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India is unique in the richness and diversity of its vegetation and
wildlife. India's national parks and wild life sanctuaries (including
bird sanctuaries) from Ladakh in Himalayas to Southern tip of
Tamil Nadu, are outstanding and the country continues to
"WOW" the tourists with its rich bio-diversity and heritage.
Wildlife sanctuaries in India attracts people from all over the
world as the rarest of rare species are found here.
With 96 national parks and over 500 wildlife sanctuaries, the
range and diversity of India's wildlife heritage is matchless. Some
of the important sanctuaries in India are The Jim Corbett Tiger
Reserve – Uttaranchal, Kanha National Park and Bandhavgarh
National Park in Madhya Pradesh, Ranthambhor National Park -
Sawai Madhopur, Gir National Park - Sasangir (Gujarat) etc.
Supporting a great variety of mammals and over 585 species of
birds, India's first national park, the Corbett was established in the
foothills of Himalayas.
Natural vegetation refers to the garment of plants and trees that
exists in the area before it is modified by Man for activities such as
farming, mining, lumbering and industrial, economic and urban
The term flora is used to denote plants of a particular
region . The species of animals are referred to as fauna.
An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the
organisms living in a particular area, as well as all the
nonliving, physical components of the environment with which
the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water, and sunlight. It
is all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving
(abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological
community and its physical environment.
Tropical evergreen forest-
The tropical evergreen forests usually occur in areas receiving
more than 200 cm of rainfall and having a temperature of 15 to 30
degrees Celsius. They occupy about seven per cent of the earth's
land surface and habours more than half of the world’s plants and
animals. They are found mostly near the equator.
These forests are dense and multi-layered. They harbour many
types of plants and animals. The trees are evergreen as there is
no period of drought. They are mostly tall and hardwood type.
Leaves are broad and give out excess water through evapo
In India, evergreen forests are found in the western slopes of
the Western Ghats in States such as Kerala and Karnataka.
They are also found in hills of Jaintia and Khasi. Some of the
trees found in Indian Tropical Forests are rosewood, mahagony
and ebony. Bamboos and reeds are also common.
Tropical deciduous forests -
These are the most widespread forests of India. They are
also called the monsoon forests and spread over the
region receiving rainfall between 200cm and 70cm. Trees
of this forest – type shed their leaves for about 6 to 8
weeks in dry summer.
On the basis of water availability these
forests are further classified into-
1) Moist deciduous forests
2) Dry deciduous forests
1) Moist deciduous forests -
These are found in areas receiving rainfall between 200 and
100cm. Teak, Bamboos, sal, shisam, sandalwood, khair,
kusum, arjun, mulberry are commercially important species.
2) Dry deciduous forests
The dry deciduous forests are found in areas having rainfall
between 100cm & 70cm.There are open stretches in which
teak, sal, peepal, neem grow. In these forests the common
animals found are lion, tiger, pig, deer and elephant.
The thorn forests and scrubs -
In regions less than 70cm of rainfall ,the natural vegetation
consists of thorny trees and bushes. Trees are scattered
and have long roots penetrating deep into the soil in order
to get moisture. The stems are succulent to conserve
water .Leaves are mostly thick and small to minimize
evaporation. Acacias , palms, euphorbias and cacti are the
main plant species. In these forests , the common animals
are rats ,mice, rabbits, fox, wolf, tiger, lion, wild ass , horses
MONTANE FORESTS -
The broad class of tropical montane forests are found in the
American, African and Asian continents. Plants are adapted to low
temperature and high radiation levels. The wet temperate type of
forests are found between a height of 1000 & 2000 m. Evergreen
broad leaf trees such as oaks & chestnuts predominate. Between
1500 and 3000 m ,temperate forests containing coniferous trees
like pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar are found. At higher
altitudes , generally more than 3,600 m above sea-level,
temperate forests and grasslands give way to the alpine
vegetation .Silver fir , junipers, pines and birches are the common
trees of these forests.
Mangrove forests -
The mangrove tidal forests are found in the areas of coasts
influenced by tides . Mud and silt get accumulated on such
coasts. Royal Bengal tiger is the famous animal in these
forests . Turtles, crocodiles, gharials and snakes are also
found in these forests .
Wildlife includes all non domesticated plants, animals and other
organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for
human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and
has a major impact on the environment, both positive and
negative. Wildlife can be found in all ecosystems. Deserts, rain
forests, plains, and other areas including the most developed
urban sites, all have distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in
popular culture usually refers to animals that are untouched by
human factors, most scientists agree that wildlife around the world
is impacted by human activities.
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