Power is a key concept of realist theories.
Foundation is the principle of dominance along with states desire for
It distinguishes Anarchy, human nature, Statism , Survival, Self-help and
Balance of power as key assumptions of realist theory.
Realism developed in reaction to the liberal tradition that realists called
Idealism who believes that human nature is essentially good and see
International system as a community.
DEFINING AND ESTIMATING POWER
THEORETICAL DEFINITION OF POWER
States ability to control or at least influence other states on the out
comes of the event.
EMPIRICAL DEFINITION OF POWER
Tangible components(Material elements)
Intangible components(Non-Material components)
Popular Support for the Government
ANARCHY AND SOVEREIGNTY
The International System is anarchical and security must be
dominant for any state because the lack of a central government
that can support rules.
Sovereignty means the government has the right to do whatever
it wants in its territory.
Lack of a world police to punish the states if they
break a treaty of international law makes
enforcement of international agreement difficult.
So each state is responsible for its’ own survival
and free decline its’ own interest for power.
BALANCE OF POWER
States act to preserve a Balance of power in the system in order to
prevent any state in the system dominate another.
If state tries to dominate others, others will work to balance it by
mainly two different ways.
Increasing their own power.Eg:North Korean Misile development
Alliances (Combining efforts to make equilibrium amidst
the growing power).Eg:AUKUS,QUAD,NATO
Action of Balance of power leads to war.
Relative power of the states changes
over time so it requires constant changes.
Alliances also can be changed.
HARD ,SOFT AND SMART POWER
It is the power of one state to force other state to act in certain manner.
It is the direct and observable use of force or coercion.
Hard power is not necessarily violence.
Soft power rest on the ability to shape the preferences of others without
using power, coercion or violence but through cultural appeal, Political values
and norms and foreign policy. -Joseph Nye-
Legitimacy is central for soft power.
Strategic use and balance of both hard and soft power
Soft power approach would be used both tools of
appeals and threats to create favorable outcome or
POWER DISTRIBUTION IN INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM
System in which there is only
one hegemony in the international
A system in international; society
where there are two big powers
which has influence over all other
There are more than two countries which maintain their hegemonies in
Peace is best preserved by hegemony and next best by bipolarity.