1. Evolutionary of perfumery
2. History of perfumes
3. What is perfume ? And its
advantages and disadvantages .
4. Composition of perfumes
5. Notes in perfumes
6. Classification of perfumes
7. Manufacturing process of perfumes
8. Perfumes ingredients listed as
allergens in EU regulation
3. EVOLUTION OF PERFUMERY
1. Majority of the animals and human beings
have sense of smell . For example : Dog
2. It is because of sense of smell that dog is
used for detecting drugs , explosives etc by
3. Anew born baby can identify his / her
mother by smell .
4. Use of fragrant materials is associated with
human beings from ancient materials
though with the complexity of religion and
mysticism ( ill – defined spiritual belief ) .
5. In India “ Havan “ used to be performed
to propitiate materials .
6. “ Havan Samigri “ used to contain fragrant
4. 7. Performance of “ Havan “ used to fill the
environment with fragrances .
8. Perfume , as we know today , would not
have been possible without alchemy (
ancient art of converting raw material into
a perfect and purified form through a
series of transformations ) .
9. Alchemy came into its own being in
medieval Europe but flourished in
seventeenth century .
10.Alchemist deserve credit for reforming the
process of distillation .
11. Some scientist were notable among them
Issac Newton also practiced alchemy .
12. Frenchmen Jacque Passy developed the
technique of enfleurage .
5. 13. In the beginning of eighteenth century , in
london , one Mr . Parry started sales of
perfumes and cosmetics along with
14. In the year ( 1906-1956 ) Ahmed
Soliman was known as “ Cairo s perfume
king “ .
6. HISTORY OF PERFUMES
1) The Egyptians were the first who used perfume
for personal enjoyment, but the production of
perfume was reserved for the priests and they used
it in religious purpose.
2) The Greek used an extraordinary amount of
perfume and for each part of the body they used a
different fragrance for hygiene .
3) The history of the Arabs is the fusion of art and
4) Two talented Arabian chemists - Jābir ibn Hayyān
and Al - Kindi established the perfume industry.
5) The Romans used perfume as a part of luxury .
7. 6) The oldest perfumery was discovered on the
island of Cyprus 4,000 years ago indicating
that perfume manufacturing was on an
7) The Hungarians introduced the first modern
perfume, made of scented oils blended in an
alcohol solution at the command of Queen
Elizabeth of Hungary.
8) France is the birthplace of modern
perfumery. France provided to grow aromatic
plants for perfume industry with raw
9) Even today, France remains the centre of the
European perfume design and trade.
10) England and Germany also contributed a lot
in modernization of perfumery. 7/41
8. WHAT IS PERFUME ?
1) Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or
aromatic compounds, fixatives and solvents used
to give the human body, animal, food objects and
living spaces a pleasant scent.
2) It has been used for centuries by mankind.
3) Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous
pleasant fragrance that will provide a long lasting
feeling of freshness.
4) Initially it was only used for religious purpose
but now it has become an ornament of
sophistication for both men and women .
9. ADVANTAGES :
1) Enjoy the wafting of a well – performed person
passing by side .
2) Smell more pleasing .
1) Some VOCS (Volatile organic compounds), such as
formaldehyde , ethanol, and d- limonene , cause eye , nose
, and throat irritation , difficulty in breathing , allergy
symptoms and headaches .
2) Chemicals may irritate others , especially in tight spaces.
3) Contact dermatitis , an allergic reaction in the skin can
4) Diethly phthalate ( DEP) an irritant and suspended
hormone distrupt that is absorbed through the skin and can
accumulate in human fat tissue .
10. COMPOSITION OF PERFUMES
1. Essential oils : Derived from natural aromatic
plant extracts and synthetic aromatic chemicals.
Ex : Linalool , geraniol , citrol etc .
2. Fixatives : Natural or synthetic substance used
to reduce the evaporation rate .
Ex : Benzyl alcohol etc .
3. Solvents : The liquid in which the perfume oil
is dissolved in is usually 98% ethanol and 2%
water . Alcohol allows fragrance to spread
along with it and doesn’t permit microbial
growth in the perfume .
Ex : Water , Ethanol , Methanol etc .
11. NOTES IN PERFUMES
1) Perfume is described in a musical
metaphor as having three sets of notes,
making the harmonious scent accord .
2) These notes are created carefully with
knowledge of the evaporation process of
3) The three notes are:
• Top notes
• Middle notes
• Base notes
4) Each of these levels, however, has its
own primary purpose.
