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Work motivation complete theories

  1. Work Motivation
  2. • Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive.
  3. • Needs: Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or psychological imbalance. • Drive: A physiological drive can be simply defined as a deficiency with direction. Physiological and psychological drives are action oriented and provide an energizing thrust toward reaching an incentive. • Incentives : Incentive is defined as anything that will diminish a need and reduce a drive.
  4. Primary Motives • Some motives are unlearned and physiologically based. Such motives are variously called physiological, biological, unlearned, or primary. • Primary motives are more comprehensive than the others. • Two criteria for a motive to be primary are • it must be unlearned • it must be physiologically based • Commonly recognized primary motives include hunger, thirst, sleep, avoidance of pain, sex, and maternal concern.
  5. Secondary Motives • Motives that are created by personal or social incentives. • secondary drives are the most important to the study of organizational behavior • As a human society develops and becomes more complex, the primary drives give way to the learned secondary drives. • A motive must be learned in order to be included in the secondary motive category.
  6. Examples of secondary motive
  7. Intrinsic Vs Extrinsic Motives
  8. Theories of work motivation
  9. • Physiological needs. The most basic level in the hierarchy, the physiological needs, generally corresponds to the unlearned primary needs discussed earlier. The needs of hunger, thirst, sleep, and sex are some examples. According to the theory, once these basic needs are satisfied, they no longer motivate. • Safety needs. This second level of needs is roughly equivalent to the security need. Maslow stressed emotional as well as physical safety. The whole organism may become a safety-seeking mechanism. Yet, as is true of the physiological needs, once these safety needs are satisfied, they no longer motivate.
  10. • Love needs. This third, or intermediate, level of needs loosely corresponds to the affection and affiliation needs. A more appropriate word describing this level would be belongingness or social needs. • Esteem needs. The esteem level represents the higher needs of humans. The needs for power, achievement, and status can be considered part of this level. Maslow carefully pointed out that the esteem level contains both self-esteem and esteem from others. • Needs for self-actualization. Maslow’s major contribution, he portrays this level as the culmination of all the lower, intermediate, and higher needs of humans. People who have become self-actualized are self-fulfilled and have realized all their potential.
  11. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Motivation • the content theory of Frederick Herzberg. • Motivator factors and hygiene factors
  12. Theories of work motivation 2
  13. Murray's Manifest Needs Theory • American psychologist Henry Murray • According to Murray, these psychogenic needs function mostly on the unconscious level but play a major role in our personality. • Murray proposed a greater variety of manifest needs believed to represent a central motivating force, both in terms of the intensity and the direction of goal directed behavior. • The Manifest Needs theory assumes that any number of needs might motivate behavior at the same time.
  14. Assumptions • People can adapt to their changing environment • Human behavior is goal directed • Internal and external factors affect behavior • People learn from interactions with their environment • Preconception of future affect behavior now
  15. • Two types of needs are Viscerogenic Needs (Physical needs) Satisfaction of basic physical processes Need for food, air, water, sex Psychogenic Needs (Psychological needs) Focus on emotional and mental satisfaction Example: the need for social interaction or to achieve difficult goals
  16. Direction and Intensity • Direction : deals with the object or person that is expected to satisfy the needs. • Intensity : implies to the force of the efforts to satisfy the need, represents the relative importance of needs
  17. Sample Items from Murray’s List of Needs Social Motive Brief Definition Abasement To submit passively to external force. To accept injury, blame, criticism, punishment. To surrender. Achievement To accomplish something difficult. To master, manipulate, or organize physical objects, human beings, or ideas. Affiliation To draw near and enjoyably cooperate or reciprocate with an allied other (an other who resembles the subject or who likes the subject). To please and win affection of a coveted object. To adhere and remain loyal to a friend. Aggression To overcome opposition forcefully. To fight. To revenge an injury. To attack, injure, or kill another. To oppose forcefully or punish another. Autonomy To get free, shake off restraint, break out of confinement. Counteraction To master or make up for a failure by restriving. Defendance To defend the self against assault, criticism, and blame. To conceal or justify a misdeed, failure, or humiliation. To vindicate the ego. Deference To admire and support a superior. To praise, honor, or eulogize.
  18. Dominance To control one’s human environment. To influence or direct the behavior of others by suggestion, seduction, persuasion, or command. Exhibition To make an impression. To be seen and heard. To excite, amaze, fascinate, entertain, shock, intrigue, amuse, or entice others. Harm avoidance To avoid pain, physical injury, illness, and death. To escape from a dangerous situation. To take precautionary measures. Infavoidance To avoid humiliation. To quit embarrassing situations or to avoid conditions that may lead to belittlement or the scorn or indifference of others. Nurturance To give sympathy and gratify the needs of a helpless object: an infant or any object that is weak, disabled, tired, inexperienced, infirm, defeated, humiliated, lonely, dejected, sick, or mentally confused. To assist an object in danger. To feed, help, support, console, protect, comfort, nurse, heal. Order To put things in order. To achieve cleanliness, arrangement, organization, balance, neatness, tidiness, and precision. Play To act for “fun” without further purpose. To like to laugh and make jokes. To seek enjoyable relaxation from stress. Rejection To separate oneself from a negatively valued object. To exclude, abandon, expel, or remain indifferent to an inferior object. To snub or jilt an object.
