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Role of Plant Growth
Regulators in Vegetable
Crops.
Course Title : Master’s Seminar
Course No. : VSC-591
Speaker: Neha Ver...
Introduction
Definition and History of PGR’s
Precautions
Role of PGR’s in Vegetable Crops
Case studies
Future thrust
Class...
A growth regulator is
•An organic compound,
•Can be natural or synthetic,
•It modifies or controls one or more specific
ph...
 Other terms used for Plant growth regulator (PGR) are Phytohormone or Plant hormone or
Bio–regulator or Growth hormone.
...
Auxin was the first hormone to be discovered in
plant and at one time considered to be only
naturally occuring plant grow...
Characteristics of plant growth regulators
The concentration of hormones required for the plant
response is very low (10-...
CLASSIFICATION OF PGR
NATURAL PGR’s SYNTHETIC PGR’s
e.g.
2,4- D, NAA, IBA, 2,4,5-T,
Alar, Morphactin,
Cycocel, Maleic
hydr...
On the basis of nature of functions
Growth promoting
hormones
Growth inhibiting
hormones
 Increase the growth of
plants.
...
Sr. No. Growth regulator Example
1 Auxins IAA, IBA, NAA, 2,4-D
2 Gibberellins Gibberellic acid
3 Cytokinins Kinetin, Zeati...
Major group of plant growth regulators
Auxins
Gibberellins
Cytokinins
Ethylene
Abscisic acid
Plant
growth
promoters
P...
Plant Growth Promoters
The word Auxins has been derived from a
Greek word auxein- “to grow/increase”.
It was first isolate...
FUNCTIONS OF AUXINS
1. Apical Dominance
•Phenomenon in which the apical
buds dominate over the lateral
buds and does not a...
3. Parthenocarpy
• Auxins induce parthenocarpy i.e., formation of seedless fruits
without pollination and fertilization.
4. Inhibition of abscission
layer
Formation of an abscission layer at the
base of petiole or pedicel results in
shedding ...
6. Storage
• Exogenous application of auxins such as NAA at
high concentration is used to prevent the sprouting
of potato ...
7. Eradication of weeds
• Many synthetic auxins are used as selective weed killers
and herbicides.
• e.g 2, 4-D is used to...
Second most important growth hormone.
Gibberellins are named after the fungus Gibberella
fujikuroi , which causes rice p...
1.Stem elongation
• Gibberellins cause internodes
to stretch in relation to light
intensity. Less is the light
intensity m...
GA3 is used to break the seed
dormancy of freshly harvested
seeds in many vegetable crops
such as potato and lettuce.
5. I...
CYTOKININ
They were first isolated from
coconut milk.
They are synthesized in root
apex, endosperm of seeds, young
fruit...
Functions of Cytokinin
Cell division.
Cell enlargement.
Induce flowering in short day plants.
Dormancy of certain ligh...
ETHYLENE
 Ethylene is a colourless gaseous hormone.
 Found in ripened fruits, flowers and leaves
and nodes of stem.
 Sy...
Functions of Ethylene
Induces ripening of fruits.
Promotes abscission and
senescence of leaf, flowers etc.
Induction of Fe...
ABSCISIC ACID
 It is also known as dormins, which acts as anti-
Gibberellins.
 It is synthesized in leaves of wide varie...
Functions of Abscisic Acid
Promote tuberisation.
Induces senescence of leaves, abscission of
leaves, flowers and fruits....
Other Plant Growth Regulators
•Brassinosteroids have been recognized as a
sixth class of plant hormones.
•Brassinolide was...
MORPHACTINS
Morphactins are the group of substances which act on
morphogenesis and modulate the expression of plants.
Role...
Commercial uses of bio- regulators in
vegetable crops
COMMERCIAL USE OF PLANT
GROWTH REGULATORS IN
VEGETABLE CROPS
SEED GERMINATION
 In tomato, pre sowing seed
treatment with 100 ppm IAA,
IBA and NAA enhanced the
seed germination.
(Olai...
 Pre-sowing treatment of seed with GA3 and
KNO3 @ 50 ppm enhanced the germination of
endive and chicory, respectively.
(T...
SL. NO. TREATMENTS GERMINATION
%
SEEDLING LENGTH
( cm)
1 Control 79.50 29.05
2 NAA @ 50 ppm 85.00 28.39
3 NAA @ 100 ppm 94...
SEED DORMANCY
 Seed dormancy is main problem in Potato and Lettuce.
Chemicals which have been reported to break the rest...
 Soak the tubers in 1% aqueous solution of
Thiourea for 1 hour or solution containing 5-10
ppm GA3 for 10- 20 minutes can...
NAA 50ppm has been reported to
induce early flowering in paprika.
