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Smart grid

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Contents  Today’s grid and its losses  What is smart grid  Importance and structure of smart grid  Energy efficient communication techniques in smart grid (AMI,HAN,NAN,WAN)  Efficiency techniques in datacenters  Green data centers and its challenges  Behind the meter concept and its research directions  Barriers of smart grid  Conclusion  reference 2
  3. 3. Today’s grid … an engineering marvel 3
  4. 4. Grid inefficiency 4
  5. 5. • A smart grid puts information and communication technology into electricity generation, delivery, and consumption, making systems cleaner, safer, and more reliable and efficient. 5 smart grid Current electricity grid Advance sensing technologies Control methods Communications SMART GRID
  6. 6. The Smart Grid is a combination of hardware, management and reporting software, built a top an intelligent communications infrastructure. In Smart Grid, consumers & utility companies have tools to manage, monitor and respond to energy issues. The flow of electricity from utility to consumer becomes a two-way conversation This save consumers money, energy, delivering more transparency in terms of end-user use, and reducing carbon emissions. What is smart grid 6
  7. 7. 7 what does the concept of smart grid look like ? Electrical Infrastructure “Intelligence” Infrastructure
  8. 8. Why smart grid Integrate isolated technologies : Smart Grid enables better energy management. Energy efficiency of the system Proactive management of electrical network during emergency situations. It uses sensors and software for Better demand supply / demand response management. Better power quality Reduction in the emission of green house gases 8
  9. 9. To be smart..  Identify and resolve faults on electricity grid  Automatically self-heal the grid  Monitor power quality and manage voltage  Identify devices or subsystems that require maintenance  Help consumers optimize their individual electricity consumption (minimize their bills)  Enable the use of smart appliances that can be programmed to run on off-peak power 9
  10. 10. Energy efficient communication  Smart grid can be divided into 3 domains in terms of communication infrastructure.  HAN( Home Area Network) : Single residential unit with smart appliances, energy display, smart meter etc.  NAN(Neighbor hood area network): A group of houses possibly fed by the same transformer.  WAN(Wide Area Network): Group of NAN connected to the utility operator. 10
  11. 11. SG Comm. Network (SGCN) Neighbor Area Network (NAN) Home Area Network (HAN) Power Generation Power Transmission Grid Power Distribution Grid Power Consumption Smart MeterSubstationSubstation Customer Microgrid Microgrid Power System Layer Communications Layer Wireless Backhaul Base Station Control Center Wired Backhaul Network Wide Area Network (WAN) Smart Meter Data Aggregation Point (DAP) Electric Vehicle Solar EnegyWind Enegy Non-renewable Enegy Concentrator Smart Home Device 11
  12. 12. The components of intelligent energy management  Intelligent energy management provides a platform that empowers  real-time insight, analysis and control, as well as integration with the expanding smart grid infrastructure.  In order to comprise an energy efficient operating system,  smart grid-base 12 AMI  It is a check meter.  controls the electric energy used with the demand reaction technique  remotely managing the load of the energy and power consumed
  13. 13. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)  In building and home lighting devices consume about 40% of the total power produced.  It is estimated that over 45% energy can be reduced if we use an efficient energy management system  Using the smart controller with DR functionality to apply smart grid for effective energy consumption in building and home  Demand response is By which consumers reduce consumption in response to energy price fluctuations, demand charges, or a direct request to reduce demand when the power grid reaches critical levels. 13
  14. 14. Smart meter  Communication- able to communicate with the data management system which is placed on a server  It allows the utility to switch off the power remotely and to switch the power back on. 14
  15. 15. Energy efficient wireless communication for HAN ZIGBEE  Short range  Low data rates Wi-Fi  Easy and fast communication  Less prone to path loss 15
  16. 16. Energy efficient wireless communication for NAN  3G  4G  WIMAX(world wide interoperability for microwave access)  Carries high volume data  In NAN utilizes PSM mode which allows wireless nodes to sleep when they are not receiving or transmitting 16
  17. 17. Energy efficient wireless communication for WAN  Third generation (3G)  Fourth generation (4G)  Word wide interoperability for microwave access (WIMAX)  Able to carry high volume data  Allows multiple link between source and destination 17
  18. 18. Energy efficient wire line communication PLC (POWER LINE COMMUNICATION)  Basic idea: Use existing electrical wires to transport data  High bit rates: Up to 200 Mb/s  Impacted by disturbances in low voltage network  Applications: Broadband Internet access  indoor wired local area networks, utility metering and control, real-time pricing, distributed energy generation 18
  19. 19. Representative SG Standards C12.18 C12.19 C12.22 M-Bus Zigbee Wi-Fi SAE J2293 SAE J2836 SAE J2847 IEEE P2030 BACnet OpenADR DRBizNet IEC 61850 DNP3 Distributed Energy Resources IEC 61400-25 IEEE 1547 Commercial user Residential user PHEV Wind farm IEC 61850-7-420 Smart meter Wi-Fi SUN 3G/4G Cellular Substation Wide Area Network Home Area Network Neighbor Area Network 3G/4G Cellular Wi-Fi SONET WiMAX IEC 61850 DNP3 CIM Control center 19
  20. 20. Green data center  Data center powering them from renewable resources (solar & wind power)  It offers less OPEX ,reduced carbon emission  When ever there is a shortfall of renewable energy at one data center virtual machines are migrated towards another data center which is capable of working on renewable energy  If surplus power is generated at the data center it can be sold to the grid 20
  21. 21. Research directions on “BEHIND THE METER”  “behind the meter “refers to renewable resources operated at data center facilities  On site renewable energy generation is costly so data centers can signup with local renewable energy generation Less carbon emission effect More cost effective technique  Contract to allow the data center to migrate their workloads to another data center that when there is excessive user demand 21
  22. 22. Challenges of data centers hosting smart grid  Interactions of smart grid and data center include use of data center at the service of power grid  Eg: frequency monitoring network(FNET) Collects time stamped measurements from the grid using a frequency disturbance recorder(FDR) which provides functionalities such as * Real time event alerts * Accurate event location estimation * Animated event visualization *Post event analysis  This interaction between data center and smart grid have not been established yet 22
  23. 23. Overview of Smart Grid 23
  24. 24. Loop holes of smart grid  Present Infrastructure is inadequate and requires augmentation to support the growth of Smart Grids.  Most renewable resources are intermittent and can not be relied on (in its present form)for secure energy supply  Regulatory Policies to deal with consequences of Smart Grid; like off peak, peak tariffs and other related matters. 24
  25. 25. Conclusion  Smart grid has modernized the way electricity is generated  Increases reliability and power quality .  Improves responsiveness and efficiency .  Potentially reduces costs for the provider and consumer .  Adds intelligence throughout the newly networked grid . Decrease Greenhouse gas emissions.  Reduces client-side power consumption  green data centers are more efficient  Smart grid is the main challenge in front of the electrical society 25 THINK ‘SMART’!!!
  26. 26. REFERENCE • Melike Erol-Kantarci.Hussain T.mouftah Energy efficient information and communication infrastructure in the smart grid :a survey on interaction and open issues . • J.Pouchet “smart grid technology helps data centers conserve energy”enviornmental and energy management news http://www.enviornmentalleader.com/2013 • G.Zimon”integrating distributed generation into the smart grid”,IEEE Smart grid.dec.2013,http;//smart grid.ieee.org/december-2013/1013 • H.T.Mouftah &m.erol-kantarci”smart grid commuication:oppertunities and challenges”.in handbook of green informationand communication system • Z.fan et al”smart grid communication :over view of research challenges,solutions standardisation activities:ieee communication survey • D.feng et al ‘’a survey of energy –efficient wireless communication,”.Ieee commun surveys • D.feng et al”a survey of energy –efficient wireless communications”IEEE commun • X.Fang S Misra G XUE “smart grid –the new and improved power grid ‘a survey on ieee commun 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. We have the technology. We have the lessons learned. We just have to apply it! 28
  29. 29. THANKYOU!! 29

