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Education at a Glance 2015 - Global Launch

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Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators is the authoritative source for information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances and performance of education systems in the 34 OECD countries and a number of partner countries.

With more than 100 charts, 150 tables and links to another 150 tables on line, Education at a Glance 2015 provides key information on the output of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; the financial and human resources invested in education; access, participation and progression in education;and the learning environment and organisation of schools.

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Education at a Glance 2015 - Global Launch

  1. 1. 1 Global Launch Education at a Glance 2015 Andreas Schleicher Director for Education and Skills
  2. 2. More people have benefited from education than ever before Percentage of younger and older tertiary-educated adults (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 SouthAfrica Indonesia Brazil China CostaRica Italy Mexico Turkey SaudiArabia Chile Colombia Germany SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Portugal Hungary Slovenia Austria Greece EU21average Latvia Finland NewZealand Estonia Iceland OECDaverage Spain Denmark Poland France Belgium Netherlands UnitedStates Sweden Switzerland Israel Australia Norway UnitedKingdom Ireland Lithuania Luxembourg Canada RussianFederation Korea Proportion of the 25-34 year-old population with tertiary education Proportion of the 55-64 year-old population with tertiary education % Chart A1.2.
  3. 3. Over 80% of young people will complete upper secondary education in their lifetime Upper secondary graduation rates (2013) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Ireland Israel NewZealand Switzerland Portugal Finland EU21average Latvia Poland Austria Denmark SlovakRepublic Chile Slovenia Canada EUaverage UnitedStates OECDaverage Sweden Hungary Italy CzechRepublic Norway Luxembourg Colombia Spain Indonesia Turkey Mexico Over 25 years Below 25 years Chart A2.1.
  4. 4. Early learning
  5. 5. Some 70 % of 3-year-olds are enrolled in pre-primary education Enrolment rates at age 3 and 4 in early childhood education (2013) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Israel France Belgium UnitedKingdom NewZealand Iceland Spain Norway Italy Sweden Germany Denmark Korea Estonia Slovenia Netherlands Latvia Japan EU21average Portugal Hungary RussianFederation OECDaverage Luxembourg Finland SlovakRepublic Austria CzechRepublic Poland Ireland Chile UnitedStates Mexico Australia Indonesia Colombia Brazil Turkey Switzerland SaudiArabia Enrolment rates at age 3 in early childhood educational programmes (ISC 01) Enrolment rates at age 3 in pre-primary education (ISC 02) Enrolment rates at age 4 (ISC 02 +ISC 1) Chart C2.1. %
  6. 6. 8 Reading performance of immigrant students, by attendance at pre-primary education 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 Brazil Mexico35 Malaysia CostaRica Kazakhstan36 Qatar48 Jordan34 Montenegro Greece Slovenia Spain52 Sweden67 Italy88 RussianFederation42 Portugal49 Luxembourg40 OECDaverage49 Switzerland Croatia Serbia UnitedArabEmirates… NewZealand90 Macao-China81 Ireland Canada45 Australia54 Had attended pre-primary education Had not attended pre-primary educationMean score
  7. 7. 9 Immigrant students’ performance in mathematics, by country of origin and destination 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 Australia Macao-China New Zealand Hong Kong-China Qatar Finland Denmark United Arab Emirates Netherlands PISA score points in mathematics First-generation immigrants' score, after accounting for socio-economic status Students from Arabic-speaking countries in: Students from China in: 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 Denmark Qatar United Arab Emirates Netherlands Finland % Percentage of students with an immigrant background who reported that they feel like they belong at school Country of origin and country of destination Students from Arabic-speaking countries in:
  8. 8. Child staff ratios in pre-primary education Chart C2.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
  9. 9. Expenditure on pre-primary education accounts for 0.6% of GDP, on average Expenditure on pre-primary educational institutions (2012) Chart C2.4. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Norway Iceland Finland Slovenia Latvia Poland France Israel Hungary Belgium EU21average Luxembourg Spain Portugal OECDaverage NewZealand Germany CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic UnitedKingdom Austria UnitedStates Italy Netherlands Korea Japan Switzerland Australia SouthAfrica Indonesia Private expenditure on educational institutions in percentage of GDP Public expenditure on educational institutions in percentage of GDP
