• Motivation is a process that starts with a physiological or
psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive
that is aimed at a goal or incentive.
• Needs: Needs are created whenever there is a physiological or
• Drive: A physiological drive can be simply defined as a deficiency with
direction. Physiological and psychological drives are action oriented and
provide an energizing thrust toward reaching an incentive.
• Incentives : Incentive is defined as anything that will diminish a need and
reduce a drive.
• Some motives are unlearned and physiologically based. Such motives are
variously called physiological, biological, unlearned, or primary.
• Primary motives are more comprehensive than the others.
• Two criteria for a motive to be primary are
• it must be unlearned
• it must be physiologically based
• Commonly recognized primary motives include hunger, thirst, sleep,
avoidance of pain, sex, and maternal concern.
• Motives that are created by personal or social incentives.
• secondary drives are the most important to the study of
• As a human society develops and becomes more complex, the
primary drives give way to the learned secondary drives.
• A motive must be learned in order to be included in the secondary
• Physiological needs. The most basic level in the hierarchy, the physiological
needs, generally corresponds to the unlearned primary needs discussed
earlier. The needs of hunger, thirst, sleep, and sex are some examples.
According to the theory, once these basic needs are satisfied, they no
• Safety needs. This second level of needs is roughly equivalent to the
security need. Maslow stressed emotional as well as physical safety. The
whole organism may become a safety-seeking mechanism. Yet, as is true of
the physiological needs, once these safety needs are satisfied, they no
• Love needs. This third, or intermediate, level of needs loosely corresponds
to the affection and affiliation needs. A more appropriate word describing
this level would be belongingness or social needs.
• Esteem needs. The esteem level represents the higher needs of humans.
The needs for power, achievement, and status can be considered part of
this level. Maslow carefully pointed out that the esteem level contains both
self-esteem and esteem from others.
• Needs for self-actualization. Maslow’s major contribution, he portrays this
level as the culmination of all the lower, intermediate, and higher needs of
humans. People who have become self-actualized are self-fulfilled and
have realized all their potential.
Murray's Manifest Needs Theory
• American psychologist Henry Murray
• According to Murray, these psychogenic needs function mostly on the
unconscious level but play a major role in our personality.
• Murray proposed a greater variety of manifest needs believed to represent
a central motivating force, both in terms of the intensity and the direction
of goal directed behavior.
• The Manifest Needs theory assumes that any number of needs might
motivate behavior at the same time.
• People can adapt to their changing environment
• Human behavior is goal directed
• Internal and external factors affect behavior
• People learn from interactions with their environment
• Preconception of future affect behavior now
• Two types of needs are
Viscerogenic Needs (Physical needs)
Satisfaction of basic physical processes
Need for food, air, water, sex
Psychogenic Needs (Psychological needs)
Focus on emotional and mental satisfaction
Example: the need for social interaction or to achieve difficult goals
Direction and Intensity
• Direction : deals with the object or person that is expected to satisfy
• Intensity : implies to the force of the efforts to satisfy the need,
represents the relative importance of needs
Sample Items from Murray’s List of Needs
Social Motive Brief Definition
Abasement To submit passively to external force. To accept injury, blame, criticism, punishment. To surrender.
To accomplish something difficult. To master, manipulate, or organize physical objects, human beings,
To draw near and enjoyably cooperate or reciprocate with an allied other (an other who resembles the
subject or who likes the subject). To please and win affection of a coveted object. To adhere and remain
loyal to a friend.
To overcome opposition forcefully. To fight. To revenge an injury. To attack, injure, or kill another. To
oppose forcefully or punish another.
Autonomy To get free, shake off restraint, break out of confinement.
Counteraction To master or make up for a failure by restriving.
To defend the self against assault, criticism, and blame. To conceal or justify a misdeed, failure, or
humiliation. To vindicate the ego.
Deference To admire and support a superior. To praise, honor, or eulogize.
To control one’s human environment. To influence or direct the behavior of others by
suggestion, seduction, persuasion, or command.
To make an impression. To be seen and heard. To excite, amaze, fascinate, entertain, shock,
intrigue, amuse, or entice others.
To avoid pain, physical injury, illness, and death. To escape from a dangerous situation. To
take precautionary measures.
To avoid humiliation. To quit embarrassing situations or to avoid conditions that may lead to
belittlement or the scorn or indifference of others.