  19. Sentience To seek and enjoy sensuous impressions. Sex To form and further an erotic relationship. To have sexual intercourse. Succorance To have one’s needs gratified by the sympathetic aid of an allied object. Understanding To ask or answer general questions. To be interested in theory. To speculate, formulate, analyze, and generalize. Source: Adapted from C. S. Hall and G. Lindzey, Theories of Personality. Sample items from Murray’s List of Needs. Copyright 1957 by John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  20. Characteristics of needs • Latent internal characteristics activated by a stimulus • A person tries to behave in a way that satisfies an activated need • Needs may show rhythmic patterns over time • Manager could satisfy a Need for Dominance in relationships with subordinates • Same manager is subordinate to someone else in the organization • Engages in behavior directed at the Need for Deference
  21. Characteristics of needs • Opposite needs and behavior • Need for Dominance in work role, especially a manager or supervisor • Need for Deference in nonwork (family) role • Multiple needs and behavior • One need is primary; other need serves the primary • Need for Achievement and Need for Affiliation • Example: joining student organizations. Such activities are important for finding a good job
  22. McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
  23. McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory • Theory that proposes that a person with a strong need will be motivated to use appropriate behaviors to satisfy the need. A person’s needs are learned from the culture of a society.
  24.  David McClelland introduced this theory during 1960’s.  It is based on Maslow’s hierarchy ofneed.  According to him individual posses three needswhich are not innate theyare learned through culture, age andexperiences.
  25. Three learned needs • The Need forAchievement (n Ach)  The Need forAffiliation (n Aff)  The Need for Power (n Pow)  To assess individual differences in the three proposed needs, the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is used.
  26. Need Of Achievement • It is the drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards. • The individuals who posses this need have following characteristics :  They areChallenging  They like working Alone or with other Achievers  They are self motivated  They like feedback to assess their progress  These individuals will perform better if moneyis linked with their achievements.
  27. Need for Affiliation • Desire for friendlyand warm relationship with others • Individual having this need havefollowing characteristics.  They are concerned in “being liked” and“being accepted”  They Form Informal Relationships  They are verycooperative  These people perform better inTeam.
  28. Need for Power • It is the desire to control otherand influence their behavior • People with this need have followingcharacteristics.  They Like to controlothers  They areargumentative  They have ability to influencepeople  These peopleare suitable for leadership roles.
  29. Profile of the high achievers in society • High n Ach persons prefer to avoid easy and difficult performance goals. They actually prefer moderate goals that they think they can achieve. • High n Ach persons prefer immediate and reliable feedback on how they are performing. • The high n Ach person likes to be responsible for solving problems.
  30. McClelland’s prescriptions, a manager would be encouraged to • Arrange job tasks so that employees receive periodic feedback on performance, providing information that enables them to make modifications or corrections. • Point out models of achievement to employees. Identify and publicize the accomplishments of achievement heroes—the successful people, the winners—and use them as models. • Work with employees to improve their self-image. High n Ach people like themselves and seek moderate challenges and responsibilities. • Introduce realism into all work-related topics: promotion, rewards, transfer, development opportunities, and team membership opportunities. Employees should think in realistic terms and think positively about how they can accomplish goals.
  31. Theories of work motivation 4
  32. Alderfer’s ERG Theory • American Psychologist Clayton Alderfer • Introduced the ERG theory in 1969 • Alderfer's ERG Theory Simplifies Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs • Alderfer's ERG theory contends there are three basic needs an employee seeks tofulfill. As each need is fulfilled, it serves as motivation to fulfill a differentneed. • Theory developed and tested by Alderfer that categorizes needs as existence, relatedness, and growth. • Alderfer’s proposed needs hierarchy involves only three sets of needs
  33. 3 Needs ERG 1. Existence(E): needs satisfied by such factors as food, air, water, pay, and working conditions. 2. Relatedness(R): needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationships. 3. Growth (G): needs satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributions.
  34.  Existence needs motivate at a more fundamental level than relatedness needs, which, in turn supersedes growth needs.  Satisfaction-Progression > Moving up to higher level needs based on satisfied needs (Applicable in Maslow’s theory. Not necessarily in ERG theory)  Frustration-Regression > If a higher-order need is frustrated, an individual may regress to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order need which appears easier to satisfy. EXISTENCE RELATEDNESS GROWTH Satisfaction- Progression Frustration- Regression
  35. • The ERG theory implies that individuals are motivated to engage in behavior to satisfy one of the three sets of needs. • If a subordinate’s higher-order needs (e.g., growth) are being blocked, perhaps because of a company policy or lack of resources, then it’s in the manager’s best interest to attempt to redirect the subordinate’s efforts toward relatedness or existence needs.
