A teaching approaches comprises the principles and
methods used for instruction.
It is the beliefs or ideas about the nature of learning
which is translated into the classroom.
Commonly used teaching methods may include class
participation, discussion, questioning, demonstration,
memorisation, discovery and enquiry methods etc.
It is also referred to as problem solving method or
This method was proposed by “Jerome Bruner” in the
The word discovery derived from the Latin word
discooperire which means “to disclose” or “to expose”.
It is a teaching strategy in which students are given a
problem/situation, for which they find an answer by
making an hypothesis.
It is the student centred learning (learning by doing).
It should have minimal teacher guidance, fewer
teacher explanations, solving problems with multiple
solutions and memorization.
Teacher guidance helps in building upon students
reasoning ability and connecting their experiences.
Students are encouraged to ask questions.
It helps to collaborate with teacher and peers.
Active engagement throughout the class.
Development of creativity.
Development of problem solving skills.
Promotes the students to explore collaborate with
teachers and peers.
Teachers are not trained properly to guide students
learning through discovery.
Text books do not provide sufficient scope for
It is time consuming.
Creations of misconception.
Below average students feel difficulty of this method.
Enquiry/inquiry method developed in the year 1960.
This method was advocated by Neil Postman and
Enquiry method is defined as “ seeking for truth,
information or Knowledge” i.e seeking information by
It is the student-centered method of education
focused on asking questions.
Teacher is a facilitator, provide guidance and supports
students through learning process.
Inquiry learning involves developing questions,
making observations, doing research to find out what
information is already recorded, developing methods
for experiments, developing instruments for data
collection, analyzing, and interpreting data, outlining
possible explanations and creating predictions for
Creating questions of their own.
Obtaining supporting evidence to answer the
Explaining the evidence collected.
Connecting the explanation to the knowledge
obtained from the investigative process.
Creating an argument and justification for the
Phases of Enquiry Method
There are three phases:-
Student to teacher – teacher is a facilitator, provides
guidance and supports students by giving instructions.
Student to peer – the interaction or discussion with friends,
it helps in collaboration with each other.
Student to material – the material is obtained through
research, reading books, newspapers etc.
Student to media - interaction of students with digital
media, Social media etc.
Interaction helps student to develop curiosity, open minded,
This happens by analyzing data, identifying and
After reading, watching and interacting with other
variety of media, this stage of enquiry process is
centered around students clarifying both their own
thinking, and the nature of things around them.
This helps students to be more focused, reflective,
independent and cautious.
The questioning phase is a
critical phase of the
inquiry based process.
Asking meaningful and
By asking questions
students generate new
questions and ideas and
Asking questions is an
important part of science
because it develops 8
skills of science process.
Steps in enquiry method
Define the topic or introduce the topic.
Guide students plan where and how to gather data and
Students present findings through graphs, charts,
power point presentation, models and drawing.
Children are active and work under the guidance of the
They are trained to learn on their own.
They learn to formulate hypothesis.
They develop interaction with teacher and peer.
They exhibit observation and curiosity in learning.
They try out some of their own ideas.
This method is slow and time consuming.
All students are not capable to learn by this method.
Most of the teacher are not trained to teach by this
The children are being encouraged to be the
discoverers of the nature of things.
Children encouraged to participate actively in the
This is student centered learning methods.
Teacher is a facilitator provides guidance to the
Dr. Malini .L(2016)
Techniques, methods and approaches
of pedagogy, volume (193-203)