• The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.
•Personality is a pattern of stable states and characteristics of a person that influences
his or her behavior toward goal achievement
• It is relatively stable set of characteristics that influences individual behaviour
• It is subjective phenomenon
• Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psycho-
physical systems that determine his characteristic and behavior and thought.
• Personality refers to “factors” inside people that explain their behavior
•The sum total of typical ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that makes a person
2. The Environment
• Work group
• Personal life
Variables Influencing Individual Behavior
• Skills & abilities
B = f(P,E)
3. A)Heredity and biological factors
- Sex differences
- Nervous system
- Chemical organisation
- Life pattern
4. Dynamic: ever changing
Psychophysical Organized and integrated
Unique: specific features in every individual
Adjustment to environment
Self conscious ( human being)
Social: develop through social interaction
Characteristics of Personality
5. Facts to Consider When Defining “Personality”
Individuals are unique
Individuals behave differently in different situations
Although individuals are unique and behave inconsistently across situations,
there is considerable commonality in human behavior
6. Personality: a person’s internally based characteristic way of acting and thinking
Character: Personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluated
Temperament: Hereditary aspects of personality, including sensitivity, moods,
irritability, and distractibility
Personality Trait: Stable qualities that a person shows in most situations
Personality Type: People who have several traits in common
Personality: Some Terms
7. Well balanced personality
Good physical appearance
High intellectual ability
High degree of social adjustment
High moral character
Tremendous commonsense, drive and pragmatic thinking
8. Personality Types
1. are always moving, walking, and
2. feel impatient with the rate at which
most events take place;
3. strive to think or do two or more
things at once;
4. cannot cope with leisure time;
5. are obsessed with numbers,
measuring their success in terms of
how many or how much of
everything they acquire.
1. never suffer from a sense of time
urgency with its accompanying
2. feel no need to display or discuss
either their achievements or
3. play for fun and relaxation, rather
than to exhibit their superiority at
4. can relax without guilt.
9. Overview of psychoanalysis theory/ Freudian theory
•Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality
•Emphasizes on unconscious motivation;
the main cause of behavior lies in unconscious mind
• Freud was developing radically different ideas, he believed that mental life is like an iceberg:
only small part is exposed to view. He called the area of mind that lies outside of personal
awareness the unconscious
•He believed that all thoughts, emotions and actions are determined.
• In other words nothing is an accident, if we probe deeply we will find the causes of every
thought or action.
•Freud sees human nature as deterministic; life is about gaining pleasure and avoiding pain
10. The structure of the human psyche or mind
A. levelsof mental life:
• It includes all impulses, desires that are beyond awareness. But it affects our
expression, feelings and actions
• It is not directly observed, it is hidden below the conscious. One studies unconsious
by looking at the slips of the tong, dreams, wishes….
• 2. Subconscious
• The middle portion of the mind beneath the conscious layer.
• It stores all types of information which can be easily brought to the level of
consciousness whenever required.
It is viewed as the smallest portion of the mind.
• It includes the ideas, thoughts and images that we are aware of at any moment of
our mental life.
• It is the surface level, meaning the level we are aware of in a thinking state.
12. 1. ID
• It is the first portion of the personality to develop.
• It is present at birth and has the qualities of a spoiled child.
• ID is selfish and follows no rules, considers only the satisfaction of its own
needs and drives.
• The ID is not rational and does not care how its wants are
• The rational level of the personality.
• It is the opposite of the « ID » which focuses on morality and justice.
• Ego works against the ID and tries to conltrol the ID’s impulses.
• Ego is the balance between ID and Super-Ego
• It makes decisions if things are right or wrong.
• It has the ability to reward through feelings of satisfaction and self love and
punish by providing feelings of guilt and shame.
• It is idealistic in nature, and perfection is its goal rather than pleasure
seeking or destruction.
• Individual’s efforts to overcome
feelings of inferiority.
• Individual’s efforts to reduce
tensions such as anxiety.
• Impact of Child Parent relationship.
• Individual’s desire to conquer
feelings of anxiety.
14. KAREN HORNEYPERSONALITY
• Are those who move towards others (they desire to be
loved, wanted and appreciated)
• Are those who move against others (they desire to
duel and win admiration)
• Are those who move away from others (they desire
independence, self-reliance, self-sufficiency, and
individualism or freedom from obligation)
• Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist, an
influential thinker and the founder of analytical psychology (also
known as Jungian psychology).
