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Tissue, Organ and Cell transplantation.pptx

  1. Introduction to organ transplantation Dr. Naila Shahid Assistant Professor CEMB
  2. • Organ Transplantation is unique among surgical procedures • Procedure cannot take place without the donation of an organ or a partial organ from another person. • Since 198, more than 390,000 organs have been transplanted. Introduction
  3. • Organ transplantation is medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of an recipient, to replace a damage or missing organs. • The donor and recipient may be at the same location ,or organs me be transported from a donor site to another location. • Organs and tissues that are transplanted within the same persons are called autografts. • Transplantation that are recently performed between two subjects of the same species are called allografts.
  4. • Isograft • An Isograft is a graft of tissue between two individuals who are genetically identical (i.e. monozygotic twins) • Isografts are differentiated from other types of transplants while they are anatomically identical to allografts, they do not trigger an immune response. • Split Transplants • Sometime a deceased donor organ, usually a liver may be divided between two recipients, especially an adult and child. This is not usually a preferred option because the transplantation of a whole organ is usually more successful. • Xenografts • Xenografts tissue or organs from an individual of one species transplanted into or grafted onto an organism of another species, genus or family.
  5. Organs that can be transplanted • Heart • Intestine • Kidney • Liver • Lung • Pancreas
  6. Types of Donor • Living donor • In living donors, the door remains alive and donates a renewable tissues, cell or fluid (ex: skin, blood) or donates an organ (primarily single kidney donation, partial donation of liver, lung lobe). • Diseased donors • People who have been declared brain dead and whose organs are kept viable by ventilators or other mechanical mechanism until they can be excised for transplantation
  7. Organ Rejection • Transplant rejection is a process in which a transplant recipient's immune system attacks the transplanted organ or tissue. Types of Rejections • Hyper acute rejections • Acute rejection • Chronic rejection
  8. • Hyperacute rejection occurs a few minutes after the transplant when the antigens are completely unmatched. Tissue must be removed to save the life of patient. • Acute rejection may occur any time from the first week after the transplant to 3 months afterward. All recipients have some type of acute rejections • Chronic rejection can take place over many years. The body’s constant immune response against the new organ slowly damages the transplanted tissue or organ
  9. Complications After Transplantation • Rejection. • Infections • Cancer • Atherosclerosis. • Kidney problems. • Gout. • Graft-versus-host disease. • Osteoporosis
  10. Thanks