  10. 10. Teachers and teaching
  11. 11. In 2012, OECD countries spent an average of 3.7% of their GDP on primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education Expenditure on educational institutions as a percentage of GDP (2012), by source of fund. Chart B2.2.P,S,PS 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 NewZealand Denmark Iceland Norway Brazil Colombia UnitedKingdom Portugal Israel Ireland Belgium Australia Finland Mexico Switzerland France Netherlands Sweden Slovenia Korea UnitedStates Chile Canada Poland Luxembourg Estonia Germany Austria Spain Turkey Italy Japan Latvia CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Hungary Indonesia RussianFederation % of GDP Primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary Public expenditure on educational institutions Private expenditure on educational institutions OECD average (total expenditure)
  12. 12. Expenditure per primary, secondary and post-secondary non- tertiary student increased by at least 10% in most countries between 2005 and 2012 Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions in 2012 related to change since 2005. Primary, secondary, and post-secondary non-tertiary education Chart B1.4.P,S,PS MEX CHL HUN SVKEST CZE POL ISR POR KOR ITA ESP JPN FIN FRA AUS UKM IRECAN NLD SWE TUR BEL USA CHE NOR RUS ISL SVN R² = 0.2984 0 1 000 2 000 3 000 4 000 5 000 6 000 7 000 8 000 9 000 10 000 11 000 12 000 13 000 14 000 15 000 16 000 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Annual expenditure per student (2012, USD) Change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 (%) OECD average Primary, secondary, and post-secondary non-tertiary education OECD average
  13. 13. Class sizes Average class size in educational institutions, by level of education (2013) Chart D2.1. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 China Korea Japan Indonesia Chile Colombia Israel Turkey Brazil Mexico UnitedStates Spain France Germany Australia OECDaverage Portugal Poland Greece Italy CzechRepublic EU21average Austria Hungary Iceland Slovenia Finland UnitedKingdom SlovakRepublic Luxembourg RussianFederation Estonia Latvia Belgium(Fr.) Netherlands Lower secondary education Primary education
  14. 14. Teaching time as a share of working time Net teaching time that lower secondary teachers spend teaching as a percentage of total statutory working time (2013) Chart D4.3. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% Colombia Israel Scotland England Chile UnitedStates Spain Portugal Latvia Netherlands Germany SlovakRepublic France Estonia Denmark Norway Poland Korea CzechRepublic Iceland Austria Hungary Japan Turkey
  15. 15. In many countries, larger classes leave more time for other professional activities, not so in the UK Relationship between average class size and time spent teaching/learning in lower secondary education (2013). The size of each bubble represents the proportion of lower secondary teachers who reported having more than 10% of students with behaviour problems in their classes Chart Box D2.a.1 Australia Brazil Chile Czech RepublicEstonia Finland France Iceland Israel Italy Japan Korea Latvia Mexico Poland Portugal Russian Federation Slovak Republic Spain OECD average R² = 0.4235 65 70 75 80 85 14 19 24 29 34 Percentageoftimespentteachingandlearning Average class size in lower secondary education
  16. 16. In only two countries are teachers' salaries higher than the salaries of comparably educated workers Teachers' salaries relative to earnings for similarly educated workers or workers with tertiary education (2013). Lower secondary teachers teaching general programmes in public institutions Chart D3.1. 0 0.5 1 Denmark France Israel Belgium(Fl.) Greece Belgium(Fr.) Australia Scotland England Finland OECDaverage Norway Hungary Chile SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Luxembourg Austria Slovenia OECDaverage Poland Netherlands Estonia Sweden UnitedStates Italy Ratio Similarly- educated workers Workers with tertiary education
  17. 17. Between 2005 and 2013, teachers’ salaries increased in some and decreased in other countrie Index of change between 2000 and 2013 (2005 = 100, constant prices), for teachers with 15 years of experience and typical qualifications 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Estonia Poland Israel Norway Luxembourg Turkey Australia UnitedStates Mexico Ireland Germany Sweden1 Belgium(Fr.) Belgium(Fl.) Denmark Finland ECDaverage Austria Slovenia Korea France Italy Japan Spain Scotland Iceland England Portugal Greece Hungary Latvia Index of Chart D3.3.
