Crops are plants grown by the farmers. Agriculture plays a very
important role in the Indian economy.
India is top producer country of many crops.
3. Types of Crops
On the basis of seasons, the crops in India have been divided into
4. KHARIF CROPS
Kharif crops, which are also known as monsoon crops, are the crops
which are grown during the monsoon or rainy season (June to
October).We sow the crop at the beginning of the monsoon season
around June and harvest by September or October.
5. Kharif crops depend on the rainfall patterns. The timing and
quantity of rainwater are the two important factors that decide the
output of Kharif crops.
The main Kharif crops grown in India include Rice, maize, bajra,
ragi, soybean, groundnut, cotton etc.
7. RABI CROPS
Rabi crops, which are also known as winter crops, are the crops that
are grown in the winter season (October or November).
Their seeds are sown at the beginning of the winter season and crop
is harvest at the end of the winter season or in the spring season.
8. The rabi crops are cultivated in the dry season so timely irrigation is
required to grow these crops.
10. ZAID CROP
This crop is grown in some parts of country during March to June.
Prominent examples are Muskmelon, Watermelon, Vegetables of
cucurbitacae family such as bitter gourd, pumpkin, ridged gourd etc.
11. CATEGORIES OF CROPS IN INDIA
The major crops can be divided into four main categories depending
on their use:
Food grains (Rice, Wheat, Maize, Millets and Pulses)
Cash Crops (Cotton, Jute, Sugarcane, Tobacco, and Oilseeds)
Plantation Crops (Tea, Coffee, Coconut and, Rubber)
Horticulture crops such as Fruits and Vegetables.
12. FOOD GRAINS
Rice is predominantly a Kharif or crop. It covers one third of total
cultivated area of India. It provides food to more than half of the
13. Rice is produced in almost all states. Top three producer states are
West Bengal, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. Other rice growing states
include Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand,
Uttarakhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka,
Assam and Maharashtra. It is also grown in Haryana, Madhya
Pradesh, Kerala, Gujarat and Kashmir Valley.
Wheat is the second most important crop of India after Rice. It’s a
Rabi Crop. It is the staple food in north and north western India.
The most suitable soil for cultivation of wheat is well drained fertile
loamy soil and clayey soil. Plain areas are most suitable. Top three
states producing Wheat are Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Haryana.
15. Cereals / Millets
Coarse Cereals and Millets are the short duration warm weather
(Kharif) crops. Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets
grown in India.
Though, these are known as coarse grains, they have very high
nutritional value. For example, ragi is very rich in iron, calcium,
other micro nutrients and roughage.
Jowar is the third most important food crop with respect to area and
production. It is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areas
which hardly needs irrigation.
Maharashtra is the largest producer of jowar followed by
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil. Rajasthan
is the largest producer of bajra followed by Uttar Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana.
Ragi is a crop of dry regions and grows well on red, black, sandy,
loamy and shallow black soils. Karnataka is the largest producer of
ragi followed by Tamil Nadu.
Apart from these states, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim,
Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh are also important for the
production of ragi.
It is a crop which is used both as food and fodder. It is a kharif crop
which requires temperature between 21°C to 27°C and grows well in
old alluvial soil.
20. In some states like Bihar maize is grown in rabi season also. Use of
modern inputs such as HYV seeds, fertilizers and irrigation have
contributed to the increasing production of maize.
Major maize-producing states are Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar,
Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
India is the largest producer as well as the consumer of pulses in the
world. These are the major source of protein in a vegetarian diet.
Major pulses that are grown in India are tur (arhar), urad, moong,
masur, peas and gram.
22. CASH CROPS
India’s Sugarcane Production
Sugarcane belongs to bamboo family of plants and is indigenous to
South Asia. In India, it is one of the most important Kharif crops.
Cotton is one of the most important fiber and cash crop of India and
plays a dominant role in the industrial and agricultural economy of
the country. It provides the basic raw material (cotton fibre) to
cotton textile industry.
24. In India, there are ten major cotton growing states which are divided
into three zones, viz. north zone, central zone and south zone.
North zone consists of Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan. Central
zone includes Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat.
South zone comprises Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and
Jute is an important natural fibre crop in India next to cotton. Raw
jute plays an important role in the country’s economy. The crop can
be grown in low, medium and high land situation, both moisture
stress and water stagnating condition.
26. Jute can be successfully grown in Coimbatore, Cuddalore,
Villupuram, Vellore, Tiruvannamalai, Chengleput and parts of
Thanjavur, Tiruvarur, Nagapattinam, and Tirunelveli districts
where assured supply of irrigation water is available for its
cultivation and retting for fibre extraction.
Tobacco is one of the most economically significant agricultural
crops in the world. It is a drought tolerant, hardy and short duration
crop which can be grown on soils where other crops cannot be
28. OIL SEEDS
India is the largest producer of oil-seeds in the world. Different oil
seeds are grown covering approximately 12 per cent of the total
cropped area of the country.
Main oil-seeds produced in India are groundnut, mustard, coconut,
sesamum, soya bean, castor seeds, cotton seeds, linseed and
sunflower. Most of these are edible and used as cooking mediums.
However, some of these are also used as raw material in the
production of soap, cosmetics and ointments.
Groundnut is most important oil seeds of India. Grown as both as
kharif and Rabi crop but 90-95% of the total area is devoted to
30. Ground nut accounts for half of the major oilseeds produced in
India. India is the second largest producer of groundnut (After
Top three states producing ground nut are Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh
and Tamil Nadu.
31. PLANTATION CROPS
India is the largest producer and consumer of black tea in the world.
Tea is grown in 16 states in India. Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu,
and Kerala account for about 95 per cent of total tea production.
Coffee needs hot and humid climate with temperature varying
between 15°C and 28°C. It is generally grown under shady trees.
Major coffee producing states of India are Karnataka, Kerala and
Coconut production plays an important role in the national economy
Traditional areas of coconut cultivation are the states of Kerala,
Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Goa.
34. HORTICULTURE CROPS
India is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world.
India is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits.
Mangoes of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West
Bengal, oranges of Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya).
35. Bananas of Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu, lichi
and guava of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, pineapples of Meghalaya,
grapes of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra, apples, pears, apricots
and walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are in
great demand the world over.
India produces about 13 per cent of the world’s vegetables. It is an
important producer of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato,
brinjal and potato.