Group: Group II (ssDNA)
Species: Feline panleukopenia virus
Replicate in the nucleus, form intranuclear
Most species of Felids are highly susceptible to infection
which is generally endemic in unvaccinated cats.
Cats of all ages are susceptible to infection.
Disease occurs in young recently-weaned kittens, as
maternally-derived antibody levels wane. High rates of
virus excretion occur during the acute stages of the
disease, mainly in feces but also in saliva,
urine, vomitus and blood.
Cool,moist,dark environment is most susceptible for this
fleas and humans act as mechanical vector for this
5. Clinical Signs
often death is occurred
It causes a decrease in the cat's white blood cells.
Depression, lethargy, loss of appetite, fever,
vomiting, loss of skin elasticity due to dehydration,
and self-biting in the tail, lower back and back legs
can be seen.
Ingestion or inhalation, then replication of virus occurs in
mitotically active lymphoid tissues of oropharynx and
associated lymph nodes. Viraemia develops within 24
hours, producing infection of mitotically active cells in
other tissues, particularly the cells of the intestinal crypts
and the lymphopoietic cells of the bone marrow, thymus,
lymph nodes and spleen. Destruction of these target
tissues results in panleukopenia and villous atrophy. The
crypts of Lieberkiihn are dilated and contain necrotic
. Intranuclear inclusions are sometimes
evident in crypt cells. Intestinal villi become blunted
may fuse. The effects of transplacental infection on
foetuses generally relate to the stage of gestation at
time of viral invasion and range from cerebellar
and retinal dysplasia to foetal death.
A white cell count of less than 7 x 109/L in acutely
Neutropenia is more common than lymphopenia
virus isolations from oropharyngeal swabs, faeces,
spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and ileum.
A rising antibody titre may be detected in serum
samples by (HAI) or (VN)
Commercially available canine parvovirus kit can b
ELISA and PCR techniques can be used.
No specific treatment is available.
Intensive supportive therapy is usually necessary
appropriate fluid therapy for dehydration should be given.
Whole blood or plasma from immune donors may be
beneficial in cats with anaemia or hypoproteinaemia.
Parenterally administered broad-spectrum antibiotics
can be used to combat secondary bacterial infections.
Affected animals should be housed in a clean, warm
environment and maintained on an optimal diet supple-
mented with B complex vitamins.
Vaccination is the principal control measures.
Modified live and inactivated vaccines are
modified live vaccines can be used to immunize
kittens at 8 to 10 weeks of age, with a booster
at 12 to 14 weeks of age. Annual booster
vaccinations are recommended by vaccine
These vaccines should not be used in pregnant