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Cultures in Community Question Answering

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CQA services are collaborative platforms where users ask and answer questions. We investigate the influence of national culture on people’s online questioning and answering behavior. For this, we analyzed a sample of 200 thousand users in Yahoo Answers from 67 countries. We use a number of cultural factors extracted from Geert Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and Robert Levine’s Pace of Life and show that behavioral cultural differences exist in community question answering platforms. We find that national cultures differ in Yahoo Answers along a number of dimensions such as temporal predictability of activities, contribution related behavioral patterns, privacy concerns, and power inequality.

Cultures in Community Question Answering. Imrul Kayes, Nicolas Kourtellis, Daniele Quercia, Adriana Iamnitchi, and Francesco Bonchi. ACM 26th Conference on Hypertext and Social Media (HT'15), 2015

Publié dans : Sciences

Cultures in Community Question Answering

  1. 1. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Cultures in Community Question Answering Imrul Kayes USF Nicolas Kourtellis Telefonica Research Daniele Quercia, Francesco Bonchi Yahoo Labs Adriana Iamnitchi USF
  2. 2. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Community Question Answering (CQA) 1
  3. 3. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media CQA Platforms • CQA sites: Popular platforms – Yahoo Answers (YA): 200M users, 5M users/day – Quora: 1M/month – Stack Exchange: 4M users (e.g., Stack Overflow) • Functionalities: – Q/A posts & comments, social networking, leaderboards, and more. • Why do we need them? – Not all web-searches are successful! – Complicated / intricate questions! 2
  4. 4. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Motivating Question Does national culture influence how users participate in online CQA platforms? 3
  5. 5. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Main Idea • Analyze participation on YA per country • Compute (or use) cultural indices of each country • Associate YA user participation attributes with cultural indices and extract lessons 4
  6. 6. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Outline • CQA platforms • Motivation • Main idea • Yahoo Answers Dataset • Study on Levin’s Pace of Life • Study on Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: • Individualism vs. Collectivism • Uncertainty Avoidance • Power Distance Index • Proposals for CQA platforms improvements 5
  7. 7. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Yahoo Answers Dataset • 200k users • 490k follow edges – SN properties* • 9M questions • 43M answers • 4.5M abuse reports (flags) • 67 countries => 41 top activity countries 6 *Kayes et al. “The social world of content abusers in Community Question Answering“, WWW’2015
  8. 8. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Sampled users: a representative sample 7 s s d r er n s. o- n el e s- el s e s- the second highest correlation peak and thus included in the study 41 countries which have at least 150 users per country. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● DZ AR AU AT BD BE BO BR CA CL CN CO HR CZ DK DO EC FI FR DE GR GT IN ID IR IE IL IT JP KE LB MY MX NL NZ NG NO PK PE PH PT RO SG ZA ES LK SE CH TH TR AE GB US VE VN 2 3 4 7 8 # Internet users (log scale) #YAusers(logscale)
  9. 9. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Selecting Countries 8 estions, Guide- e” func- he con- ommu- e. Re- s before us cre- mation ns, an- tomati- n, users sent to rs from se users s/ user), million nnected etwork. ial net- ntial fit- user s for 67 count r ies. T he r egr ession line and 95% confi dence int er val ar ea ar e also shown. T he count r ies ar e r epr esent ed by a 2-let t er count r y code based on I SO 3166. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 20 30 40 50 60 Number of top x countries Correlation(#YAvs.#Internetusers) Figur e 2: N umber of t op count r ies based on t he number of YA user s and cor r elat ion wit h t heir num - ber of I nt er net user s. A ll cor r elat ions ar e st at ist i- cally signifi cant wit h p-value< 0.05. • Pick the top 41 countries with: • high correlation of #YA users vs. Internet users • ≥ 150 users per country
  10. 10. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Levine’s Pace of Life • “The flow/movement of time that people experience” • Measured three time indicators in 31 countries: • Walking speed • Postal speed • Clock accuracy • Combined the 3 scores into a country-specific score 9
  11. 11. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Pace of Life in Yahoo Answers • Higher Pace of Life Countries expected to have: – Faster life with more rigid perception of time – Planned and organized daily activities • Maybe they are less likely to ask or answer questions in busy hours [H1]: Users from countries with a higher Pace of Life score show more temporally predictable activities 10
  12. 12. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Predictability of activities in time • 5 time intervals (I) & compute p(c): • Compute Entropy of user u, given all activities: • Entropyq/a/r,j: geometric mean entropy for country j 11 j j |Uj| Entropyu = - p(c)log(p(c)) cÎI å | logI | 6:00-8:59 9:00-17:59 18:00-20:59 21:00-23:59 00:00-05:59 Morning Office time Evening Late night Sleeping p(c=1) p(c=2) p(c=3) p(c=4) p(c=5)
  13. 13. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Predictability of activities in time • Users from Higher Pace of Life countries show more temporally predictable Q & A behavior in YA • Not stat. significant for abuse reporting 12
