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The restoration of KA'QSK in the Nisqually Delta: An ethnobotanical restoration effort

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The restoration of KA'QSK in the Nisqually Delta: An ethnobotanical restoration effort

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Alex Harwell, former UW Masters Student, presented her research on the recovery of KA'QSK, or sweetgrass, at the Nisqually Delta. Sweetgrass is a culturally important plant, so Alex relied on scientific data as well as traditional ecological knowledge.

Alex Harwell, former UW Masters Student, presented her research on the recovery of KA'QSK, or sweetgrass, at the Nisqually Delta. Sweetgrass is a culturally important plant, so Alex relied on scientific data as well as traditional ecological knowledge.

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The restoration of KA'QSK in the Nisqually Delta: An ethnobotanical restoration effort

  1. 1. THE RESTORATION OF KA'QSXʷ [SWEETGRASS (SCHOENOPLECTUS PUNGENS) ] IN THE NISQUALLY DELTA: AN ETHNOBOTANI CAL RESTORATION EFFORT ALEX HARW ELL SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND FOREST SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF W ASHINGTON
  2. 2. S H O U T O U T Deep appreciation to: Nisqually Indian Tribe Joyce McCloud Hanford McCloud Nisqually Natural Resource Department Nisqually Wildlife Refuge Kern Ewing Caren Crandell SEFS Department friends and family
  3. 3. O U T L I N E • Introduction • Nisqually People • Changes in the Nisqually Delta • Sweetgrass (Schoenoplectus pungens) • Methods • Results • Conclusion-so what?
  4. 4. How did this project come about? Through developing a relationship with native plants in the Pacific Northwest, I became interested in how people have used these plants for thousands of years. Plants that are used for food, fiber, medicine, or spiritual value = culturally significant plants
  5. 5. - A L B E R T E I N S T E I N Traditional Ecological Knowledge “We cannot solve our problems with the same thinking we used when we created them.”
  6. 6. P U R P O S E • The purpose of this study is to (i) define current plant associations in the area, (ii) develop propagation protocol for S. pungens including habitat preferences and requirements, and (iii) identify reestablishment location and growth of S. pungens
  7. 7. Nisqually Watershed Restoration
  8. 8. NISQUALLY DELTA
  9. 9. E S T U A R Y = W HE R E S A L T A N D F R E S H W A T E R M EET A L S O A C O N F L U E N C E O F C U L T U R E A N D B I O L O G I CA L P R O D U C T I V IT Y Chedd-Angier www.nwplants.org www.wnps.org
  10. 10. S Q U A L L I - A B A S H “ T H E P E O P L E O F T H E G R A S S C O U N T R Y , T H E P E O P L E O F T H E R I V E R ” . -CECELIA SVINTH CARPENTER SQUALLI PLACE NAMES Smith 1969
  11. 11. Environmental Changes
  12. 12. – J O H N N Y A P P L E S E E D Treaty Trees Washington State Historical Society
  13. 13. Building of the Dike 1904 Washington State Historical Society
  14. 14. “The Brown dairy maintained 300 milking cows, a milking barn capable of accommodating 250 cows at once, a calf barn for 100 young stock and 50 milk cows, and a creamery...small beekeeping operation...chicken operation (20,000 birds/year)...two laying houses (4,000 hens)...hog department (1200)...for the farm products destined for sale, a small factory produced shipping boxes.” Washington State Historical Society
  15. 15. L A G R A N D E A N D A L D E R D A M S - 1 9 4 5 Environmental Change Tacoma Power Tacoma Power
  16. 16. Forest Prairie Lake Top: Prairies in the 1800s constructed from land use and and other historical records. Bottom: Shrinking of prairie area by the late 20th century. Source: Arthur Kruckeberg Natural History of the Puget Sound Change in extent of the Nisqually prairies over the last 150 years.
  17. 17. Boldt Decision 1974 Reestablished Treaty Fishing Rights: -Washington tribes were allowed to fish “at all usual and accustomed grounds”, which meant both on and off assigned reservations. -Washington Tribes were also promised 50% of the annual salmon catch- to be split equally between native and non-native fishermen. Co-management of the shared salmon resource between the State of Washington and Tribes Billy Frank Jr. 1973
  18. 18. NISQUALLY DELTA DIKE REMOVAL
  19. 19. Dike Removal
  20. 20. N W S W E E T G R A S S , S C H O E N O P L E C T U S P U N G E N S , K A ' Q S X ʷ Caren Crandell
  21. 21. FAMILY: CYPERACEAE- SEDGE RHIZOMATOUS, PERENNIAL LIVES IN LOW ELEVATION SALT MARSH TOLERATES HIGH SALINITY ONE OF THE FIRST PLANTS TO ESTABLISH SCHOENOPLECTUS PUNGENS
  22. 22. Burke Museum Basket Collection Louisa Pulsifer 2.5E1618 2.5E1175 2.5E1157
  23. 23. LARGE KNOWN STANDS: GRAYS HARBOR, SKAGIT, AND NOOKSACK HERBARIUM SPECIMENS FROM ALL OVER THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST INTERVIEWS WITH WEAVERS AND ECOLOGISTS ALL POINT TO THE POSSIBILITY THAT PRE-CONTACT S. PUNGENS WAS FOUND IN WETLANDS ALL AROUND THE PUGET SOUND
  24. 24. 2011 1000 BARE ROOT PLANTS WERE PLANTED IN THE REFUGE (WEST SIDE) 2013 1980 BARE ROOT PLANTS WERE PLANTED ON TRIBAL LANDS (EAST SIDE)
  25. 25. Planted Stands at the Nisqually Wildlife Refuge
  26. 26. source: WA DOE
  27. 27. METHODS -Salinity -Soil samples -Elevation -Vegetation Surveys -Germination -Interviews -Historical Maps -Museum Collections
  28. 28. E L E V A T I O N - L O W ( 1 . 5 M ) USGS 2011
  29. 29. S O I L - S A N D Y S O I L S P R E F E R R E D ( E W I N G 2 0 1 4 ) P U G E T S I L T L O A M S U L T A N S I L T L O A M
  30. 30. Schoenoplectus pungens (Sweetgrass) -Low marshes -Tolerates high salinity (0-17ppt) -Daily inundation -Grows in silt loam, sandy clay soil Site 1, 3
  31. 31. A P R I L 2 0 1 5 Start of the Growing Season year 3!
  32. 32. HOPE TO HARVEST WSU Library special collection
  33. 33. - B I L L Y F R A N K J R . “That is not to say that people cannot use the productive natural resources of the nisqually River Watershed. There is room for the farmer, rancher, and forester, as well as for the Indian fisherman. However, those who use these natural resources also must accept the responsibility for good stewardship. Decisions made today must insure a healthy and productive natural resource base for the future”
  34. 34. “Type a quote here.”
  35. 35. -Washington State Historical Society -Army Corps of Engineers. Wetland Plants of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle District. 1984. -Burk Museum -Nisqually Indian Tribe -Skokomish Indian Tribe -Nisqually Wildlife Refuge -US Geological Survey -Nisqually Land Trust

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Includes seasonal, climactic, geographic, and species specific knowledge all relating to place in order to survive and thrive and use the available resources in ways that do not diminish them or cause them to deteriorate
    FIRE
    Harvest
  • 1845 Treaty of Medicine Creek
  • Built in 1945, 2 miles apart

    Disrupts natural sediment flows
  • also the year the Wildlife Refuge was created
  • roughly 500 at each site
  • site 3- slough

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