  36. Theories of Work Motivation 5
  37. Vroom’s Expectancy theory of motivation
  38. Expectancy theory of motivation • Theory in which an employee is faced with a set of first-level outcomes and selects an outcome based on how the choice is related to second-level outcomes. The individual’s preferences are based on the strength (valence) of the desire to achieve a second-level state and the perception of relationship between first- and second-level outcomes. • Canadian professor of psychology Victor Vroom developed the Expectancy Theory in 1964.
  39. Assumptions • Motivation is a process governing choices among alternative forms of voluntary activity. • Most behaviors are under the voluntary control of the person and are consequently motivated.
  40. First- and Second-Level Outcomes
  41. Instrumentality • This is an individual’s perception that first-level outcomes are associated with second-level outcomes. • Instrumentality can take values from 1 to 0. • 1- indicating that the first outcome is necessary and sufficient for the second outcome to occur . • Value 0 indicate that no relationship between first and second outcomes.
  42. Valence • The preference for outcomes, as seen by the individual, is termed valence. • An outcome is positively valent when it’s preferred; it’s negatively valent when it’s not preferred or is avoided. • An outcome has a valence of zero when the individual is indifferent to attaining or not attaining it. • The valence concept applies to first- and second-level outcomes
  43. Expectancy • Expectancy is the perceived chance of something occurring because of a behavior. • Expectancy is like a subjective probability.
  44. Advantages and Disadvantages of Expectancy Theory • It is based on self-interest individual who want to achieve maximum satisfaction and who wants to minimize dissatisfaction. • This theory stresses upon the expectations and perception; what is real and actual is immaterial. • It emphasizes on rewards or pay-offs. • It focuses on psychological extravagance where final objective of individual is to attain maximum pleasure and least pain. Disadvantages • The expectancy theory seems to be idealistic because quite a few individuals perceive high degree correlation between performance and rewards. • The application of this theory is limited as reward is not directly correlated with performance in many organizations. It is related to other parameters also such as position, effort, responsibility, education, etc. Advantages
  45. Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler Model of Motivation
  46. Potter- Lawler Model • This is a multivariate model which explain the relationship that exists between job attitudes and job performance. • Two additional variables than Vroom’s expectancy model.
  47. Assumptions of theory • Individual behaviour is determined by a combination of factors that exist in the individual and are present in the environment. • Individuals are considered to be rationale people who make conscious and logical decisions about their behaviour when they interact with other people in the organization. • Every individual have different needs, desires, and their goals are of varied nature. • On the basis of their expectations, individuals decide between alternate behaviors. The outcome of the efforts is related to the pattern of behaviors an individual display.
  48. • Value of rewards: People try to find out the rewards that are likely to be received from undertaking a particular job will be attractive enough. This phenomenon is equal to that of valence in Vroom’s theory of motivation. If rewards are attractive, an individual will put in an extra efforts, Otherwise she/he will lower the very desire of doing a job. • Efforts: Efforts refer to the amount of energy which an individual is prepared to exert on a job assigned to him/her. • Perceived Efforts - Reward Probability: People try to assess the probability of a certain level of efforts leading to a desired level of performance and the possibility of that performance leading to rewards
  49. • Performance: Efforts leads to performance. The level of performance will generally depend upon role perception as defined in the standing orders/ policy instructions, the level of efforts, skills, ability, knowledge, and intellectual capacity of the individual. • Satisfaction: Satisfaction results from intrinsic rewards. Individual will therefore compare his actual rewards with the perceived rewards. If actual rewards are equal or greater than perceived rewards the individual would feel satisfied. On the contrary if they are less than perceived rewards, an individual will put in reduced efforts, and obviously person will be less satisfied.
  50. Applications of theory in a managerial position • Matching of individual traits and ability with the job. • Managers must explain to the employees the role they play in the organization and its relationship with reward system. • Managers should carry out job analysis carefully, lay down actual performance levels, which should be attainable by the individuals. • Job expectations, performance levels, and reward associated with the job should be clearly laid down and implemented. • Motivation of employees is important. Make sure that the rewards dispensed are in line with employee expectations. Carry out the review of reward system periodically.
  51. Theories of Work Motivation 6
  52. Equity theory
  53. Equity theory • Equity theory was first developed in 1963 by Jane Stacy Adams. • It says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequalities. • The higher an individual's perception of equity, the more motivated they will be. • If someone perceives an unfair environment, they will be demotivated.