  18. 18. Between 2000 and 2013, teachers’ salaries increased overall in real terms in most countries with available data Index of change between 2000 and 2013 (2005 = 100, constant prices), for teachers with 15 years of experience and typical qualifications 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Estonia Poland Israel Norway Luxembourg Turkey Australia UnitedStates Mexico Ireland Germany Sweden1 Belgium(Fr.) Belgium(Fl.) Denmark Finland OECDaverage Austria Slovenia Korea France Italy Japan Spain Scotland Iceland England Portugal Greece Hungary Latvia 2013 2000 Index of Chart D3.3.
  19. 19. Schools were better equipped with new technologies in 2012 than in 2003 Change between 2003 and 2012 in the index of quality of schools' educational resources (e.g. textbooks, computers for instruction, computer so ftware). Dark blue bars indicate differences that are statistically significant. Chart D8.2 -0.7 -0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.1 1.3 1.5 Turkey Poland Uruguay RussianFederation Latvia Macao-China Japan Brazil Canada SlovakRepublic Portugal Norway Ireland CzechRepublic Greece Spain Belgium Hungary HongKong-China Australia Sweden OECDaverage2003 Switzerland Indonesia Liechtenstein Germany Italy NewZealand Denmark Finland Austria Thailand UnitedStates Luxembourg Netherlands Mexico Iceland Korea Tunisia Mean index difference
  20. 20. Teachers’ skills and readiness to use information and communication technologies (ICT) for problem solving (2012) Chart D5.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Korea England/N.Ireland(UK) CzechRepublic Sweden Netherlands Japan Canada Norway UnitedStates Germany Average Flanders(Belgium) Denmark Austria SlovakRepublic Ireland RussianFederation* Estonia Poland % Group 4 (Good ICT and problem-solving skills) Group 3 (Moderate ICT and problem- solving skills) Group 2 (Failed ICT core stage 1 or minimal problem-solving skills) Group 1 (Opted out of the computer- based assessment) Group 0 (No computer experience)
  21. 21. Relationship between teachers’ use of ICT skills at work and proficiency in those skills (2012) Chart D5.4 Austria Canada Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Germany Ireland Japan Korea Netherlands Norway Poland Slovak Republic Average Sweden United States Flanders (Belgium) England/N. Ireland (UK) Russian Federation* R² = 0.3951 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 IndexofuseofICTskillsatwork Proportion of teachers with good ICT and problem-solving skills
  22. 22. Students who use computers at school only moderately score the highest in reading 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 -2 -1 0 1 2 Scorepoints Index of ICT use at school Source: Figure 6.5 Relationship between students’ skills in reading and computer use at school (average across OECD countries) OECD average Highest score Digital reading Students with a value above 1 use chat or email at least once a week at school, browse the Internet for schoolwork almost every day, and practice and drill on computers (e.g. for foreign language or maths) at least weekly Most students with a value above 0 use email at school at least once a month, browse the Internet for schoolwork at least once a week, and practice and drill on computers (e.g. for foreign language or maths) at least once a month
  23. 23. Students who do not use computers in maths lessons score highest in mathematics 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 -2 -1 0 1 2 Scorepoints Index of computer use in mathematics lessons Source: Figure 6.7 Relationship between students’ skills in reading and computer use at school (average across OECD countries) Paper-based mathematics Computer-based mathematics Highest score OECD average
  24. 24. Almost one in five teachers in OECD countries feels a need for further training in how to use ICT in the classroom Percentage of lower secondary education teachers who report having a high level of need for professional development to improve their ICT skills for teaching Chart D8.4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Malaysia Italy Georgia Iceland Brazil Japan Sweden France Korea Israel Estonia Mexico Bulgaria Croatia Serbia Latvia Denmark SlovakRepublic Romania OECDaverage Norway Finland RussianFederation New-Zealand Netherlands CzechRepublic Spain Australia Chile Cyprus Singapore Poland Belgium(Flanders) AbuDhabi(UAE) Portugal UnitedStates England %
  25. 25. Different destinations
  26. 26. There are more vocational upper secondary graduates than ever before Trends in vocational upper secondary graduation rates (2005 and 2013) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Finland Austria Netherlands France Switzerland Slovenia Australia NewZealand CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Portugal Belgium EU21average Denmark OECDaverage Luxembourg Italy Germany Poland China Israel Sweden Norway Greece Chile Turkey Spain Indonesia RussianFederation Latvia Japan Hungary Korea Estonia Mexico Colombia Brazil Canada 2013 2005 % Chart A2.2.