( Kannan et al., 2009)
Plants sprayed with 300ppm GA3 we...
VARIETIES TREATMENTS DAYS TO 1ST
FLOWERING
NO. OF FLOWERS
/PLANT
DAYS TO 1ST
HARVEST
BARI Misti
Morich-1
Control 57.33 29....
Sex expression
 The treatment with growth
regulators has been found to change
sex expression in cucurbits, okra
and peppe...
Application of silver thiosulphate followed by
silver nitrate @ 400 ppm was found better for
induction of staminate flower...
(Source : Mia et al.,2014)
TREATMENTS
DAYS TO
FLOWER
NODE NO. OF
FIRST FLOWER
FLOWERS PER
PLANT
SEX
RATIO
MALE:
FEMALEMale...
Parthenocarpy
Plant growth regulators helps to
stimulate the fruit development
without fertilization
( Parthenocarpy).
2...
 Staminate flowers were induced in parthenocarpic line of
cucumber through use of plant growth regulator GA3@ 1500
ppm an...
Stimulation of fruit Set
In tomato, 75 ppm conc. of 4-
CPA resulted not only the
highest increase in fruit set
(32.19%) b...
Treatments Fruit set
(%)
Total no. of
fruits /plant
Fruit weight
(g)
Fruit yield
/plant (g)
GA3@ 0 ppm 39.8 10.9 47.3 434....
Hybrid seed production
Bioregulators have also been used
for maintenance of gynoecious lines
in cucurbits.
Growth regula...
Gametocides
Some PGR’s posseses gametocidal
action to produce male sterility which can
be used for F1 hybrid seed product...
Fig : Male sterility in cauliflower as induced by GA.
Left : Male fertile flowers Right : Male sterile flowers
(Source : M...
FRUIT RIPENING
Application of ethephon at 1000 mg/l at turning stage of
earliest fruits induced early ripening of fruits ...
Treatments Physiological loss
of weight (%)
Decay (%) Storage life
(Days)
T1 (GA3@0.1%) 6.50 8.89 18
T2 (GA3@0.3% 9.87 11....
FRUIT YIELD
1. TOMATO
 Spraying with 60 ppm GA3 10 days before transplanting increased the yield per
ha of variety Roma. ...
Case studies
TREAT
-MENTS
PERCEN
T FRUIT
SET
NO. OF
FRUITS/
PLANT
FRUIT
WEIGHT
(g)
FRUIT
LENGTH
(cm)
FRUIT
WIDTH
(cm)
RIND
THICKNESS
(c...
Fig : Plant height of tomato as affected by GA and NAA
Treatments Plant
heigh
t (cm)
No. of
leaves
Days to central
head
formation
Days to
secondary
head formation
Head
size
(cm3...
Growth
Regulators
Concentration
(ppm)
Method of
Application
Crops Effect on Quality
GA3
15 Foliar spray Muskmelon Improve ...
Contd…
CCC 250 Foliar spray Potato Increases TSS and
vitamin-C content in
tuber
MENA
(vapour) +
CIPA
5000 Post-harvest
dip...
Treatments
(Gibberellic acid)
No. of flowers
per plant
No. of pods per
plant
Seed yield (q ha-1)
0 ppm 17.25 17.20 11.77
1...
Treatments
(Cycocel)
No. of flowers per
plant
No. of pods per
plant
Seed yield (q ha-1)
0 ppm 17.25 17.20 11.76
10 ppm 17....
GROWTH
REGULATORS
CONC.
(mg/l)
METHOD OF
APPLICATION CROPS
ATTRIBUTES
AFFECTED
Cycocel (CCC) 250-500 Foliar spray Cucurbit...
Naphthalene
acetic acid
(NAA)
20 Seedling
roots
Tomato, Brinjal,
Onion
Growth and yield
10-20 Foliar
sprays
Chillies and
T...
Growth substances should be sprayed preferably in the
evening hours.
 Avoid to spray in windy hours.
Spray should be un...
Use always fresh solution of chemicals.
Use PGR’s strictly at recommended concentration.
Solution should always be prep...
The difference in sensitivity of each plant species or
even cultivars to a given chemical treatment prevent easy
predicat...
Some synthetic plant growth regulators cause human
health hazards e.g. dominozide.
Lack of basic knowledge of toxicity a...
Most of the biological processes associated are polygenic, so gene
transfer may be difficult and hence the use of PGR’s m...
PGR’s must be specific in their action and
toxicologically and environmentally safe.
Plant growth regulators should be r...
Conclusion
Plant growth regulators has an immense potential
in vegetable production to increase the yield,
quality, synchr...
Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops
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Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 1 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 2 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 3 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 4 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 5 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 6 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 7 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 8 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 9 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 10 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 11 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 12 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 13 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 14 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 15 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 16 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 17 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 18 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 19 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 20 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 21 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 22 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 23 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 24 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 25 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 26 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 27 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 28 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 29 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 30 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 31 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 32 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 33 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 34 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 35 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 36 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 37 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 38 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 39 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 40 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 41 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 42 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 43 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 44 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 45 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 46 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 47 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 48 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 49 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 50 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 51 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 52 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 53 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 54 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 55 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 56 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 57 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 58 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 59 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 60 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 61 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 62 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 63 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 64 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 65 Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops Slide 66
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Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops

  1. 1. Role of Plant Growth Regulators in Vegetable Crops. Course Title : Master’s Seminar Course No. : VSC-591 Speaker: Neha Verma H-2015-102-M
  2. 2. Introduction Definition and History of PGR’s Precautions Role of PGR’s in Vegetable Crops Case studies Future thrust Classification and Functions of PGR’s Content Conclusion
  3. 3. A growth regulator is •An organic compound, •Can be natural or synthetic, •It modifies or controls one or more specific physiological processes within a plant but the sites of action and production are different. If the compound is produced within the plant, it is called as plant hormone. Both internal plant hormones and lab created hormones are called plant growth regulators. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4.  Other terms used for Plant growth regulator (PGR) are Phytohormone or Plant hormone or Bio–regulator or Growth hormone. Definition of PGR by different Scientists Olaiya (2013) stated that bio-regulators are endogenous or synthetically produced substances that can control one or more specific biochemical and physiological functions of many species probably by their influence on gene and enzyme interactions. Thimann (1948) stated that a plant hormone is an organic compound synthesized in one part of a plant and translocate to another part where in very low concentration, it causes a physiological response. Phillip (1971) defined growth hormone as substances which are synthesized in particular cells and are transferred to other cells where in extremely small quantities influence the developmental process. Moore (1974) stated that it is an organic chemical substance other than nutrients which are active in low concentration in promoting, inhibiting or otherwise modifying growth and development may be called growth regulators. Prajapati et al., (2015) stated that although, photosynthesis supplies the carbon and respiration supplies the energy for plant growth, a group of chemicals produced by plants known as plant growth regulators control the growth and development of plant.
  5. 5. Auxin was the first hormone to be discovered in plant and at one time considered to be only naturally occuring plant growth hormone. (Prajapati et al., 2015) Three types of plant hormones Auxins, Gibberellins and Cytokinins and these were discovered in the early decades of the twentieth century, in 1930’s and in 1960's respectively. (Thomas, 1956) History of Plant Growth Regulators
  6. 6. Characteristics of plant growth regulators The concentration of hormones required for the plant response is very low (10-6 to 10-5M) ,comparing with the requirement of mineral and vitamin for plants. The biosynthesis of plant hormones within plant is more diffuse and not always localized. Plant hormones are not nutrient, but chemicals that in small amounts promote and influence the growth, development, and differentiation of cells and tissues.
  7. 7. CLASSIFICATION OF PGR NATURAL PGR’s SYNTHETIC PGR’s e.g. 2,4- D, NAA, IBA, 2,4,5-T, Alar, Morphactin, Cycocel, Maleic hydrazide etc. • Also produced spontaneously in the plant body, but their structure and function is not discovered clearly. e.g. Florigen, Vernalin. POSTULATED PGR’s 1. ON THE BASIS OF ORIGIN (Meena, 2015) • Produced by some tissues in plant. • Also called Endogenous hormones. e.g. Auxins, Gibberellins Cytokinins, Ethylene Abscisic acid • Produced artificially and similar to natural hormone in physiological activity. •Also called Exogenous hormones.
  8. 8. On the basis of nature of functions Growth promoting hormones Growth inhibiting hormones  Increase the growth of plants.  e.g. Auxins, Gibberellins, Cytokinins etc.  Inhibit the growth of plants.  e.g. (Meena, 2015) Naturally occuring inhibitors ABA Ethylene Synthetic inhibitors Morphactins Chlorocholine chloride (CCC) AMO-1618 Maleic Hydrazide (MH)
  9. 9. Sr. No. Growth regulator Example 1 Auxins IAA, IBA, NAA, 2,4-D 2 Gibberellins Gibberellic acid 3 Cytokinins Kinetin, Zeatin 4 Ethylene Ethylene, Ethephon, Ethrel 5 Dormins Abscisic Acid 6 Flowering hormones Florigen, Anthesin, Vernalin 9 Synthetic growth retardants CCC, Phosphon D, Morphactins, Maleic hydrazide (MH) etc. 10 Miscellaneous synthetic substances Synthetic auxins, synthetic cytokinins etc. Classification of PGR
  10. 10. Major group of plant growth regulators Auxins Gibberellins Cytokinins Ethylene Abscisic acid Plant growth promoters Plant growth inhibitors (Duca, 2015)
  11. 11. Plant Growth Promoters The word Auxins has been derived from a Greek word auxein- “to grow/increase”. It was first isolated from human urine. These are generally produced by the growing apex of stem and roots of the plants.. This was the first group of plant hormones discovered. Types of Auxin: I. Natural Auxin II. Synthetic Auxin Auxin IAA IBA, NAA, 2,4-D ( Meena, 2015 )
  12. 12. FUNCTIONS OF AUXINS 1. Apical Dominance •Phenomenon in which the apical buds dominate over the lateral buds and does not allow the lateral buds to grow. •Pinching of terminal bud stops flow of Auxins down the stem and allows side shoots to develop. 2. Root initiation and development •Applied on cuttings to stimulate root growth and development.
