume They fill all the available space in a container 68
  66. 66. Matter is made of tiny particles in constant motion 69
  67. 67. How are solids, liquids, and gases different from one another? 70
  68. 68.  Boyle’s and Charles’ law describe the behavior of gases with changes in temperature, pressure, and volume 71
  69. 69. Charles’ law describes a relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas (constant pressure) 72
  70. 70.  As the temperature of a gas increases, the volume of a gas increases  Heating air causes it to expand 73
  71. 71. How can you explain the fact that gas particles expand to fill space? 74
  72. 72. The force that particles of a substance (gas/liquid) will apply over a certain area 75
  73. 73. Boyle’s law describes the relationship between the volume and pressure of gases (constant temperature) 76
  74. 74. If the volume of a gas decreases, then the pressure of a gas increases (Boyle’s law) The smaller the space a gas occupies, the more pressure 77
  75. 75.  Plasma (phase)  most common phase in the universe, dangerous, very high energy (found in stars) 78
  76. 76. What are the four phases of matter? Describe the plasma phase of matter. 79
  77. 77. Phase changes in matter are melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation 80
  78. 78.  Physical changes involve the changing of physical properties  Type of matter remains the same 81
  79. 79.  Describe each of the five phase changes (melting, freezing, vaporization, condensation, and sublimation). 82
  80. 80. Changing color, shape, phase, texture, hardness, odor would be a physical change 83
  81. 81. Phase change from a solid to a liquid 84
  82. 82. Temperature in which a solid changes to a liquid Physical property 85
  83. 83. How is melting different from freezing? 86
  84. 84.  Involve a change in volume, but mass remains constant  Adding or removing energy from matter results in phase changes 87
  85. 85. Phase change from a liquid to a gas 88
  86. 86.  The temperature in which a liquid boils  Point at which a liquid changes to a gas 89
  87. 87. Phase change of a liquid to a solid The temperature in which this occurs is the freezing point 90
  88. 88. Condensation is the phase change from a gas to a liquid Sublimation is a phase change from solid to a gas 91
  89. 89. Describe a difference between condensation and vaporization. 92
  90. 90. Dry ice and iodine are examples solids that undergo sublimation 93
  91. 91. Describe how a substance changes into new substances are chemical properties Ex: flammability 94
  92. 92.  The change of a substance into a new and different substance  Also known as a chemical reaction 95
  93. 93.  What is another name for a chemical change?  Describe sublimation.  How is a chemical change different from a physical change? 96
  94. 94.  Define the following terms: [solid, liquid, gas, pure substance, compound, mixture, element, heterogeneous mixture, homogeneous mixture, extensive properties, intensive properties, chemical properties, physical properties, density, color, texture, conductivity, malleability, ductility, boiling point, melting point, flammability, corrosiveness, volatility, pounding, tearing, cutting, dissolving, evaporating, fermenting, decomposing, Exothermic, endothermic, mass, density, gravity, adhesive force, cohesive force, etc]  Respond to the following questions: ➢ What is a mass, inertia, and how do these two variables affect the movement of material substance ➢ What is gravity and how does it affect the movement of material substance ➢ Give a descriptive account of the phases of matter with logical relevance to state of medicines as they are taken for their respective therapeutical values ➢ What is viscosity and its relation with fluids ➢ What is surface tension and association with activities a substance material with surface area ➢ Describe some key phase changes of materials substance when exposed to some environmental conditions of change ➢ How is a chemical change different from a physical change  Group work discussional questions: ➢ Give a detailed account of the properties of matter and how such react to the changes of the surrounding media ➢ Describe the material phases according to the type of material substance ➢ Give a scientiic account of the differences between physical and chemical properties of material substance