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lecture 2. Ar-Source.pptx

  1. 1. BUILDING SCIENCE-II Bachelor in Architecture Second Year / Third Semester Prepared by Ar. Samiksha Adhikari PURBANCHAL UNIVERSITY Kantipur International College (KIC) College of Engineering Mahalaxmi - 8, Lubhu, Lalitpur, Nepal
  2. 2. Lecture 2 Architectural lighting
  3. 3. •Introduction of light •Source of light
  4. 4. REVISION:Importance of Architectural Lighting •Lighting can bring an emotional value to architecture— it helps create an experience for those who occupy the space. Without lighting, where would architecture be? Would it still have the same impact?  No, it wouldn’t. Whether it’s day lighting or artificial lighting, light draws attention to textures, colors, and forms of a space, helping architecture achieve its true purpose.
  5. 5. Importance of Architectural Lighting To create a successful balance between lighting and architecture, it’s important to remember three key aspects of architectural lighting: 1. Aesthetic 2. Function 3. Efficiency
  6. 6. Importance of Architectural Lighting Aesthetic •It is where designers and architects focus on the emotional impact the balance of lighting and architecture will have on occupants •It’s where designers determine how they want people to feel when they walk around a space •This aspect is especially important for locate locations; exterior lighting should draw the consumer in, and the interior lighting should awe them as they walk through the doors in addition to showing off product
  7. 7. Function •This aspect cannot be overlooked. We want the lighting to look a certain way, but we have to also make sure it serves its most important purpose—to help us see •Areas should be illuminated so occupants feel safe when navigating a room or entire building •They should be able to see the floor and walls around them, which should create a feeling Importance of Architectural Lighting
  8. 8. Efficiency •This aspect is very important in today’s age of green building and sustainability movements •It’s one thing to create a breathtaking lighting layout, but it’s another to create a breathtaking layout that is also incredibly energy efficient. •This can be done by assuring the majority of the light is reaching its target and there is less wasted light •Reducing the amount of wasted light will make the building more efficient Importance of Architectural Lighting
  9. 9. lighting Church of light By Tado Ando
  10. 10.  The building as an important structure in the presence of light. By Louis I. kahn, the pioneer of modern Architect  Architecture is the skill , correct and magnificent (impressive) play of masses brought together in light. By Le- corbusier, the master of international style. Light Interior view of the chapel of Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France By: Le corbusier
  11. 11. History of architectural lighting • From the earliest caves, daylight informed the lives of the inhabitants, initially in the difference between night and day • But dwellings became necessary, by means of openings or windows letting in light • The history of architecture is synonymous with the history of the window and of day lighting from the initial crude openings, letting in light and air, heat and cold, the window was the vehicle for the introduction of daylight • The window has developed over the centuries, but its purpose of letting in daylight has remained its primary role
  12. 12. •At first various materials were used, such as thin slabs of marble, sheets of mica or oiled paper, but it was not until the development of glass for windows that substantial progress could really be made •Glass had been discovered as early as 3000 BC in Egypt, and was used for decorative objects •It was left until the seventeenth century for large panes of glass to be developed in England and for larger windows to be made possible History of architectural lighting
  13. 13. •Day Lighting & Artificial Lighting always been important aspect of design buildings for over 8000 years of building history. •For many thousands of years a burning stick or fire would have been used, so lighting has been a problem for buildings for a long time. History of architectural lighting
  14. 14. •After invention of glass, some difficulty in daylight in buildings has been solved. •Some of building in previous century burned down due to inflammable building materials (wood, straw, bamboo etc.) & use of bare fire for interior lighting. Crystal Palace, the site of the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London History of architectural lighting
  15. 15. The Crystal Palace is probably one of the first use of atriums, as well as being essentially the only building that is just one giant atrium History of architectural lighting
  16. 16. •The evolution of architectural lighting starts with the gas lamp fixtures of the 19th century and then progressed to the technological advances of electric lighting. •Combination of electric and gas lamps were even used, briefly, as the public transitioned from one technology to another. • Incandescent lamp reigned supreme for more than 50 years until the introduction of fluorescent lighting in the 1930s, which quickly took over as the principal illumination source for the modern office and store. Gas lamp light fixture History of architectural lighting
  17. 17. •Electric lamp presented a new opportunity for lighting designers who shaped fixtures in variety of architectural motifs – Classical, Colonial, Art Deco and Modern are common names in light fixture catalogs, particularly those marked for residential use. Art Deco type light fixture Colonial type light fixture History of architectural lighting
  18. 18. History of architectural lighting •In 1879 A.D. Thomas Edison developed the incandescent lamps & in around 1930, French scientist developed fluorescent lamp
  19. 19. History of architectural lighting •In Early Age, Architects designed with total dependency on artificial light and continued to increase the quantity of light. • At that time an idea that more light was better light. •In 1973 energy crisis, there was not sufficient energy for artificial lighting as well as heating & cooling •Prior to it, commercial interiors were typically illuminated with bright ceilings and fluorescent lamps
  20. 20. History of architectural lighting Photo source: David Falconer
  21. 21. History of architectural lighting •Then, the importance of day lighting as free source of lighting was again realized and designers changed their strategies •Nowadays maximum use of glassed areas to provide optimal day lighting is used but it causes overheating in summer & cold interior in winter. So optimum design is needed in lighting design i.e. Amount of light VS Quality of light.