  13. 13. 3. Parthenocarpy • Auxins induce parthenocarpy i.e., formation of seedless fruits without pollination and fertilization.
  14. 14. 4. Inhibition of abscission layer Formation of an abscission layer at the base of petiole or pedicel results in shedding of leaves, flowers or fruits. Auxins inhibit abscission, as they prevent the formation of abscission layer. 5. Flowering Foliar spray of NAA, 2,4-D induces flowering in many crop plants.
  15. 15. 6. Storage • Exogenous application of auxins such as NAA at high concentration is used to prevent the sprouting of potato tubers. Hence, increases the storage life of the produce.
  16. 16. 7. Eradication of weeds • Many synthetic auxins are used as selective weed killers and herbicides. • e.g 2, 4-D is used to destroy broad leaf weeds. It does not affect mature monocotyledonous plants much.
  17. 17. Second most important growth hormone. Gibberellins are named after the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi , which causes rice plants to grow abnormally tall . (Kurosawa et al., 1930) Gibberellin produced in the shoot apex mainly in the leaf primordial (leaf bud) and root system, hence they translocates easily in the plant in both directions. Now 135 different Gibberellins are available. The most commonly occurring gibberellins is GA3. GIBBERELLIN ( Meena, 2015)
  18. 18. 1.Stem elongation • Gibberellins cause internodes to stretch in relation to light intensity. Less is the light intensity more will be inter node length and vice versa. • Stimulate stem growth through cell elongation and cell division. 2.Seed germination and seedling growth • GA activates germination of seeds which otherwise require cold (stratification) or light to induce germination. FUNCTIONS OF GIBBERELLINS
  19. 19. GA3 is used to break the seed dormancy of freshly harvested seeds in many vegetable crops such as potato and lettuce. 5. Induction of maleness in dioecious plants. 6. Bolting in long day plants. 4. Seed dormancy
  20. 20. CYTOKININ They were first isolated from coconut milk. They are synthesized in root apex, endosperm of seeds, young fruits, where cell division takes place continuously.
  21. 21. Functions of Cytokinin Cell division. Cell enlargement. Induce flowering in short day plants. Dormancy of certain light sensitive seeds such as lettuce can also be broken by kinetin treatment.  Delays leaf senescence.  Inhibit apical dominance and help in growth of lateral buds. Therefore, it is also known as anti- auxins. (Prajapati, 2015)
  22. 22. ETHYLENE  Ethylene is a colourless gaseous hormone.  Found in ripened fruits, flowers and leaves and nodes of stem.  Synthesis of ethylene is inhibited by carbon dioxide and requires oxygen. ,
  23. 23. Functions of Ethylene Induces ripening of fruits. Promotes abscission and senescence of leaf, flowers etc. Induction of Femaleness: cucumber, squash, melon. It stimulates the formation of adventitious roots. (Meena, 2015)
  24. 24. ABSCISIC ACID  It is also known as dormins, which acts as anti- Gibberellins.  It is synthesized in leaves of wide variety of plants.  Responsible for closing stomata during drought conditions, hence acts as plant stress hormone.
  25. 25. Functions of Abscisic Acid Promote tuberisation. Induces senescence of leaves, abscission of leaves, flowers and fruits. It induces dormancy of buds and seeds as opposed to Gibberellins, which breaks dormancy. It inhibits seed germination and development. , ABA also plays important role in controlling stomata opening and closing. (Prajapati, 2015)
  26. 26. Other Plant Growth Regulators •Brassinosteroids have been recognized as a sixth class of plant hormones. •Brassinolide was the first identified brassinosteroid and was isolated from extracts of rapeseed (Brassica napus) pollen in 1979. •It stimulate cell elongation and division, resistance to stresses. •They inhibit root growth and leaf abscission. BRASSINOSTEROIDS
  27. 27. MORPHACTINS Morphactins are the group of substances which act on morphogenesis and modulate the expression of plants. Role of morphactins  Seed germination- inhibition. Growth of seedlings- inhibit. Stem elongation- dwarfing effect.