To give sympathy and gratify the needs of a helpless object: an infant or any object that is
weak, disabled, tired, inexperienced, infirm, defeated, humiliated, lonely, dejected, sick, or
mentally confused. To assist an object in danger. To feed, help, support, console, protect,
comfort, nurse, heal.
To put things in order. To achieve cleanliness, arrangement, organization, balance, neatness,
tidiness, and precision.
To act for “fun” without further purpose. To like to laugh and make jokes. To seek enjoyable
relaxation from stress.
To separate oneself from a negatively valued object. To exclude, abandon, expel, or remain
indifferent to an inferior object. To snub or jilt an object.
Sentience To seek and enjoy sensuous impressions.
Sex To form and further an erotic relationship. To have sexual intercourse.
Succorance To have one’s needs gratified by the sympathetic aid of an allied object.
To ask or answer general questions. To be interested in theory. To speculate, formulate, analyze, and
Source: Adapted from C. S. Hall and G. Lindzey, Theories of Personality. Sample items from Murray’s List of
Needs. Copyright 1957 by John Wiley & Sons, New York.
Characteristics of needs
• Latent internal characteristics activated by a stimulus
• A person tries to behave in a way that satisfies an activated need
• Needs may show rhythmic patterns over time
• Manager could satisfy a Need for Dominance in relationships with subordinates
• Same manager is subordinate to someone else in the organization
• Engages in behavior directed at the Need for Deference
Characteristics of needs
• Opposite needs and behavior
• Need for Dominance in work role, especially a manager or supervisor
• Need for Deference in nonwork (family) role
• Multiple needs and behavior
• One need is primary; other need serves the primary
• Need for Achievement and Need for Affiliation
• Example: joining student organizations. Such activities are important for finding a good
McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
• Theory that proposes that a person with a strong need will be
motivated to use appropriate behaviors to satisfy the need. A
person’s needs are learned from the culture of a society.
David McClelland introduced this theory during 1960’s.
It is based on Maslow’s hierarchy ofneed.
According to him individual posses three needswhich are not
innate theyare learned through culture, age andexperiences.
Three learned needs
• The Need forAchievement (n Ach)
The Need forAffiliation (n Aff)
The Need for Power (n Pow)
To assess individual differences in the three proposed needs, the
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is used.
Need Of Achievement
• It is the drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards.
• The individuals who posses this need have following characteristics :
They like working Alone or with other Achievers
They are self motivated
They like feedback to assess their progress
These individuals will perform better if moneyis linked with their
Need for Affiliation
• Desire for friendlyand warm relationship with others
• Individual having this need havefollowing
They are concerned in “being liked” and“being accepted”
They Form Informal Relationships
They are verycooperative
These people perform better inTeam.
Need for Power
• It is the desire to control otherand influence their behavior
• People with this need have followingcharacteristics.
They Like to controlothers
They have ability to influencepeople
These peopleare suitable for leadership roles.
Profile of the high achievers in society
• High n Ach persons prefer to avoid easy and difficult performance
goals. They actually prefer moderate goals that they think they can
• High n Ach persons prefer immediate and reliable feedback on how
they are performing.
• The high n Ach person likes to be responsible for solving problems.
McClelland’s prescriptions, a manager would be encouraged to
• Arrange job tasks so that employees receive periodic feedback on performance,
providing information that enables them to make modifications or corrections.
• Point out models of achievement to employees. Identify and publicize the
accomplishments of achievement heroes—the successful people, the winners—and use
them as models.
• Work with employees to improve their self-image. High n Ach people like themselves
and seek moderate challenges and responsibilities.
• Introduce realism into all work-related topics: promotion, rewards, transfer,
development opportunities, and team membership opportunities. Employees should
think in realistic terms and think positively about how they can accomplish goals.
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
• American Psychologist Clayton Alderfer
• Introduced the ERG theory in 1969
• Alderfer's ERG Theory Simplifies Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
• Alderfer's ERG theory contends there are three basic needs an employee
seeks tofulfill. As each need is fulfilled, it serves as motivation to fulfill a
• Theory developed and tested by Alderfer that categorizes needs as
existence, relatedness, and growth.
• Alderfer’s proposed needs hierarchy involves only three sets of needs
3 Needs ERG
1. Existence(E): needs satisfied by such factors as food, air, water, pay,
and working conditions.
2. Relatedness(R): needs satisfied by meaningful social and
3. Growth (G): needs satisfied by an individual making creative or
Existence needs motivate at a more fundamental level than relatedness needs,
which, in turn supersedes growth needs.