13. 1) TOP NOTES
1) They are generally the lightest of all
notes and recognized immediately after
application. Top notes consist of small,
light molecules with high volatility that
2) Common fragrances of top notes
include citrus (lemon, orange zest),
light fruits (grape, berries) and herbs
(clary sage, lavender).
14. 2) MIDDLE NOTES
1) The middle notes, or the heart notes,
make an appearance once the top notes
2) The middle note compounds form the
"heart" or main body of a perfume and act
to mask the often unpleasant initial
impression of base notes, which become
more pleasant with time.
3) Common fragrances of middle notes
includes rose, lemon, lavender, nutmeg and
15. 1) Base notes or bottom or dry notes appear
while middle notes are fading.
2) The base and middle notes together are
the main theme of a perfume. Base notes
bring depth and solidity to a perfume.
3) Common fragrances of base notes
include sandalwood, vanilla, amber and
3) BASE NOTES
1) Single floral
fragrance that are dominated by a scent from
one particular flower , in french called
soliflore ( eg: serge lutens’ sa majesta la rose
which is dominated by rose ) .
2) Floral bouquet :
containing the fragrance of several flowers
in a scent .
Eg. Amber , wood , leather , chypre ,
1.Bright floral: Fragrance from one or
e.g. Estee lauder’s Beautiful
2. Green: Fragrance from cut grass or leaf.
a light or more modern interpretation of the
e.g. Calvin Klein’s Eternity
3. Aquatic: A very clean smell reminiscent
Eg: Christian dior’s dune .
21. 4 ) Citrus: Has freshening effect.
E.g. Faberge Brut .
5 ) Fruity: Aromas of fruits other than
E.g. Ginestet Botrytis .
6) Gourmand: Scent with edible or
E.g. Thierry Mugler’s Angel .
22. Based on aromatic sources
Fragrances used in perfume can be found
from following sources:
a ) Plant Source:
Barks, flowers, blossoms, fruits, resin,
roots, seeds, woods etc.
b ) Animal Source:
Musk, civet, honeycomb etc.
c ) Synthetic Source:
Calone, synthetic terpenes etc.
24. I. Collection:
Before manufacturing process begins the
of suitable fragrances are collected in the
Oils are extracted from plants and other
substances by several methods like:
a. Steam distillation:
steam is passed through plant materials held
in a still, whereby the essential oil turns to
gas. This gas is then passed through tubes,
cooled, liquefied and collected.
26. b. Solvent extraction:
The flower parts are dissolved in benzene
or petrolatum that retains the fragrance of
Alcohol is used to dissolve the fragrance
and heated to obtain it after
evaporation of alcohol.
29. d. Expression:
The citrus fruits or plants are manually or
mechanically pressed until all the oil is
1) Manual extraction
2) Steel Pick Expression
3) Through Sponge’ Expression
30. e) maceration:
1) The plant material is soaked in vegetable
oil , heated and strained.
2) This process creates more of infused oil ,
rather than essential oil.
3) These produced oils can be used for
111. Blending :
Once the perfume oils are collected, they are
ready to be blended together according to a
formula determined by a master in the field,
known as a "nose.”
After the scent has been created, it is mixed
Most full perfumes are made of about 10-20%
perfume oils dissolved in alcohol and a trace of
32. I V . Aging :
Fine perfume is often aged for several months
or even years after blending to ensure that the
correct scent has been achieved
33. PERFUME INGREDIENTS LISTED AS
ALLERGNS IN EU REGULATION
The cosmetic regulation 1223/2009 lists
the 26 most known allergic substances .
The substances must appear on the label
of your cosmetic product when present
In the finished formula .
An allergen is commonly defined as “ any
substance , often a protein , that induces
an allergy “ .
36. 1) Cosmetics directive required that the
presence of any of these 26 substances be
indicated in the list of ingredients when its
concentration exceeds 0.001% in leave on
products and 0.01% in rinse off products.
2) Such labelling allows patients who are
allergic to one or more of these 26
fragrance chemicals to avoid products
containing them .
List A: Fragrance chemicals, which
according to existing knowledge, are most
frequently reported and well-recognised
1) Classify perfumes used in cosmetic
industry with examples ? ( June 2019)
2) Classify perfumes . Enumerate
perfume ingredients listed as
allergens in EU regulations ? ( May