4. 10. CULTURE is a composite or
multifarious areas that compromise
beliefs, practices, values, attitudes,
laws, norms, artifacts, symbols,
knowledge, and everything that a
person learns and shares as member
5. A product of human interaction
A social heritage that is complex and
Provides socially acceptable patterns
for meeting biological and social needs
A distinguishing factor
An established pattern of behavior
Meaningful to human beings
8. ELEMENTS OF CULTURE
• 4. KNOWLEDGE – refers to any information
received and perceived to be true.
• 3. BELIEFS – the perception of accepted
reality. 2. REALITY refers to the existence of
things whether material or non-material.
• 1.SOCIAL NORMS – these are established
expectations of society as to how a person is
supposed to act depending on the
requirements of the time, place, or situation.
9. FORMS OF SOCIAL NORMS:
• Folkways – the patterns of repetitive
behavior which becomes habitual &
conventional part of living
• Mores – the set of ethical standards
and moral obligations as dictates of
reason that distinguishes human
acts as right or wrong or good or bad
10. FORMS OF SOCIAL NORMS:
• Values – Anything held to be
relatively worthy, important,
desirable, or valuable
• Technology – the practical
application of knowledge in
converting raw materials into
14. Ethnocentrism – It is a perception
that arises from the fact that
cultures, differ and each culture
defines reality differently.
- Judging another culture solely
by the values and standards of
one’s own culture.
15. Cultural Relativism – The
attempt to judge behavior
according to its cultural context.
- The principle that an individual
person’s beliefs and activities
should be understood by others
in terms of that individual’s own
17. EVOLUTION is a natural process
of biological changes occurring
in a population across successive
18. SPECIES CHARACTERISTICS
Species with a brain of a Broca’s area
which is associated with speech in
modern humans and was the 1st to
make stone tools.
The ability to make and use tools is a
unique quality to humans such that
the species is recognized to be the
first true human.
The species name means “Handy
Man.” Lived about 2.4 to 1.4 million
years ago scavenging for food.
22. SPECIES CHARACTERISTICS
Species name means “Upright
Man” with body proportions
similar to that of modern humans
Lived 1.89 to 143,000 years ago;
adapted to hot climates and
mostly spread in Africa and Asia.
They were the first hunters with
improvised tools such as axes and
knives, and were the 1st to
24. SPECIES CHARACTERISTICS
Species w/ large brow ridge and
short wide bodies that lived
about 700,000 to 200,000 years
ago in Europe and Africa. They
were the 1st of early human
species to live in colder
climates, 1st to hunt large
animals on routine basis using
spears, and 1st to construct
TIME FRAME CULTURAL
coincided w/ the
1st evidence of
million years ago
Use simple pebble tools
Learned to live in caves
Discovered the use of
incised designs, & reliefs
on the walls of caves.
40. TYPES OF SOCIETIES
Type of Human
1. Hunting and
• The earliest form of human society
• People survived by foraging for
vegetable foods and collecting
• They subsisted from day to day on
whatever was available.
• They used tools made of stones,
woods, and bones.
42. Type of Human
• Political organization is
confined in the village.
• Authority is based on
positions inherited by
males through the
44. Type of Human
• Social stratification was
• The community tended
to be structured by
kinship relations that
are male dominated.
47. Type of Human
• It was organized along
• It was usually united
under strong political
leadership did not occur.
48. Type of Human
• These societies were
characterized by the use
of the plow in farming.
• Creation of the
enough surplus for the
49. Type of Human
• Ever-growing populations
came together in broad
• Those who controlled
access to arable land and
its use became rich &
powerful since they could
demand the payment of
taxes & political support.
50. Type of Human
• By taxing the bulk of
agriculture surplus, the
political leaders could
implement their plans
and armies to protect
53. Type of Human
• It constitutes an
entirely new form of
society that requires an
high skilled ,and well-