• Two processes that are important in learning
– how we take in information
– what we do with the information once it is in our brain
• He called the first PERCEPTION and
the second JUDGEMENT
16. Learning Styles Based on Jung's Theory of Personality
Jungian learning styles describe main
17. Extroverted Learning Style
Extroverted learners enjoy generating energy and ideas from other
people. They prefer socializing and working in groups.
Characteristics of Extroverted Learners:
•Enjoys working with others in groups
•Often gathers ideas from outside sources
•Willing to lead, participate and offer opinions
•Jumps right in without guidance from others
18. Introverted Learning Style
• While introverted learners are still sociable, they prefer to solve
problems on their own.
Characteristics of Introvert Learners:
Prefers to work alone Enjoys quiet, solitary work
Often generates ideas from internal sources
Prefers to listen, watch and reflect
Likes to observe others before attempting a new skill
19. • Both attitudes - extroversion and introversion –
• are present in every person, in different degrees.
• No-one is pure extravert or pure introvert, and more
recent studies (notably Eysenck) indicate that a big
majority of people are actually a reasonably well-balanced
mixture of the two types, albeit with a preference for one
or the other.
• In addition to the two attitudes of extroversion and
introversion, Jung also developed a framework of 'four
20. Sensing Learning Style
• Jung's 'Sensation' function translates signals from the senses into factual data
• There is no judgement of right or wrong, good or bad, implications, causes,
directions, context, possibilities, themes, or related concepts.
• Sensation sees what is, as what it is.
• 'Sensation' is the opposite to 'Intuition'.
• Characteristics of Sensate Learners:
• Focuses on the present
• Practical and reasonable
• Utilizes experience and common sense to solve problems
• Keenly observe the surrounding world
21. Intuitive Learning Style
• Intuitive learners tend to focus more on the world of possibility. They
enjoy considering ideas, possibilities, and potential outcomes. These
learners like abstract thinking, daydreaming, and imagining the future.
• Characteristics of Intuitive Learners
• Prefers to work in short sessions, rather than finishing a task all at once
• Enjoys new challenges, experiences and situations
• More likely to look at the big picture rather than the details
• Like theories and abstract ideas
22. • Jung said that Intuition and Sensation are 'Irrational'
since they are concerned with perception and do
• they simply gather information and perceive the
nature of something –
• they do not reason or decide or judge.
23. Thinking Learning Style
• Individuals with a thinking learning style tend to focus more on the
structure and function of information and objects… It is objective to
the extent that evaluation is based on personal intelligence and
Characteristics of Thinking Learners:
• Interested in logic and patterns
• Dislike basing decisions on emotions
• Bases decisions on reason and logic
24. Feeling Learning Style
People with a feeling style manage information based on the initial
emotions and feelings it generates. It is a 'rational' process of forming
personal subjective opinion about whether something is good or bad,
right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable, etc.
•Characteristics of Feeling Learners:
•Interested in people and their feelings
•Base decisions on immediate feelings
•Generates excitement and enthusiasm in group settings
25. • Jung said that Thinking and Feeling are 'Rational' because both of
these functions evaluate experience. In Jung's theory the Thinking and
Feeling functions are 'Rational‘ because they reason and decide and
The Rational and Irrational descriptions that Jung attached to the four
functions might not appear particularly significant at first, especially
given that Jung's use of the words is rather different to the modern
modern words that describe Jung's meaning of Rational and Irrational,
respectively Judging ('rational‘ Thinking and Feeling)
and Perceiving ('irrational‘ Sensation and Intuition)
26. Trait Theory:
is primarily quantitative or empirical:
it focuses on the measurement of personality in terms of specific psychological
characteristics called traits.
• A trait is defined as any distinguishing relatively enduring way in which an individual
differs from others.
• Trait Theorists are concerned with the construction of personality tests that enable them
to pinpoint individual differences in terms of specific traits.