  28. 28. Commercial uses of bio- regulators in vegetable crops COMMERCIAL USE OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN VEGETABLE CROPS
  29. 29. SEED GERMINATION  In tomato, pre sowing seed treatment with 100 ppm IAA, IBA and NAA enhanced the seed germination. (Olaiya et al.,2009) In muskmelon, soaking of seeds in ethephon at 480 mg/litre of water for 24 hours improves germination in muskmelon at low temperature. (Meena, 2015) Tomato Muskmelon Okra
  30. 30.  Pre-sowing treatment of seed with GA3 and KNO3 @ 50 ppm enhanced the germination of endive and chicory, respectively. (Tzortzakis, 2009)  IAA, NAA @ 20ppm enhances seed germination in okra.
  31. 31. SL. NO. TREATMENTS GERMINATION % SEEDLING LENGTH ( cm) 1 Control 79.50 29.05 2 NAA @ 50 ppm 85.00 28.39 3 NAA @ 100 ppm 94.67 27.39 4 NAA @ 150 ppm 89.83 27.07 5 GA3 @ 50 ppm 87.50 27.63 6 GA3@ 100 ppm 87.50 26.34 7 GA3 @ 150 ppm 84.83 25.41 CD at 5% 5.02 3.67 Source : Khan et al., 2013
  32. 32. SEED DORMANCY  Seed dormancy is main problem in Potato and Lettuce. Chemicals which have been reported to break the rest period are GA3, Ethylene chlorhydrin and Thiourea. Lettuce is another vegetable in which treatment with GA3 or cytokinin has been reported to break seed dormancy induced by high temperature.
  33. 33.  Soak the tubers in 1% aqueous solution of Thiourea for 1 hour or solution containing 5-10 ppm GA3 for 10- 20 minutes can be used to break the dormancy of potato. (Byran , 1989) Breaking the dormancy in potato comprise the vapour heat treatment with ethylene chlorhydrin (1 litre per 20 q) followed by dipping in thiourea (1% sol.) for 1h & finally in GA (1 mg/l) for 2 seconds.
  34. 34. NAA 50ppm has been reported to induce early flowering in paprika. ( Kannan et al., 2009) Plants sprayed with 300ppm GA3 were earliest to flower and recorded highest number of fruits and yield per plant in tomato. ( Sharma et al.,1992) Application of GA@50 mg/l to young leaves of non- flowering varieties of potato, when floral buds had just formed, resulted in flower induction in all varieties. Gibberellic acid has been reported to induce early flowering in lettuce. Flowering
  35. 35. VARIETIES TREATMENTS DAYS TO 1ST FLOWERING NO. OF FLOWERS /PLANT DAYS TO 1ST HARVEST BARI Misti Morich-1 Control 57.33 29.67 122.33 GA3 at 100 ppm 53.67 30.33 113.67 4-CPA at 2000 ppm 49.67 32.67 101.67 Litosen at 1000 ppm 50.33 31.33 109.67 Lamuyo Control 52.67 31.67 119.33 GA3 at 100 ppm 51.67 32.67 109.33 4-CPA at 2000 ppm 48.67 33.33 103.67 Litosen at 1000 ppm 50.00 32.67 107.00 CD at 5% 2.623 1.838 0.896 9.976 ( Das et al., 2015 )
  36. 36. Sex expression  The treatment with growth regulators has been found to change sex expression in cucurbits, okra and pepper.  GA3 (10-25 ppm), IAA (100 ppm) and NAA (100 ppm) when sprayed at 2-4 leaf stage in cucurbits, then they have been found to increase the number of female flowers.  Whereas, GA3 (1500-2000 ppm), silver nitrate (300-400 ppm) and silver thiosulphate (300-400 ppm) sprayed at 2-4 leaf stage induces male flower production in cucurbits. Cucumber(F) Bitter gourd(F) Musk melon(F) Sponge gourd(F) Water melon(F) Cucumber(M) Musk melon(M) Water melon(M) Bitter gourd(M) Sponge gourd(M)
  37. 37. Application of silver thiosulphate followed by silver nitrate @ 400 ppm was found better for induction of staminate flowers, in gynoecious lines of cucumber. (Hatwal et al., 2015 ) Application of ethephon at two true leaf stage to both Cucurbita maxima and C. pepo caused suppression of male flowers and increase in numbers of female flowers. Thus gave rise to an increase in the ratio of female to male flowers per plant. ( Hume et al., 1983 )
