The Government of India Act 1919,first time introduces
dual government system in which executive of the
province was divided into two parts
1.One responsible for legislature
2.Other responsible to the British parliament
Governors and Governor General.
This did not hand over absolute provincial
authority to the ministers; the British Governor
often acted arbitrarily without being answerable
for his actions. This system proved unsuccessful.
4. DIVISION OF FUNCTIONS
• Under the Government of Indian act1935,it
introduces 11 Governor provinces and 5 chief
commissioners thereby increasing the powers of
provinces which had the following functions
1.The Governor was required to act on the
advice of council of ministries.
2..Governors was required to exercise his
5. FUNCTIONS OF FEDERAL
• Governments are comprised of three main organs.
Composition of these three organs under the
constitution of Pakistan is based on the following
The legislative means law forming body of the state.
Federal legislative of Pakistan has been named
‘parliament’. Our parliament has two houses i.e.
National assembly and senate. A bill passed by the
parliament i.e. national assembly and senate, is
then submitted for the final approval of the
President. After the approval of the President the
bill is published as law and makes apart of statue
book. President has no real authority to reject a bill
passed by the parliament.
6. Functions OFNationalassembly
The national assembly has wide ranging
powers of legislation.
The national assembly enjoys the full
control of the financial matters.
No tax in the country can be levied without
the approval of the National assembly..
Each member of the cabinet heads an
administrative division in the government.
It is constitutionally binding on the Prime
Minister to select at least 3/4th of his
ministers from the National assembly.
The Prime Minister is elected by the
members of National assembly from among
7. Functionsof Senate
Senate is the upper house of the parliament;
this represents the province and not the
people. All the four provinces, have equal
representation in the senate. Senate is a
permanent house and cannot be dissolved.no
law can be promulgated unless it has been
passed by the senate.
Pakistan follows parliamentary system in
which chief executive is Prime minister.
President is the executive of the state.
8. THE FEDERAL JUDICIARY
A supreme court had been established at the federal
level which is composed of one chief justice,
appointed by the president and many other judges.
9. FUNCTION OF PROVINCIAL
Pakistan is comprised of four Provincial governments.
Head of the provincial executive is called Chief
minister. The Chief Minister is elected by the absolute
majority of the members of the provincial assembly. For
running administration the chief minister appoints
members of the provincial cabinet. The chief minister
along with his cabinet accountable to the assembly.
The Governor cannot reject a piece of legislation passed
by the Provincial Assembly. The Governor can
promulgate ordinances having the force of law in the
Four high courts have been established under the
constitution in all provinces. The high courts functions
under the supervision of the supreme court.
10. FUNCTIONS OF LOCAL
Gen. Pervez Musharraf introduce a new system of
local governments which he named ‘devolution of
power and responsibility plan’. Devolution Plan
gave a four tier system of local government.
1.Functions of union council
• To undertake development projects at local level,
by working in collaboration with village councils
in rural areas, and the citizen community boards
in both urban and rural areas.
• To levy taxes in order to raise funds.
• To prepare annual development plans to be
carried out in jurisdiction.
• To act as conciliatory body to resolve civil,
criminal and family disputes
11. Functionsof tehsil council
• Provision of municipal services within the Tehsil area.
• Coordination between and the monitoring of the
district government officials.
• Development through land control and master
planning in all towns and villages of the Tehsil.
Functions of Zila council’
• Regulate and levy taxes and modify tax structure.
• Make bye laws and rules of procedure for the sub
ordinate local bodies. The provincial assembly shall
be empowered to set aside any resolution or order
passed by the Zila council.
Functions city District’
• The towns of a city districts shall have the powers
and authority to perform municipal functions and
provide civic facilities to the residents of the area.
12. MERITS AND DEMERITS OF
• Solution at grass root level.
• Encourages local leadership.
• Training ground of citizenship.
• New experiments.
• Fail to address national problems.
Good governance can be established in a
strong and stable political culture. Good
governance is directly related to the good
citizenship. We can establish good governance
by removing bad citizenship, illiteracy and
oppressive political system.