  22. 22. History of lighting in Nepal • On 22 May 1911, a crowd had gathered on Kathmandu’s central Tundikhel. • Among the guests were the then British Resident, Lt. Col. J. Manor Smith, and numerous high-ranking Ranas. • King Prithivi Bir Bikram Shah and Prime Minister Chandra Sumsher were also in attendance. Hundreds of civil servants, some foreign guests, and ladies of the Rana court had also been invited to witness the historic event. • At 6:30 p.m., king Prithivi turned a switch at the Tundikhel substation and a light bulb up. • For the first time, Nepal had electricity.
  23. 23. • The state-owned newspaper, Gorkhapatra, praised the momentous event in an article entitled ‘Amazing Light Chandra Batti’. • India only had a single hydropower plant, in Darjeeling. China was still without electricity. History of lighting in Nepal
  24. 24. • Kishor Narsingh Rana – project designer chose the project location for a reservoir and a powerhouse at Seti Devi (Pharping), a village around 17 kilometers southwest of Kathmandu city. • The place was ideal: there were two continuing springs in the vicinity and the topography consisted of steep hills. History of lighting in Nepal
  25. 25. • The powerhouse was named Chandra Jyoti Griha in honor of the incumbent ruler. • In later years, it became more popular as the Pharping Hydro Power Station. • One of the first buildings to have glasses in windows was the 55 window palace in Bhaktapur History of lighting in Nepal
  26. 26. What is light? Light can be defined in several ways; light is usually considered a sense of visibility, a reflection off of other objects, and light is color.
  27. 27. Light Light is a prime need of human being Every activity of human life depends on light When the natural light is absent or not sufficient we require artificial light World is beautiful because of light and eye can see this beautiful world with the help of light.
  28. 28. . Architectural lighting design concerns itself primarily with the illumination of buildings Secondly, the design aspect (design to improve working condition) Thirdly is the energy efficiency issue to ensure the light is not wasted Architectural perspective of lighting
  29. 29. Form of electromagnetic radiation and is the major medium through which we discover the beautiful world around us The energy radiated from luminary or non luminary body or object that gives the visual link between man and his environment Introduction
  30. 30. Source of Light Source of light differ in how they provide energy to the charge particles such as electrons whose motion create light 1. If the energy comes from heat then such source is called incandescent light source 2. If the energy comes from some other source such as chemicals then the source is known as the luminescence light source
  31. 31. 1. Incandescent light source E.g. sun, candle light, bulb etc in which light produces from excessive heating Light from an incandescent bulb comes from excited or hot atoms in a thin wire called as a filament which is heated by passing an electric current through it Sun is also an incandescent light source It heats comes from nuclear reaction deep below its surface
  32. 32. 1. Incandescent light source Incandescent lamps are light sources which produce thermal radiation from an electrically heated filament
  33. 33. The color of incandescent light source is related to their temperature With more hotter source, the color of light is more bluish And with less hotter sources the color is reddish. 1. Incandescent light source
  34. 34. 2. Luminescence E.g. Tube light, HID(high-intensity discharge),sodium vapour etc. A luminescence light source absorbs energy in some other than heat energy such as chemical reaction etc such a source a cooler than incandescent source And the color is not related to its temperature
  35. 35. A fluorescent tube light is a luminescence source which makes use of chemical compound called phosphors. So florescent tube light are filled with mercury vapour and it’s inside surface is coated with phosphors. As electricity passes through electrodes to the tube it excite the mercury atom of the mercury vapor and emits light in various colors such as blue, green, violet etc. HID(high intensity discharge lamp) 2. Luminescence
  36. 36. Luminous and Non-Luminous Objects Luminous Objects : That gives their own light are called Luminous Objects Sun Bulb Stars
  37. 37. Non – Luminous Objects: The object that glows with the help of luminous object are called Non – Luminous Objects Moon Table