  38. 38. (Source : Mia et al.,2014) TREATMENTS DAYS TO FLOWER NODE NO. OF FIRST FLOWER FLOWERS PER PLANT SEX RATIO MALE: FEMALEMale Female Male Female Male Female Control 38 53 10.50 12.20 310 27.42 11.31 GA3@ 50 ppm 35 49 9.55 11.80 383 29.42 13.02 NAA@ 50 ppm 37 41 8.45 7.00 250 35.14 7.48 NAA@100 ppm 36 46 10.75 8.90 285 33.43 8.11 CEPA@100 ppm 40 42 8.50 6.50 210 38.33 5.48 CEPA@300 ppm 33 43 6.25 9.70 342 31.43 10.88 CD at 5% 0.95 0.75 0.35 0.85 12.45 1.65 0.55 ( Mila etal., 2014 )
  39. 39. Parthenocarpy Plant growth regulators helps to stimulate the fruit development without fertilization ( Parthenocarpy). 2,4-D at 50 ppm when applied at anthesis showed better performance over other in parthenocarpic fruit development in kakrol. ( Choudhury et al., 2007) Seed treatment with 2,4-D @ 2-5ppm gives early fruit set and leads to parthenocarpy in tomato. ( Meena, 2015) (Prajapati, 2015)
  40. 40.  Staminate flowers were induced in parthenocarpic line of cucumber through use of plant growth regulator GA3@ 1500 ppm and silver nitrate @ 200-300ppm by four sprays at 4 days interval. (Singh and Ram, 2004)  In brinjal, application of 2,4-D at 2.5ppm in lanolin paste to cut end of styles or as foliar sprays to freshly opened flower cluster has been reported to induced parthenocarpy.
  41. 41. Stimulation of fruit Set In tomato, 75 ppm conc. of 4- CPA resulted not only the highest increase in fruit set (32.19%) but also increased the yield by 64.99%. (Baliyan et al., 2013)  Fruit set in bottle gourd can be increased by spraying the plant twice at 2 and 4 true-leaf stage with MH @ 400ppm and TIBA @ 50ppm. (Meena, 2015)
  42. 42. Treatments Fruit set (%) Total no. of fruits /plant Fruit weight (g) Fruit yield /plant (g) GA3@ 0 ppm 39.8 10.9 47.3 434.7 GA3@ 5 ppm 53.4 14.2 47.6 497.7 GA3@ 10 ppm 54.0 14.7 47.6 506.2 GA3@15 ppm 53.8 14.2 50.9 574.3 2,4-D@ 0 ppm 43.7 12.2 45.6 436.2 2,4-D@ 5 ppm 55.0 17.2 51.4 587.9 2,4-D@10 ppm 52.1 14.8 53.2 515.6 Solanum lycopersicum
  43. 43. Hybrid seed production Bioregulators have also been used for maintenance of gynoecious lines in cucurbits. Growth regulator like GA3 (1,500- 2000ppm) and chemical like silver nitrate (200-300ppm) induces the male flowers on gynoecious cucumber . Exogenous application of silver thiosulphate (300-400ppm) induces the male flower in gynoecious muskmelon . ( Meena, 2015 )
  44. 44. Gametocides Some PGR’s posseses gametocidal action to produce male sterility which can be used for F1 hybrid seed production. MH at 100 to 500 ppm appeared most effective in inducing a high level of male sterility in eggplant, okra, peppers and tomato, without detrimental influence on female fertility. (Saimbhi et al., 1978)  A high concentration of gibberellic acid (2%) was found to act as a gametocide for the common onion (Allium cepa L.), when sprayed in the beginning of the bolting process. (Meer et al., 1973)
  45. 45. Fig : Male sterility in cauliflower as induced by GA. Left : Male fertile flowers Right : Male sterile flowers (Source : Meer and Dam, 1979)
  46. 46. FRUIT RIPENING Application of ethephon at 1000 mg/l at turning stage of earliest fruits induced early ripening of fruits thus increasing the early fruit yield by 30-35%. (Prajapati, 2015)  Post-harvest dip treatment with ethephon at 500-2000 mg/l has also been reported to induce ripening in mature green tomatoes. (Gould, 1992)
  47. 47. Treatments Physiological loss of weight (%) Decay (%) Storage life (Days) T1 (GA3@0.1%) 6.50 8.89 18 T2 (GA3@0.3% 9.87 11.11 15 T3 (GA3@0.5%) 11.85 11.11 14 T4 (Cacl2@0.5%) 8.77 13.33 15 T5 (Cacl2@1%) 6.64 8.87 17 T6 (Cacl2@1.5%) 5.35 8.86 17 T7(SA@0.1mM) 11.56 11.11 13 T8 (SA@0.2mM) 9.95 13.33 14 T9 (SA@0.4mM) 6.78 8.89 17 T10 (Control) 19.89 24.44 10 CD (5% level) 2.28 9.27 (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits during the storage.
