Concept of Management<br />Prepared by:<br />ERIC F. PAZZIUAGAN, RN, MAN<br />
A process by which a cooperative group directs actions towards common goals.<br />It involves techniques by which a distinguished group of people coordinates the services of people.<br />It includes moral and ethical standards in the selection of right ends toward which the managers should strive.<br />Definition of Management<br />
Three- fold Concept (Harbizon and Myers):<br />Economic resource: management is one of the factors of production, together with land, labor and capital.<br />System of authority: management first develops with top individuals determining the course of action for the rank and file.<br />Class and status sytem: Managers have become an elite group of brains and education.<br />
ROLE OF MANAGERS (Mintsberg)<br />Interpersonal role:<br />A symbol because of the position he/ she occupies (duties such as signing of papers/ documents)<br />A leader (hires, trains, encourages, fires, remunerates, and judges)<br />Liaison (between and outside contacts such as the community, suppliers, and the organization).<br />
Informational role<br />One who monitors information.<br />Disseminates information from both external and internal resources.<br />Spokesperson or representative of the organization.<br />
Decision role<br />Entrepreneur or innovator, problem discoverer, a designer to improve projects that direct and control the organization.<br />Trouble- shooter who handles unexpected situations such as resignation of subordinates, and loss of clients<br />Negotiator when conflicts arise<br />
Necessary Skills of a Manager (Katz)<br />Technical skills<br />Proficiency in performing an activity in the correct manner with the right technique.<br />Human relationship skills<br />Dealing with people and how to “get along” with them<br />Conceptual skills<br />Ability to see individual matters as they relate to the total picture and to develop creative pertinent factors, responding to the big problems, and discarding irrelevant facts.<br />
Knowledge, attitude and ability factors (Summer)<br />Knowledge factors: ideas, concepts or principles that can be expressed and are accepted because they have logical proofs.<br />Attitude factors: beliefs, feelings, and values that may be based on emotions and may not be subjected to conscious verbalization.<br />Interest in one’s work<br />Confidence in one’s mental competence<br />Desire to accept responsibility<br />Respect for the dignity of one’s associates<br />Desire to accept responsibility<br />Respect for the dignity of one’s associates<br />Desire for creative contribution<br />Ability factors: skill, art, judgment, and wisdom<br />
In the Philippines:<br />Chief Nurses/ Nursing Service Directors (at least 100 bed): Master’s Degree in Nursing with a major in nursing administration<br />Supervising Nurses: at least 9 units of graduate studies in nursing<br />Managerial staff development programs for the staff who have the potential to become administrators<br />
Planning:<br />Forecast estimate future<br />Set objectives; determine results desired<br />Develop and schedule programs; define activities needed and set time frame<br />Prepare budget; allocate resources<br />Establish policies, procedures, definite course of actions and methods<br />
Organizing:<br />Set- up organizational structure; identify groupings, roles and relationships<br />Determine staff needed, develop and maintain staffing patterns; distribute in areas needed.<br />Develop job descriptions; define qualifications and functions of personnel<br />
Directing: <br />Delegate nursing care assignments<br />Utilize/ revise/ update policies and procedures<br />Supervise, harmonize goals thru guidance<br />Coordinate, unite personnel and services<br />Communicate, ensure common understanding via various routes<br />Develop people; provide staff development programs<br />Decide/ make judgment<br />
Controlling:<br />Performance appraisal; assess, interpret, correct, apply discipline<br />Monitor and evaluate nursing care/ services; utilize various methods<br />Specify criteria and standards; utilize performance standards<br />
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT:<br />
Administrators:<br />Form the highest level of hierarchy in the institution which is the policy making body.<br />Formulates the vision, mission, philosophy and objectives of the agency<br />Use the framework of management at a higher level and call this the administrative process.<br />Together with their middle managers, allocate the human and material resources of their particular departments.<br />
Reviews critical problems that require immediate attention through the manager’s reports.<br />Get input from clinical managers to determine necessary improvements in delivering patient care services (e.g., staff development programs, patient education, discharge planning, staff education programs, and staffing).<br />Make selective rounds to get first- hand information by observing clinical practice, work environment, personal relationships, and patient’s reactions to the care they receive.<br />
Managers:<br />Oversee the clinical practice in their respective areas.<br />Solve problems at the level where these occur and inform higher management of results and outcomes.<br />
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