  14. 14. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions • Based on survey of IBM employees (‘60-’70s), 40 countries • 6 dimensions (we study 3) • Individualism vs. Collectivism <= • Uncertainty Avoidance • Power Distance Index • Masculinity vs. Femininity • Long-term vs. Short term orientation • Indulgence vs. Restraint 13
  15. 15. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Individualism in Yahoo Answers • Integration of individuals in a group • Higher individualism countries – Emphasis on personal achievements & rights – Less group harmony and loyalty • Study 3 aspects of individualism in YA: • Individualism vs. contribution • Individualism vs. (un)ethical behavior • Individualism vs. privacy concerns 14
  16. 16. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Individualism & Contribution • People from collectivist countries: – Spend less time on the Internet – More time in socialization [H2]: Users from countries with higher individualism index provide more answers [H3]: Users from countries with higher individualism index contribute more to the community than what they take away from the community 15
  17. 17. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Individualism vs. Contribution • Higher Individualism index => more answers – Pearson Correlation r = 0.46, p < 0.005 16
  18. 18. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Yielding score 17
  19. 19. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Individualism vs. Yielding • Higher Individualism index => higher yielding – Pearson r = 0.37, p < 0.05 18
  20. 20. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Individualism vs. (un)ethical behavior • More collectivist countries: – More software and music piracy – More offline world corruption [H4]: Users from more collective cultures have higher probability to violate CQA norms 19
  21. 21. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Individualism vs. (un)ethical behavior • Higher Collectivist index => more probable to violate community rules – Pearson r = -0.48, p < 0.05 20
  22. 22. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Individualism vs. Privacy Concerns • Higher individualism hints to more privacy concerns [H5]: Users from higher individualism index countries exhibit higher level of concern about their privacy. 21
  23. 23. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Individualism vs. Privacy Concerns • Users with ≥ 10 Q/A (79%) • Modifications of privacy settings as a proxy of privacy concerns (more public profiles=>less privacy concerns)* 22 *More on privacy: Kayes et al. “Privacy Concerns vs. User Behavior in Community Question Answering“, ASONAM’15.
  24. 24. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Individualism vs. Privacy Concerns • Higher Collectivist index => more probable to find public profiles 23
  25. 25. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Individualism vs. Power Distance • PDI: the extent to which the less powerful members of a society expect and accept that power is distributed unequally – Measures the distribution of wealth and power between people Indegree imbalance: Avg_Friend_InDegree- User_InDegree [H6]: Users from higher power distance countries show a larger indegree imbalance in follow relationships 24
  26. 26. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Individualism vs. Power Distance • Higher Power Distance=>Higher Indegree Imbalance – Pearson r = 0.65, p < 0.005 • Confirmation of the friendship paradox 25
  27. 27. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Individualism vs. Uncertainty Avoidance • Uncertainty Avoidance: the extent to which people feel uncomfortable with uncertainty & ambiguity • Higher uncertainty avoidance countries: – Minimize uncertainty & ambiguity by careful planning – Planned and organized daily activities – Enforce rules and regulations [H7]: Users from countries with higher uncertainty avoidance index exhibit more temporally predictable activities. 26
  28. 28. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Uncertainty Avoidance vs. Activity • Higher UAI users => lower Q, A, R entropies=> more temporarily predictable activities 27
  29. 29. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Summary • Analyzed YA activities of 200k users, 67 countries • Studied cultural indices from Hofstede’s dimensions and Levine’s Pace of Life • YA: not a platform of homogeneous culture • National cultures differ in YA: – Temporal predictability of activities – Contribution-related behavior – Privacy concerns – Power inequality • Cultural variations can be used for better CQA platforms 28
  30. 30. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Suggestions to CQA platforms • Culture-aware CQA moderation – In collective cultures: More moderators are needed • Question recommendation – In collective cultures: Questions should be routed to more users – In higher Pace of Life countries: Questions should be routed to more and diverse users in busy hours, or lower Pace of Life countries • Follow recommendation – In lower PDI countries: Recommend similar indegree users • Targeted Ads – In individualistic cultures: focus on ‘I’ and ‘me’, textual, informative ads – In collective cultures: focus on ‘us’ and ‘we’, visual, symbolic ads29
  31. 31. 26th ACM International Conference on Hypertext and Social Media Cultures in Community Question Answering Imrul Kayes USF Nicolas Kourtellis Telefonica Research Daniele Quercia, Francesco Bonchi Yahoo Labs Adriana Iamnitchi USF Paper: http://arxiv.org/abs/1508.05044 nicolas.kourtellis@telefonica.com Twitter: @kourtellis

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