1. NRM & CC GROUP PRESENTATION
Kiran Ashok Warke (17201058)
Aritra Mitra (17201012)
Dharmananda Bhoi (17201021)
Naresh Majhi (17201039)
Namrata Pradhan (17201038)
2. Introduction To Air Pollution
Issues Of Air Pollution
Reasons For Causing Air Pollution
Present Policy And Programmes To Control Air Pollution
Successful Case Study
Watershed Field Visit
3. Introduction To Air Pollution
Air Pollution ?
Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other
harmful substances into Earth's atmosphere, causing diseases, allergies, death to
humans, damage to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, or the
nature or environment.
Status of Air Pollution in India
The data of state pollution control board shows that there is virtually no places in
India which meets the WHO and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQ) and
are polluted except few places in southern India.
According to WHO there is 1.2 Millions deaths every year due to outdoor air
pollution in India.
The 2016 Environmental Performance Index (EPI) ranked India 141 out of 180
The levels of PM2.5 and PM10 as well as concentration of dangerous substances such
as Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) have reached alarming
proportions in most Indian cities, putting people at additional risk of respiratory
diseases and other health problems.
In 2017 air pollution (PM2.5)levels increased in a rapid manner
overtaking even China.
4. According to CSE (Centre For Science And Environment) in 2016,14 out of 15 top
polluted cities in world is from India. Delhi is the most polluted city in the world
followed by Kanpur, Gaya, Faridabad, Lucknow and so on.
5. Issues Of Air Pollution
1. Health Effects :
Air pollution has lead to an cause of Asthma and
Pneumonia in children. Eye, nose, respiratory
infections, allergic reactions, headache etc are
included in short term effects while long term
effects include heart disease, respiratory disease,
lung cancer, kidney damage and brain damage etc.
2. Environmental Effects :
Air pollution have severely harmed our ecosystem
and biodiversity. It caused damage to the animals,
forest, crops and marine animals etc. Ozone layer
which protects earth from harmful UV rays is
depleting because of emission of harmful gases in
atmosphere like CO2, NO2, SO2 etc. Another serious
issue is of acid rain which causes impact on human,
soil, wildlife, crop, river. Eutrophication and haze
are other effects of air pollution on environment.
6. 3. Global warming :
The most disastrous effect of air pollution the world is witnessing
today is Global warming. It has led to an increase in average
temperatures world wide, increase in sea level, melting of ice &
glaciers and displacement & loss of habitat.
4. Effect on wildlife :
As like humans animals also face severe effects of air pollution.
Toxic pollutants present in air force animals to change their
habitat and move to new place.
7. 1. Emission from Industries & factories :
Due to increase in industrialization and manufacturing activities high level of
smoke, Sulphur dioxide, Carbon dioxide, Methane and particulate matter are
emitted in air. Also petroleum refineries release high amount of hydrocarbon. In
some cases few industries accidently release large pollutants in air which effects
human health and environment.
2. Burning & combustion from fossil fuels :
Combustion of fossil fuels is the biggest contributor to air pollution Nowadays.
Pollution emitting from vehicles include dangerous toxic gases like carbon
monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxide of nitrogen and particulate. They cause great harm
to human being when they breath it. We make overuse and inefficient use of fossil
fuel which is killing our environment.
3. Farming chemicals & Agricultural activities :
For producing higher yield people are using excessive chemical fertilizers,
insecticides and pesticides which produces huge amount of foreign substances in
air which have potential to cause air pollution. Ammonia is the most common
fertilizer which is very hazardous and cause air pollution.
Reasons For Causing Air Pollution
8. 4. Mining activities :
During the process of mining large quantity of dust and particles are
contaminated in air which causes air pollution. Also it leads to various health
and respiratory problems in workers who are mining.
5. Natural causes of air pollution :
In addition to human action natural events are also responsible for air pollution.
Natural events like volcano eruption, forest fires, gases released after decaying
of plants and animals and dust storms etc. Volcanoes and forest fire create dust
and contaminate the air which is widely spread and cause air pollution.
6. Indoor air pollution :
The pollution caused due to contamination of air quality within building and
structure is known as indoor air pollution. It is caused due to use of perfumes ,
deodorant gas sprays, cleaning products and painting of walls which pollutes
the air with its toxic substances and causes air pollution.
7. Other Factors :
Other causes such as burning of garbage, plastic material,
agricultural remain after harvest i.e. crop waste, charcoal and
wood burning for cooking produces lot of harmful gases and
smoke which leads to air pollution. In India during winter people
burn wood for warming which leads to smog and pollution.
9. 1. National clean Air Programme (NCAP) 2018 :
Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate change formulated and proposed
national clean air programme to tackle the increasing air pollution problem in
country. Its objective is to meet the prescribed annual average ambient air quality
standards across the country. Also for managing public participation to control air
pollution and circulating them necessary data for prevention.
2. National Air monitoring programme (NAMP) :
Central Pollution Control Board formulated this programme with an objective and
goal to determine present ambient air quality standards and to control and
regulate pollution from industries to meet air quality standards as required.
3. Bharat VI Norms :
Implementation and introduction of Bharat VI vehicles across the country to
minimize the emission of carbon from vehicles. It is proposed by april 2019-20.