  54. Assumptions • The theory demonstrates that the individuals are concerned both with their own rewards and also with what others get in their comparison. • Employees expect a fair and equitable return for their contribution to their jobs. • Employees decide what their equitable return should be after comparing their inputs and outcomes with those of their colleagues. • Employees who perceive themselves as being in an inequitable scenario will attempt to reduce the inequity either by distorting inputs and/or outcomes psychologically, by directly altering inputs and/or outputs, or by quitting the organization.
  55. • Person: the individual for whom equity or inequity is perceived. • Comparison other: any individual(s) or group used by Person as a referent regarding the ratio of inputs and outcomes. • Inputs: the individual characteristics brought by Person to the job. These may be achieved (e.g., skills, experience, learning) or ascribed (e.g., age, sex, race). • Outcomes: what Person received from the job (e.g., recognition, fringe benefits, pay).
  56. • Equity exists when employees perceive that the ratios of their inputs (efforts) to their outcomes (rewards) are equivalent to the ratios of other similar employees. Inequity exists when these ratios aren’t equivalent.
  57. RATIO COMPARISONS PERCEPTION SITUATION OF AN EMPLOYEE Individual’s outcome < Other’s outcome Individual’s input Other’s input Inequity Anger Individual’s outcome = Other’s outcome Individual’s input Other’s input Equity Satisfied Individual’s outcome > Other’s outcome Individual’s input Other’s input Inequity Pride, Over confidence and Guilt
  58. Referents: The four comparisons an employee can make have been termed as “referents” according to Goodman. • Self-inside: An employee’s experience in a different position inside his present organization. • Self-outside: An employee’s experience in a situation outside the present organization. • Other-inside: Another employee or group of employees inside the employee’s present organization. • Other-outside: Another employee or employees outside the employee’s present organization.
  59. Alternatives to Restore Equity • Change their inputs • Change their outcomes • Distort perceptions of self • Distort perceptions of others • Choose a different referent • Leave the field
  60. Organizational Justice
  61. • organizational justice :The degree to which individuals feel fairly treated within the organizations for which they work. • distributive justice: The perception of fairness of the resources and rewards in an organization. • procedural justice : The perception of fairness of the process used to distribute rewards. • interpersonal justice : The perception of fairness of the treatment received by employees from authorities. • informational justice : The perception of fairness of the communication provided to employees from authorities.
  62. Distributive justice • Distributive justice is the workers’ perception in the fairness of outcomes such as monetary rewards obtained by the workers from the organization (e.g. pay raises, promotions, and selection for further studies/training) etc. • Distributive justice is related specifically to the results of decisions on distribution.
  63. Appropriateness of outcomes. Equity: rewarding employees based on their contributions. Equality: providing each employee roughly the same compensation. Need: providing a benefit based on one’s personal requirements.
  64. Procedural justice • Procedural justice is the perception of justice in the decision-making process. This kind of justice is based on the perception that the reasons for the decisions taken by the management are justified. • Procedural justice is the perception of equity regarding rules and regulations applied in the process of rewarding or punishing.
  65. Interactional justice • Interactional justice is considered as key aspect in workplace settings because of its relationship with unfair and fair treatment • “the interpersonal treatment employees receive from decision makers and the adequacy with which the formal decision-making procedures are explained”
  66. Appropriateness of the treatment one receives from authority figures. Interpersonal justice: treating an employee with dignity, courtesy and respect. Informational justice: sharing relevant information with employees.
  67. Theories of Work Motivation 7
  68. Attribution Theory of Motivation • Contemporary theory of work motivation. • Bernard Weiner created the attribution theory of motivation • Attributions - are the reasons we give for our own and others behaviors. • People are motivated to understand the causes of behavior. • Attribution theory seeks to explain how and why people make these causal attributions.
  69. Assumptions • We seek to make sense of our world. • We often attribute people’s actions either to internal or external causes. • We do so in fairly logical ways.
  70. two general types of attributions that people make: • dispositional attributions: which ascribe a person’s behavior to internal factors such as personality traits, motivation, or ability. • situational attributions: which attribute a person’s behavior to external factors such as equipment or social influence from others
  71. 3 stage process underlying an attribution 1. the person must perceive or observe the behavior 2. then the person must believe that the behavior was intentionally performed 3. then the person must determine if they believe the other person was forced to perform the behavior (in which case the cause is attributed to the situation) or not (in which case the cause is attributed to the other person).
  72. Factors affecting attributions for achievement • Ability • Effort • Task difficulty • Luck
  73. Motivational Dimensions of Attributions
  74. Strengths • Can be applied to individuals of any age, in any environment • Can give the individual a sense of control in an environment (if personal responsibility is assumed). • Explains how cultural/societal norms effect perception.
  75. Weaknesses • Feedback can influence how an individual perceives a cause of an event. • Perception of events is different for the individual and the observer. • Biases and social consensus can change perception.