Satisfaction-Progression > Moving up to higher level needs based on satisfied
needs (Applicable in Maslow’s theory. Not necessarily in ERG theory)
Frustration-Regression > If a higher-order need is frustrated, an individual may
regress to increase the satisfaction of a lower-order need which appears easier to
• The ERG theory implies that individuals are motivated to engage in
behavior to satisfy one of the three sets of needs.
• If a subordinate’s higher-order needs (e.g., growth) are being blocked,
perhaps because of a company policy or lack of resources, then it’s in
the manager’s best interest to attempt to redirect the subordinate’s
efforts toward relatedness or existence needs.
Expectancy theory of motivation
• Theory in which an employee is faced with a set of first-level outcomes
and selects an outcome based on how the choice is related to second-level
outcomes. The individual’s preferences are based on the strength (valence)
of the desire to achieve a second-level state and the perception of
relationship between first- and second-level outcomes.
• Canadian professor of psychology Victor Vroom developed the Expectancy
Theory in 1964.
• Motivation is a process governing choices among alternative forms of
• Most behaviors are under the voluntary control of the person and are
• This is an individual’s perception that first-level outcomes are associated
with second-level outcomes.
• Instrumentality can take values from 1 to 0.
• 1- indicating that the first outcome is necessary and sufficient for the
second outcome to occur .
• Value 0 indicate that no relationship between first and second outcomes.
• The preference for outcomes, as seen by the individual, is termed
• An outcome is positively valent when it’s preferred; it’s negatively
valent when it’s not preferred or is avoided.
• An outcome has a valence of zero when the individual is indifferent to
attaining or not attaining it.
• The valence concept applies to first- and second-level outcomes
• Expectancy is the perceived chance of something occurring because
of a behavior.
• Expectancy is like a subjective probability.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Expectancy Theory
• It is based on self-interest individual who want to
achieve maximum satisfaction and who wants to
• This theory stresses upon the expectations and
perception; what is real and actual is immaterial.
• It emphasizes on rewards or pay-offs.
• It focuses on psychological extravagance where
final objective of individual is to attain maximum
pleasure and least pain.
• The expectancy theory seems to be idealistic
because quite a few individuals perceive high
degree correlation between performance and
• The application of this theory is limited as reward
is not directly correlated with performance in
many organizations. It is related to other
parameters also such as position, effort,
responsibility, education, etc.
Potter- Lawler Model
• This is a multivariate model which explain the relationship that exists
between job attitudes and job performance.
• Two additional variables than Vroom’s expectancy model.
Assumptions of theory
• Individual behaviour is determined by a combination of factors that exist in the
individual and are present in the environment.
• Individuals are considered to be rationale people who make conscious and logical
decisions about their behaviour when they interact with other people in the
• Every individual have different needs, desires, and their goals are of varied
• On the basis of their expectations, individuals decide between alternate
behaviors. The outcome of the efforts is related to the pattern of behaviors an
• Value of rewards: People try to find out the rewards that are likely to be
received from undertaking a particular job will be attractive enough. This
phenomenon is equal to that of valence in Vroom’s theory of motivation. If
rewards are attractive, an individual will put in an extra efforts, Otherwise
she/he will lower the very desire of doing a job.
• Efforts: Efforts refer to the amount of energy which an individual is
prepared to exert on a job assigned to him/her.
• Perceived Efforts - Reward Probability: People try to assess the probability
of a certain level of efforts leading to a desired level of performance and
the possibility of that performance leading to rewards
• Performance: Efforts leads to performance. The level of performance will
generally depend upon role perception as defined in the standing orders/
policy instructions, the level of efforts, skills, ability, knowledge, and
intellectual capacity of the individual.
• Satisfaction: Satisfaction results from intrinsic rewards. Individual will
therefore compare his actual rewards with the perceived rewards. If actual
rewards are equal or greater than perceived rewards the individual would
feel satisfied. On the contrary if they are less than perceived rewards, an
individual will put in reduced efforts, and obviously person will be less
Applications of theory in a managerial position
• Matching of individual traits and ability with the job.
• Managers must explain to the employees the role they play in the organization and its
relationship with reward system.
• Managers should carry out job analysis carefully, lay down actual performance levels,
which should be attainable by the individuals.
• Job expectations, performance levels, and reward associated with the job should be
clearly laid down and implemented.
• Motivation of employees is important. Make sure that the rewards dispensed are in line
with employee expectations. Carry out the review of reward system periodically.