4. Clean India mission (Swatch Bharat Abhiyan) has been launched.
5. National Air Quality Index was launched by Prime Minister in April 2018.
Introduction and promoting cleaner/alternate fuel like LPG, CNG, Biodiesel and
vehicles running on electricity. Also promotion of public transport network like
Present Policy And Programmes To Control Air Pollution
6. Short term measures :
Issuing red alert and health advisories during bad air-days,
shutting down schools, taking polluting vehicles (odd/even) off
the roads, shutting down power plants and industries etc.
10. 7. Out of 2900 major industries in India , 920 industries have fixed and
installed on-line continuous (24X7) monitoring devices.
8. Government is giving high priority for public partnership in lane discipline,
car pooling, vehicle maintenance, pollution under control certification etc.
Public Initiatives And Programmes :
• Adoption of roof top solar system.
• Increase in usage of public transport system and promoting cycling
• Use energy efficient appliances and reducing household energy
• Waste minimization, segregation and recycling, which will reduce
burning of waste in streets as well as at the landfills along with
energy reductions in transporting huge quantities of waste.
11. Government should prepare and implement action plan regarding
substitution of fossil fuels by bio-fuels, CNG and LPG.
Government should monitor hazardous air pollutants in major
industrial sectors like pesticides, pharmaceuticals etc.
Each and every industries emission rates should be restricted to
Use and fixing of air pollution control equipment should be made
compulsory in design of every plant layout.
Government should make strict waste management rules for
municipal solid waste, biomedical waste, plastic waste, electronic
There should be ban on burning of plastic and municipal garbage
Vehicles emission rate should be checked and PUC certificate
should be strictly checked.
12. To know the emission level continuous monitoring should be done on
pollutants in atmosphere.
Public awareness campaign regarding air pollution should be carried
Forest should be protected by restricting its deforestation by
implementing some programmes. Trees can help in reducing the air
pollution on large extent.
As automobiles are the main source of air pollution so engines should
be redesigned which will cause minimum air pollution. In addition to
it regular servicing of vehicles and use of filters and after burner
should be done.
Industries and waste disposal sites should be located far outside the
city basically on downwind of the city.
Government should encourage people to use public transport or may
prefer cycling or walking.
People should adopt solar system and make less use of fuel wood and
13. • In 1992, the United Nations declared Mexico City the most
polluted on the planet.
• High ozone levels were thought to cause 1,000 deaths and
35,000 hospitalizations a year
• Suspended particles - pieces of dust, soot or chemicals that
lodge in lungs and cause asthma, emphysema or cancer
• Mexico was forced to act
• It replaced the city's soot-belching old cars, removed lead
from gasoline, embraced natural gas, and expanded public
transportation, and relocated refineries and factories.
Successful Case Study
14. • Also Mexico-based auto manufacturers put
catalytic converters on cars produced for the
• Carbon monoxide and other pollutants also have
been drastically reduced.
• Today the city of nearly 20 million people doesn’t
even crack the Top Ten list of the most polluted
• It is integral that policymakers devise sustainable
solutions to improve air-quality and safeguard its
15. Watershed Visit
• Watershed can be defined as a unit of area covers all the land which
contributes runoff to a common point or outlet and surrounded by a ridge
• The word watershed , catchment, basin, drainage area, are synonymous ,
and in Indian usage, portion to an area and not a line.
• The term micro ,mini , sub-watershed or any other variation of the terms
indicate hierarchical division of the watershed of a stream , river or a
• Macro watershed (> 50,000 Hect)
• Sub-watershed (10,000 to 50,000 Hect)
• Milli-watershed (1000 to10000 Hect)
• Micro watershed (100 to 1000 Hect)
• Mini watershed (1-100 Hect)
16. Bhagatpur Watershed
• In 2009-10 Watershed programme started with the
support of NABARD and FES.
• The village flowed Decentralized governance , every year
President is changed said Ratnakar Pradhan chairman of
• There was 4 open wells in that village before which ground
level water shortage in Summer season
• Before intervention soil erosion, low ground water level
was seen and agricultural production was also less due to
single cropping in a year.
• After this FES carried out watershed programme with the
17. • There is three Gully in that village.
• Building watershed structure totally depends on slope, soil
characteristics, topography, vegetative cover.
• Then they prepared Stone gully control structure and
earthen heck dams.
• Gully erosion usually starts as small ridge and then develop
into deeper crevices or in extreme cases nalas.
• It can be controlled by check dams which may be
permanent, semi-permanent or temporary
• Temporary check dams are usually made up of brush
wood, wire and poles or loose rocks
• Semi-permanent check dams can be earthen dam, Gobin
• There is also percolation tank to collect the water at the
downstream end through outlet.
• To controlled damaging runoff and degradation and thereby conservation of soil
• To protect, conserve and improve the land of watershed for more efficient and
• To protect and enhance the water resource originating in the watershed.
• To protect soil erosion and to reduce the effect of sediment yield on the
• To moderate the floods peaks at down stream areas.
• To improve and increase the production of timbers, fodder and wild life
• To increase infiltration of rainwater for ground water recharge.
• Ground water level increased by 2-3 fit , and production also increased as well
due to mono cropping .
• Soil erosion is reduced and conserved due to contour bunds . Also water is
• Increased 71 new genesis of plant in forest
• FPO is formed.