1. PILE LOAD TEST
This test is used to determine the “LOAD CARRYING
CAPACITY” of a pile.
This test gives us the value of
-ULTIMATE LOAD VALUE
-SAFE LOAD VALUE
-SETTLEMENT UNDER DIFFERENT VALUES OF
Anchor Girder or Reaction Girders
Reaction Truss (in case of truss loading)
4. IS 2911:Part 4(2013)
The set-up consists of two anchor piles provided with an
anchor girder or reaction girder at their top.
The test pile is installed between the anchor piles as like
foundation pile is installed. The test pile should be at
lest 3B or 2.5m clear from the anchor pile.
The test is conducted after a rest period of 3 days after
the installation in sandy soils and period of one month in
silts and soft clays.
The load is applied through a hydraulic jack resting on
the reaction girder or Truss. The measurement of pile
movement are taken with respect to a fixed reference
The load is applied in equal increment of about 20% of
the allowable load.
8. Settlement should be recorded with 3 dial gauges.
Each stage of the loading is maintained till the rate of
movement of the pile top is not more than 0.1mm per
hour in sandy soils and 0.02mm per hour in case of
clayey soils as maximum of two hours.
Under each load increment, settlements are observed at
0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 60 minutes.
The loading should be continued up to twice the safe
load or the load at which the total settlement reaches a
The load is removed in the same decrements at 1 hour
interval & the final rebound recorded 24 hours after the
entire load has been removed.
Plot a graph of LoadSettlement and make a curve for
loading as well as unloading obtained from a pile load
Figure shows a typical Load-Settlement curve for loading as well
as unloading from a pile load test.
For any given load, the net pile settlement (Sn ) is given by,
Sn = St - Se
St = Total settlement (gross settlement)
Se = Elastic settlement (rebound)
Now, we will draw Net LoadSettlement curve.
At the ULTIMATE LOAD (Qu), the load-settlement curve
becomes either linear as curve (2)
Or There is a sharp break as in the curve (1), as shown in
The safe load is usually taken as one-half of the Ultimate
According to IS:2911,
1. the safe load is taken as one-half of the load at which
the total settlement is equal to 10% of the pile diameter
2. two-third of the final load at which the total settlement
is 12mm, whichever is less.
3. Two-third of the final load which causes a net
settlement(residual settlement after removal of load) of