Notes de l'éditeur

  • An overlapping of electrical and intelligence\telecommunications infrastructures… the energy internet.

    In thinking of the power delivery system of the future, we found it helpful to think of bringing together two distinctly different but highly inter-related infrastructures. The electrical infrastructure (i.e., the poles, towers and wires) that has been created over the last 100 years and the “intelligence” infrastructure (i.e., the communications networks, distributed computing and sensors). The Intelligence infrastructure enhances the operation and maintenance of the electrical infrastructure and adds new functionality to the electrical infrastructure.

    The electrical infrastructure is very mature (at least in North America and Europe) – that is the processes, tools, standards and fundamental technologies for the electrical infrastructure are well established. New technologies will enhance the electrical infrastructure – and many programs within EPRI are working to develop that technology.

    The “intelligence infrastructure” is much newer – and companies thinking of this as a tightly integrated (networked) infrastructure is very new. The methods, tools and standards for creating the intelligence infrastructure are only beginning to be created. Essentially, when it comes to the intelligence infrastructure, it’s the wild west – almost completely lawless.

    In looking at the intelligence infrastructure – we see that it isn’t limited by technology. There is an abundance of technology that has been developed by other industries. Many times, in fact, there is too much technology.

    Today, pieces of the intelligence are installed in an isolated, fragmented way. this approach will not create an intelligence Infrastructure

    For the vision of the vision of the power delivery system of the future to be achieved, the intelligence infrastructure needs to be as pervasive and integrated as the electrical infrastructure – incorporating generation, transmission, distribution, energy markets and the consumer.

    The integration of these two infrastructures is what we see creating the intelligent grid or IntelliGrid.