• Selected single-trait personality tests are often
developed specifically for use in consumer behavior
• These personality tests measure traits such as:
a. Consumer Innovativeness: How receptive a person is to new experiences
b. Consumer Materialism: Degree of consumer’s attachment to worldly possessions
c. Consumer Ethnocentrism: Likelihood of acceptance or
27. Personality traits and
How receptive are consumers to new products,new
services or new practices?
Recent consumer research indicates a positive
ralationship between innovative use of the internet
and buying online.
Dogmatism is a personality trait that measures the degree
of rigidity that individual displays towards the unfamilier
and towards information that is contrary to their
Consumer low in dogmatism are more likely to prefer
innovative products to established ones.
Consumer high in dogmatism are more accepting of
authority-based ads for new products.
30. SOCIAL CHARACTER
Social character is a personality trait continuum from
inner-directed to other-directed.
i.e to measure dependence of a customer on his inner
values and standards
• inner directed- prefer ads featuring product features &
• other directed- prefer ads that feature social acceptance
We all know people who seek to be unique avoid
• consumers are ready to accept uniqueness but not
at the cost of other’s criticism
Some people prefer a simple, uncluttered and calm
existence, although and others seem to prefer an
environment crammed with novel, complex and unusual
Person with optimum stimulation levels are willing to
take risks,to try new products, new innovativeness, to
seek purchase related information and to accept new
This is similar to OSL
Primary types are variety and novelty seeking
There appear to be many different types of variety
Exploratory purchase behavior(e.g switching brands to
experience new and better alternatives).
Vicarious exploration(e.g where the consumer secures an
information about a new or different alternative and then
contempletes or even day dreams about the option) and use
innovativeness(e.g where a consumer uses an already
adopted product in a new and novel way).
34. The third form of variety in novelty seeking-
use innovativeness is particularly relevant to
Need for cognition (NFC)
It measures a person’s interest in rational thinking.
Individual with high NFC are more likely to
respond to advertisements rich in product and description.
Individual with low NFC are more likely to be attracted to
background or peripheral aspects of an advertisement and are
also more responsive to cool colours.
Visualizers v/s Verbalizers Personality Factors
A person’s preference for information presented visually or
37. From consumer materialism to compulsive consumption
Consumer Materialism: The extent to which a person is considered “materialistic”.
Value acquiring and showing-off possessions.
Are particularly self-centered and selfish.
Seek lifestyles full of possessions.
Have many possessions that do not lead to greater happiness.
Fixed Consumption Behavior: Consumers fixated on certain products or categories
Consumers have a deep interest in a particular object or category.
They have a willingness to go to considerable lengths to secure items in the category of
Consumers have a dedication of a considerable amount of discretionary time and money to
search out the product.
Compulsive Consumption Behavior: “Addicted” or “Out-of-
Consumers who are compulsive buyers have an addiction; in some respects, they are out of
control and their actions may have damaging consequences to them and to those around
If a person has some money, he cannot help but to spend part or the whole of it.
A person often buys a product which he does not need it, even knowing that he has very
little money left.
Personality – like traits associated with brands.
Maruti – Economical
Lux – beauty
Nike – Athelete
BMW – Performance driven
Brand personality which is strong and favorable will
strengthen a brand but not necessarily demand a price
39. BRAND PERSONALITY FRAMEWORK
- Upper Class
This brand personality
framework shows five dimensions
of a brand personality. Consider
one of your favorite brands – how
does it map out on this framework?
Consumers have a variety of enduring
images of themselves. These images are :
I One or Multiple Selves: A single consumer has
multiple selves. Therefore he behaves in different
manner with different people in different situation.
II. The Makeup of Self Image: Each Individual has an
image of himself or herself as a certain kind of
person, with certain traits, skills, habits, possessions,
relationships and ways of behaving.
• Individuals make their self image through
interactions with others.
43. • How consumerssee themselves
• How consumer would like to see
• How consumers feel others see
• How consumers would like others
• How consumers expect to see
themselves in the future
• Traits an individual believes are in
her duty to possess
Extended self: the inter-relationship between consumers self
image and their possessions. Possessions can extend the self in
number of ways:
a. Actually by allowing the person to do what he would have not
been able to do.
b. Symbolically: makes us feel bigger and better
c. By confirming status or brand. Giving a position in society.
d. Enduring magical powers
Iv. Altering the self: sometimes consumers wish to change
themselves to become different or impressions. Thereby altering