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is a career or calling that is
derived from the word VOCARE, which
means “to call”.
“For round holes there should be
round pegs, and for square holes
there should be square pegs”
Founding Father of
In 1908 Parson opened the
Vocational Bureau of Boston with
the purpose of helping people learn
Wrote book called Choosing a
Vocation. First published 1990
the process of assisting an
individual to choose an occupation,
prepare for it, and progress in it.
-National Vocational Guidance Association-
a facilitative process, a service
rendered to the individual to aid him in
choosing and adjusting to an occupation.
-John D. Crites-
1. To help adapt the schools to the needs of the
students and the community.
2. To assist the students in choosing, preparing
and training for, entering and making progress
in their chosen career or occupation.
3. To disseminate knowledge of competitive and
other problems of the business and
occupational world as well as their
4. To help workers understand their relationship
with other workers, and society as a whole.
5. To secure greater cooperation between the
school and various commercial, industrial,
and professional pursuits.
6. To encourage the establishment of courses of
study in educational institutions that will
harmoniously combine both cultural and
1. The Occupational Information Service
The following is an outline for the study of an occupation:
a. Importance of an occupation
b. Nature of the work
c. Work conditions
d. Personal Qualities needed
e. Preparations needed
f. Opportunities for advancement
Methods of Teaching an Occupational Information
1. Each Learner is required to gather information
about occupations. Pamphlets, books, magazines,
news papers, and workers can be sources of
2. Class debates are held on the merits of different
4. Oral reports to the class
5. Written reports
2. The Self-Inventory Service
Means of Providing High School Youth with
Vocational Exploration Experience
1. Exploration by means of school subjects
2. Exploration for agricultural occupations
3. Exploration for business occupation
4. Explorations through household art courses
5. Explorations for industrial occupations
3. The Personal Data Collecting Service
Kinds of Personal Data needed
1. General Data – information that will be helpful in
locating the individual and in making contacts.
2. Physical Data- information concerning the
individual’s health and physical characteristics.
3. Psychological Data- information concerning the
individual’s mental characteristics.
4. Social environment- information concerning home
and social environment conditions.
5. Achievement Data- information concerning what
the individual has done both in school and outside
6. Data concerning the individual’s educational and
Personality traits, some of which are
hereditary and some are results of training
and experience, have significance in vocational
Personality factors :
Example of Personality Tests:
1. The Downey tests of will-temperament
a. Speed and fluidity of action
b. Forcefulness and decisiveness of reaction
c. Carefulness and persistence of reaction
2. Tests of trustworthiness
3. The Allport Ascendance-Submission Reaction
4. Benreuter Personality Inventory
5. Bell Adjustment Inventory
Social Environment Data
a. Data concerning the home and familial
b. Data concerning the pupil’s association outside
c. Data concerning:
- entrance to college
- degree program desired
- particular occupation desired
- necessary preparation
4. The Vocational Counseling Service
Vocational counseling is not giving
vocational advice. It is not telling
individuals what occupation they should
follow. Vocational counseling leaves decisions
to the counseled individuals. Its DUTY is
performed when it helps these individuals to
follow a procedure in arriving at their own
decision, not when it tries to make decisions
5. The Vocational Preparatory Service
Types of Vocational Preparation
1. Preparation before employment begins
2. Preparation in connection with
3. Preparation for change of employment
Preparation before employment begins for
a. Business pursuits
c. Agricultural pursuits
d. Industrial pursuits
Preparation in connection with employment
a. The learners are under the supervision of the
b. A worker and the school aid them in preparing
better for the work.
c. The learner acquires skill and knowledge on the
job without spending any time in school.
Preparation for change of employment
Conditions at work are not satisfying,
detrimental to the worker’s physical and
mental health; salary is low and not
commensurate to the job.
6. The Placement Service
The school placement service aids the
graduates in finding jobs through:
1. Establishing linkages or consultations with
agencies, firms, industry and business, etc.
2. Helping the individuals find suitable
occupations and helping them find an
opportunity for their continued development