  48. 48. FRUIT YIELD 1. TOMATO  Spraying with 60 ppm GA3 10 days before transplanting increased the yield per ha of variety Roma. ( Naeem et al., 2001)  Spray with 6ppm 2,4-D gave highest yield of tomato. ( Patel et al., 2014) 2. BRINJAL  Foliar sprays of 2,4-D @4 ppm gave the highest yield of brinjal. ( Patel et al., 2012)  Seed treatment with 10ppm GA3 or IAA gave the highest yield in brinjal. (Sharma et al., 1992) 3. CHILLI  Foliar sprays of 2 ppm 2,4-D, 40 ppm NAA and 10 ppm GA3 gave 28.75%, 13.61% and 2.30% higher fruit yield over control, respectively. (Choudhaury et al., 2006)  Spraying plants with 10 ppm NAA gave significantly highest fruit yield (277.8 g/plant). ( Sultana et al., 2006)
  49. 49. Case studies
  50. 50. TREAT -MENTS PERCEN T FRUIT SET NO. OF FRUITS/ PLANT FRUIT WEIGHT (g) FRUIT LENGTH (cm) FRUIT WIDTH (cm) RIND THICKNESS (cm) FRUIT YIELD (q/ha) Control 30.6 13.2 80.5 4.3 4.4 0.40 380.7 GA3 20 ppm 35.4 18.7 85.1 4.8 4.92 0.45 396.2 GA3 40 ppm 40.2 22.7 120.2 5.06 5.21 0.48 418.6 GA3 60 ppm 47.3 26.2 125.7 5.92 6.20 0.52 446.5 GA3 80 ppm 51.6 30.2 130.8 6.46 6.86 0.56 483.6 NAA 25 ppm 32.1 18.5 84.1 4.6 4.72 0.44 390.5 NAA 50 ppm 37.7 21.7 118.2 4.82 4.90 0.45 402.7 NAA 75 ppm 44.5 23.4 121.8 5.78 6.11 0.50 433.6 NAA 100 ppm 49.1 24.7 128.6 6.08 6.38 0.55 474.2 CD (0.05) 3.42 9.50 6.48 1.01 NS 1.23 12.6
  51. 51. Fig : Plant height of tomato as affected by GA and NAA
  52. 52. Treatments Plant heigh t (cm) No. of leaves Days to central head formation Days to secondary head formation Head size (cm3) Total yield /ha (q) GA3 20 ppm 60.73 13.73 61.40 70.93 1306.65 169.80 GA3 40 ppm 63.07 13.47 61.53 71.33 1369.48 175.29 GA3 60 ppm 60.93 14.53 57.86 66.20 1496.47 176.11 kinetin 20 ppm 55.40 14.80 59.86 69.60 1356.81 163.88 kinetin 40 ppm 61.47 15.67 59.87 69.93 1412.67 174.94 kinetin 60 ppm 60.80 14.53 60.40 71.60 1509.20 185.16 GA3 10 ppm + kinetin 10 ppm 59.67 15.33 58.86 69.60 1272.16 170.58 GA3 20 ppm + kinetin 20 ppm 57.843 15.20 61.13 71.53 1518.83 187.05 GA3 30 ppm + kinetin 30 ppm 63.77 16.00 60.73 70.06 1542.66 189.67 Control 58.27 13.33 63.60 74.53 884.64 145.15 C.D at 5% 5.09 2.01 2.62 2.94 481.70 42.24
  53. 53. Growth Regulators Concentration (ppm) Method of Application Crops Effect on Quality GA3 15 Foliar spray Muskmelon Improve rind thickness GA3 5-15 Foliar spray Cauliflower, cabbage Increases head or curd size GA3 50 Foliar spray Lettuce and Chinese cabbage Increases dry matter, protein and ascorbic acid content PCPA 50 Foliar spray Tomato Increases sugar and vitamin-C, but reduces acidity EFFECT OF BIOREGULATORS ON QUALITY OF VEGETABLE
  54. 54. Contd… CCC 250 Foliar spray Potato Increases TSS and vitamin-C content in tuber MENA (vapour) + CIPA 5000 Post-harvest dip Potato Reduces sprouting and rooting of tuber in storage Cytozyme 1% Foliar spray Garden pea Increases vitamin-C, reducing sugars and total sugars Ethephon 250 Foliar spray Tomato Increases TSS NAA 50-70 Seed treatment Chilli Increases amino acid and vitamin-C content in fruits Mixtallol 1-2 Foliar spray Potato Increases starch, reducing sugars, non- reducing sugars, total sugars, and protein (Bahadur and Singh, 2014)
  55. 55. Treatments (Gibberellic acid) No. of flowers per plant No. of pods per plant Seed yield (q ha-1) 0 ppm 17.25 17.20 11.77 10 ppm 17.38 17.33 12.32 100 ppm 19.41 19.37 13.29 250 ppm 21.83 21.73 13.79 500 ppm 17.96 17.92 11.97 1000 ppm 16.70 16.65 11.78 55
  56. 56. Treatments (Cycocel) No. of flowers per plant No. of pods per plant Seed yield (q ha-1) 0 ppm 17.25 17.20 11.76 10 ppm 17.33 17.27 12.31 100 ppm 19.32 19.26 13.19 250 ppm 22.07 22.02 14.15 500 ppm 20.94 20.88 12.56 1000 ppm 17.23 17.11 11.47 56
  57. 57. GROWTH REGULATORS CONC. (mg/l) METHOD OF APPLICATION CROPS ATTRIBUTES AFFECTED Cycocel (CCC) 250-500 Foliar spray Cucurbits, tomato, okra Flowering, sex expression, fruit yield P-Chlorophenoxy Acetic acid (PCPA) 50 Foliar spray Tomato Fruit set and Yield Ethephon (CEPA) 100-500 Foliar spray Cucurbits, okra and tomato Flowering, fruiting, sex expression and yield 2000 Post- harvest Tomato, chillies Fruit ripening Gibberellic acid (GA) 10 Foliar spray Water melon, tomato Sex expression, fruiting , yield Indoleacetic acid (IAA) 10-15 Foliar spray Okra, tomato, Seed germination, fruit set and yield List of plant growth regulators and their important uses in vegetable crops Contd…