  38. 38. Anything that gives out light is called a light source. We see objects when they reflect light rays into our eyes. In general, source of light are taken in two groups. 1. Natural source light / Day light 2. Artificial source light Source of Light
  39. 39. Natural Source of Light The light that is found in nature is known as natural light e.g. of natural lights are follows Sun Moon Stars
  40. 40. Daylight . • Sun is the source of energy • Openings are important • In absence of direct sunlight, skylight can be used • Direct light and skylight are used for different functions
  41. 41. . Daylight
  42. 42.  For the century the design of building to admit day light has been fundamental to architecture  In any building the window or ventilation is a only one of the most important and expressive visual element of a building to admit day light inside the building but with the invention of relatively cheap energy & efficient light i.e. electricity. Daylight
  43. 43.  The option of artificial light can be consider as an alternative option to the day light.  With the help of this, deep plan building has become possible  Although the electricity or artificial light has provided mankind a great facility in place of natural day light  But it is always efficient and energy saving to provide or admit day light inside the building. Artificial light
  44. 44. Day light uses  communication  Aesthetics  Physiological (normal function of living thing) response  Health  Energy and cost  To perform work  Indicate the time
  45. 45. Day light is mainly for two reason 1.Luminance efficiency is high 2.Free and not limited
  46. 46.  Not available for 24 hours  Sky varies its brightness, in addition illumination level of the room area close to window will normally be higher than normal Disadvantage of day light
  47. 47. 2. Artificial light . . • Electrical energy is used as a main source of artificial lights • Incandescent lamps, Fluorescent lamps, Arc lamps, discharge lamps, etc. are used.
  48. 48. . . Artificial lighting is required where there is absence of natural light and if the natural light is not sufficient i.e. it is provided for the supplement of day light. So that the people can perform the specific task at any time comfortably without any obstructions.
  49. 49. . . Lightning designed is important for architectural, interior and decoration The consideration to be taken are economical use of electric energy, safety, environmental aspect and health Electricity is playing important role in modern day to day life
  50. 50. Types of Lamps • There are three basic types: • Incandescent • Fluorescent • Special lamps i. High-intensity discharge • Including: Mercury Vapor, Metal Halide, High Pressure Sodium and Low Pressure sodium ii. Light Emitting Diode (LED) LED technology is still relatively new iii. Laser light CFL High-Pressure Sodium Low-Pressure Sodium
  51. 51. Incandescent Lamps • Incandescent lamp, any of various devices that produce light by heating a suitable material to a high temperature. When any solid or gas is heated, commonly by combustion or resistance to an electric current, it gives off light of a color (spectral balance) characteristic of the material.
  52. 52. Fluorescent Lamps • A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury- vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light. An electric current in the gas excites mercury vapor, which produces short-wave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor coating on the inside of the lamp to glow.
  53. 53. Special lamps i. High-intensity discharge • Including: Mercury Vapor, Metal Halide, High Pressure Sodium and Low Pressure sodium ii. Light Emitting Diode (LED) LED technology is still relatively new iii. Laser light
  54. 54. Prepare a presentation 1. Incandescent electrical light 2. Fluorescent electrical light 3. High-intensity discharge light
  55. 55. Laser A laser is a special kind of light source that produce very regular waves permitting the light to be very focus Laser have many application in medicine, scientific resources, military technology and other communication They provide a very focused powerful and controllable energy source that can be used to perform delicate (damage) and detail task
  56. 56. Laser light can be used to drilled holes in diamonds and to make micro electronics materials. Laser are also useful for space communication And such light can travel long distance without loosing its strength.
  57. 57. Indoor Fixtures
  58. 58. DOWNLIGHTER
  59. 59. Thank You

Notes de l'éditeur

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