• Equity theory was first developed in 1963 by Jane Stacy Adams.
• It says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with
those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequalities.
• The higher an individual's perception of equity, the more motivated
they will be.
• If someone perceives an unfair environment, they will be demotivated.
• The theory demonstrates that the individuals are concerned both with their own
rewards and also with what others get in their comparison.
• Employees expect a fair and equitable return for their contribution to their jobs.
• Employees decide what their equitable return should be after comparing their
inputs and outcomes with those of their colleagues.
• Employees who perceive themselves as being in an inequitable scenario will
attempt to reduce the inequity either by distorting inputs and/or outcomes
psychologically, by directly altering inputs and/or outputs, or by quitting the
• Person: the individual for whom equity or inequity is perceived.
• Comparison other: any individual(s) or group used by Person as a
referent regarding the ratio of inputs and outcomes.
• Inputs: the individual characteristics brought by Person to the job.
These may be achieved (e.g., skills, experience, learning) or ascribed
(e.g., age, sex, race).
• Outcomes: what Person received from the job (e.g., recognition,
fringe benefits, pay).
• Equity exists when employees perceive that the ratios of their inputs
(efforts) to their outcomes (rewards) are equivalent to the ratios of
other similar employees. Inequity exists when these ratios aren’t
RATIO COMPARISONS PERCEPTION SITUATION OF
Individual’s outcome < Other’s outcome
Individual’s input Other’s input Inequity Anger
Individual’s outcome = Other’s outcome Individual’s
input Other’s input
Individual’s outcome > Other’s outcome Individual’s
input Other’s input
Inequity Pride, Over
Referents: The four comparisons an employee can make have
been termed as “referents” according to Goodman.
• Self-inside: An employee’s experience in a different position inside his
• Self-outside: An employee’s experience in a situation outside the present
• Other-inside: Another employee or group of employees inside the
employee’s present organization.
• Other-outside: Another employee or employees outside the employee’s
Alternatives to Restore Equity
• Change their inputs
• Change their outcomes
• Distort perceptions of self
• Distort perceptions of others
• Choose a different referent
• Leave the field
• organizational justice :The degree to which individuals feel fairly treated
within the organizations for which they work.
• distributive justice: The perception of fairness of the resources and
rewards in an organization.
• procedural justice : The perception of fairness of the process used to
• interpersonal justice : The perception of fairness of the treatment received
by employees from authorities.
• informational justice : The perception of fairness of the communication
provided to employees from authorities.
• Distributive justice is the workers’ perception in the fairness of
outcomes such as monetary rewards obtained by the workers from
the organization (e.g. pay raises, promotions, and selection for
further studies/training) etc.
• Distributive justice is related specifically to the results of decisions
• Procedural justice is the perception of justice in the decision-making
process. This kind of justice is based on the perception that the
reasons for the decisions taken by the management are justified.
• Procedural justice is the perception of equity regarding rules and
regulations applied in the process of rewarding or punishing.
• Interactional justice is considered as key aspect in workplace settings
because of its relationship with unfair and fair treatment
• “the interpersonal treatment employees receive from decision
makers and the adequacy with which the formal decision-making
procedures are explained”
Appropriateness of the treatment
one receives from authority figures.
Attribution Theory of Motivation
• Contemporary theory of work motivation.
• Bernard Weiner created the attribution theory of motivation
• Attributions - are the reasons we give for our own and others
• People are motivated to understand the causes of behavior.
• Attribution theory seeks to explain how and why people make these
• We seek to make sense of our world.
• We often attribute people’s actions either to internal or external
• We do so in fairly logical ways.
two general types of attributions that people make:
• dispositional attributions: which ascribe a person’s behavior to
internal factors such as personality traits, motivation, or ability.
• situational attributions: which attribute a person’s behavior to
external factors such as equipment or social influence from others
3 stage process underlying an attribution
1. the person must perceive or observe the behavior
2. then the person must believe that the behavior was intentionally
3. then the person must determine if they believe the other person was
forced to perform the behavior (in which case the cause is attributed to
the situation) or not (in which case the cause is attributed to the other
• Can be applied to individuals of any age, in any environment
• Can give the individual a sense of control in an environment (if
personal responsibility is assumed).
• Explains how cultural/societal norms effect perception.
• Feedback can influence how an individual perceives a cause of an
• Perception of events is different for the individual and the observer.
• Biases and social consensus can change perception.