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Virtual Reality allows a user to interact with acomputer- simulated environment, be it a real orimagined one.Real Environments- Simulations for pilot or combattraining.Imaginary Environments- Differ significantly fromreality, as in VR games
Most virtual reality environments are primarily visualexperiences, displayed either on a computer screenor through special stereoscopic displays, but somesimulations include additional sensory information,such as sound through speakers or headphones.Some advanced and experimental systems haveincluded limited tactile information, known as forcefeedback.
It is currently very difficult to create a high-fidelityvirtual reality experience, due largely to technicallimitations on processing power, image resolutionand communication bandwidth.However, those limitations are expected toeventually be overcome as processor, imaging anddata communication technologies become morepowerful and cost-effective over time.
Why Virtual Reality is needed?Operations in dangerous environments There are still many examples of people working in dangerous or hardship environments that could benefit from the use of VR-mediated teleportation. Workers in radioactive, space, or toxic environments could be relocated to the safety of a VR environment where they could handle any hazardous materials without any real danger using teleoperation or telepresence.
Why Virtual Reality is needed?Scientific Visualization Scientific Visualization provides the researcher with immediate graphical feedback during the course of the computations and gives him/her the ability to steer the solution process. Application at NASA Ames Research Center is the Virtual Planetary Exploration. It helps planetary geologists to remotely analyze the surface of a planet. They use VR techniques to roam planetary terrains.
Geologistsremotely analyzingthe surface of aplanet at NASA
Why Virtual Reality is needed?Medicine Until now experimental research and education in medicine was mainly based on dissection and study of plastic models. Computerized 3D human models provide a new approach to research and education in medicine. Experimenting medical research with virtual patients will be a reality. We will be able to create not only realistic looking virtual patients, but also histological and bone structures. With the simulation of the entire physiology of the human body,
Why Virtual Reality is needed?Education and training Driving simulators. Flight simulators. Ship simulators. Tank simulators.
Types of VR1. Immersive VR A type of VR in which the user becomes immersed (deeply involved) in a virtual world. It is also a form of VR that uses computer related components.
Immersive VR ComponentsThe head-mounted display(HMD) was the first deviceproviding its wearer with animmersive experience. Atypical HMD houses twominiature display screens andan optical system thatchannels the images from thescreens to the eyes, thereby,presenting a stereo view of avirtual world. As a result, theviewer can look around andwalk through the surroundingvirtual environment.
Immersive VR Components »The CAVE (CaveAutomatic VirtualEnvironment) providesthe illusion ofimmersion by projectingstereo images on thewalls and floor of aroom-sized cube.Several persons wearinglightweight stereoglasses can enter andwalk freely inside theCAVE.
Immersive VR ComponentsA glove that can sense the position of the finger whichcan be used to control and interact with the virtualimages being displayed.
2. Text-based VR – when a reader of a certain text form a mental model of this virtual world in their head from the descriptions of people, places, and things.3. Augmented VR- the idea of taking what is real and adding to it in some way so that the user obtains more information from their environment.
Technologies of VR--SoftwareToolkits Programming libraries. Provide function libraries (C & C++).Authoring systems Complete programs with graphical interfaces for creating worlds without resorting to detailed programming.
Technologies of VR--SoftwareSoftware packages available in market: Multiverse (Freeware) Virtual Reality Studio Sense8 World Tool Kit (WTK) Autodesk Cyberspace Development kit
Technologies of VR--SoftwareVRML In addition to HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), that has become a standard authoring tool for the creation of home pages, VRML provides three- dimensional worlds with integrated hyperlinks on the Web. The viewing of VRML models via a VRML plug-in for Web browsers is usually done on a graphics monitor under mouse-control and, therefore, not fully immersive. However the syntax and data structure of VRML provide an excellent tool for the modeling of three- dimensional worlds that are functional and interactive and that can, ultimately, be transferred into fully immersive viewing systems.
Architecture of VR System visual, auditory,Position & haptic,Orientation touch… Input Rendering Processor Processor Simulation Processor World Database
Components of VR SystemInput Processor Control the devices used to input information to the computer. The object is to get the coordinate data to the rest of the system with minimal lag time. Keyboard, mouse, 3D position trackers, a voice recognition system, etc.
Components of VR SystemSimulation Processor Core of a VR system. Takes the user inputs along with any tasks programmed into the world and determine the actions that will take place in the virtual world.
Components of VR SystemRendering Processor Create the sensations that are output to the user. Separate rendering processes are used for visual, auditory, haptic and other sensory systems. Each renderer take a description of the world stat from the simulation process or derive it directly from the World Database for each time step.
Components of VR SystemWorld Database (World Description Files) Store the objects that inhabit the world, scripts that describe actions of those objects.
RECENT ADVANCEMENTSiOptik A Washington-based company islooking to furtherdecreasing the linebetween science fictionand reality with its eyeenhancing iOptik virtualreality contact lenses.Enhance your normalvision by allowing you toview virtual andaugmented realityimages without the useof any bulky apparatus.
RECENT ADVANCEMENTSConduit from Mechdyne Corporation Allow users of existing computer graphics applications to automatically be able to run those applications on CAVE, head-mounted display, or other VR device without access to the source code.Remo 3D An effective tool for creating and modifying 3D models intended for realtime visualization. Brings support for importing and exporting models in multiple file formats(OSGF, OSGT, OSGT etc.)
ADVANTAGES• Interaction with the environment.• User interface• User can see and even feel the shaped surface under his/her fingertips.• Flight simulators and games.• CAD/CAE• Biomedical Engineering the projects mentioned are use of virtual reality for viewing of X-RAYs and MRI‘s.• Rendering and 3-D lighting, modeling for resource management.
DISADVANTAGES• New technologies have also revealed new problems.• VR in medical treatment is going through some growing pains.• There are limitations with VR devices as well in regards to usability.• Lack of standardization of hardware and protocols.• Most troublesome are the side effects it can induce, like disorientation, dizziness and nausea.• People often find navigating in 3-D spaces and performing actions in free space extremely difficult.• Practical problems in spatial cognition research
The Future of Virtual Reality• Virtual Reality is a growing industry.• PC and specialized hardware are getting better, faster and cheaper because of development in VR.• Maybe 3D user interfaces will replace the windows based ones?• Huge demand for VRML programmers in near future.• Revolution in gaming industries.