Previously known by various names including “universal
Standard precautions are designed to reduce the risk of
transmission of bloodborne and other pathogens from
both recognized and unrecognized sources to a
They are the basic level of infection control precaution
Hospital Infection is the result of a combination of
factors: Microbial source + Transmission + Susceptible
host = Infection
4. Key Elements of Standard Precautions
1. Hand hygiene
3. Mask, gogles, face masks
5. Prevention of needle stick & injuries from sharp instruments
6. Respiratory hygiene & cough etiquette
7. Environmental cleaning
9. Waste disposal
10. Patient care equipment WHO, 2007
5. Definitions of Hand hygiene
Washing hands with plain soap and water
Washing hands with water and soap or other detergents
containing an antiseptic agent
Rubbing hands with an alcohol-containing preparation
Surgical hand hygiene/antisepsis
Hand-washing or using an alcohol-based hand-rub before
operations by surgical personnel
Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-care Settings. MMWR 2002; vol. 51, no. RR-16.
PPE Working Condition
gloves should be used when touching blood, body fluids,
secretions, excretions, or contaminated items and
for touching mucous membranes and nonintact skin.
gowns should be used during procedures and patient care
activities when contact of clothing and/or exposed
skin with blood, body fluids, secretions, or excretions
is anticipated. Aprons are sometimes used as PPE
over scrubs, such as in hemodialysis centers when
inserting a needle into a fistula.
goggles or a
should be used during patient care activities that are
likely to generate splashes and sprays of blood, body
fluids, secretions, or excretions.
10. Activities at risk of sharp injury
Body fluids aliquoting
Open the tubes
Throw the sharps not to sharp container
Discard if 2/3 full
• HBV : 27 – 37% ( 30%)
• HCV : 3 – 10 % (3,0 %)
• HIV : 0,2 – 0,4% (0,3%)
11. Transmission-Based Precautions
Used in addition to Standard Precautions for
Designed for the Care of Specified Patients
known or suspected to be infected by
epidemiologically important pathogens spread
by: airborne, droplet, or contact transmission.
12. Droplet Transmission
For infectious agents with droplet nuclei > 5 microns
Mask if within 3’ of patient
13. Droplet Precautions
Prevent infection by
large droplets from
14. Airborne Transmission
For infectious agents with droplet nuclei < 5
Isolation rooms under negative pressure
N95 or HEPA respirator use
15. Airborne Precautions for Avian
• Patient in isolation/cohorting
• Patient Transport
Limit patient movement
place a surgical mask
on the patient
Airborne isolation room, if available
Air exhaust to outside or
re-circulated with HEPA filtration
Handle, transport, and process used linen in a manner which:
Prevents skin and mucous membrane exposures and contamination of
Avoids transfer of pathogens to other patients and or the environment.
17. Waste disposal
Ensure safe waste management.
Treat waste contaminated with blood, body fluids, secretions and excretions as clinical
waste, in accordance with local regulations.
Human tissues and laboratory waste that is directly associated with specimen
processing should also be treated as clinical waste.
Discard single use items properly.
18. Patient care equipment
Handle equipment soiled with blood, body fluids, secretions, and excretions
in a manner that prevents skin and mucous membrane exposures,
contamination of clothing, and transfer of pathogens to other patients or the
Clean, disinfect, and reprocess reusable equipment appropriately before use
with another patient.
19. Contact Precautions
For protection against skin-to-skin contact and physical
transfer of microorganisms to a host from a source