  58. 58. Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) 20 Seedling roots Tomato, Brinjal, Onion Growth and yield 10-20 Foliar sprays Chillies and Tomato Flower drop, fruit set and yield 25-30 Seed/ foliar Okra ,Tomato, Brinjal, Onion, Cucurbits Seed germination, growth and yield Naphthoxyacet -ic acid (NOA) 25-100 Seed/ foliar Tomato, Okra Germination, growth and yield Silver nitrate 500 Foliar spray Cucumber Induction of male flower in gynoecious lines Silver thiosulphate 400 - Musk melon Induction of male flower in gynoecious lines 2,3-5, tri- iodobenzoic acid (TIBA) 25-50 Foliar sprays Cucurbits Flowering, sex expression and yield Tricontanol 2 Foliar sprays Chillies and Peas Fruit set and yield Source :Chadha and Kalloo,1993
  59. 59. Growth substances should be sprayed preferably in the evening hours.  Avoid to spray in windy hours. Spray should be uniform and wet both the surface of leaves. Add surfactant or adhesive material like Teepol, Tween- 20 are Gum with growth substances @ 0.5 – 1.0 ml/l solution. Use growth substances at an appropriate stage of plant growth is of great importance. Chemical should be completely dissolved before application. Precaution in Growth Regulator Application
  60. 60. Use always fresh solution of chemicals. Use PGR’s strictly at recommended concentration. Solution should always be prepared in distilled water only. Fine spray can be ensured by hand automizer. It is most economical and effective method of spray. Wash the machine/pump after each spray. Repeat the spray within eight hours, if chemical is wash out due to rain.
  61. 61. The difference in sensitivity of each plant species or even cultivars to a given chemical treatment prevent easy predication of the biological effects. The cost of developing new plants growth regulator is very high, due to which they are very much costly. Screening for plant growth regulatory activities entails high costs and is very much difficult. Constraints in the use of growth regulators
  62. 62. Some synthetic plant growth regulators cause human health hazards e.g. dominozide. Lack of basic knowledge of toxicity and mechanism of action. Inadequate market potential. Lack of support from agricultural researchers in public and private sectors. Difficulty in identification of proper stage of crop at which the growth regulators should be applied.
  63. 63. Most of the biological processes associated are polygenic, so gene transfer may be difficult and hence the use of PGR’s may be beneficial for short imperatives. PGR’s provide an immediate impact on crop improvement programmes and are less time consuming. Applications of PGR’s must lead to quantifiable advantages for the user. Industries involved in development of PGR’s should be well informed about the latest scientific development in production of PGR’s. Future thrust
  64. 64. PGR’s must be specific in their action and toxicologically and environmentally safe. Plant growth regulators should be recognized as more than academic curiosities. They are not only interesting but profitable to use to grower, distributor and manufacturer. More research is needed to develop simple, economical and technical viable production systems of PGR’s.
  65. 65. Conclusion Plant growth regulators has an immense potential in vegetable production to increase the yield, quality, synchronization in flowering, earliness, cold and high temperature fruit setting, sex modification, increase post-harvest life and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses of vegetables to better meet the requirements of food supply in general. But more research is needed to develop simple, economical and technical viable production system of bio-regulator. Bioregulators must be toxicologically and environmentally safe.
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