  27. 27. Across OECD countries, 77% of adults with a vocational upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary attainment are employed Employment rates among adults whose highest level of education is upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary, by programme orientation (2014) 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 Iceland Sweden Switzerland Norway NewZealand UnitedKingdom Germany Denmark Netherlands Portugal CzechRepublic Australia Colombia Brazil Austria Estonia Canada OECDaverage CostaRica Finland Mexico France EU21average Belgium Russian… Israel Luxembourg Korea Hungary Chile SlovakRepublic Latvia Italy Lithuania Slovenia Ireland UnitedStates Poland Spain Turkey Vocational and general orientation Vocational orientation General orientation Chart A5.3.
  28. 28. Tertiary education
  29. 29. Some 50% of today's young people are expected to graduate from tertiary education at least once during their lifetime First-time tertiary graduation rates (2013) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Australia NewZealand Japan Denmark Slovenia Latvia UnitedStates Austria Spain Chile OECDaverage Finland Switzerland UnitedKingdom Turkey1 CzechRepublic SlovakRepublic Netherlands EU21average Norway Portugal Sweden Germany Italy Luxembourg First-time tertiary graduation rates% Chart A3.1.
  30. 30. More than 40% of students who graduated with a doctorate earned it in either science or engineering Percentage of students who graduate from sciences and engineering at doctoral level (2013) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 France Chile Canada Luxembourg Israel Sweden Estonia CzechRepublic Colombia Austria Belgium UnitedKingdom NewZealand Italy EU21average Spain Ireland OECDaverage Germany Denmark Portugal Switzerland Norway Finland UnitedStates SlovakRepublic RussianFederation Slovenia Latvia Greece Australia Korea Japan SouthAfrica Hungary Netherlands Mexico Turkey Engineering, Manufacturing & Construction Sciences Sciences and Engineering, Manufacturing & Construction (international students) Chart A3.4. %
  31. 31. More than 30% of adults are more educated than their parents Intergenerational mobility in education (2012) 22 10 16 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Korea RussianFederation Poland Finland Ireland Spain England/N.Ireland(UK) France Canada Japan Netherlands Average Flanders(Belgium) Denmark Estonia Australia Norway SlovakRepublic Italy Sweden UnitedStates CzechRepublic Germany Austria % Downward mobility (lower educational attainment than the highest level reached by parents) Upward mobility to upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary education Upward mobility to tertiary education Chart A4.1.
  32. 32. Annual spending per tertiary student ranges from USD 2 089 to USD 32 876 Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions for all services, by level of education (2012). Tertiary education Chart B1.2.T 0 2 000 4 000 6 000 8 000 10 000 12 000 14 000 16 000 18 000 20 000 22 000 24 000 26 000 28 000 Luxembourg UnitedStates Switzerland UnitedKingdom Sweden Norway Netherlands Finland Germany Japan Australia Austria Belgium France Ireland NewZealand Spain Israel Slovenia SouthAfrica Brazil CzechRepublic Italy Korea Poland Iceland Portugal SlovakRepublic Hungary Estonia Mexico Chile Turkey Latvia Colombia Indonesia OECD average 32 876
  33. 33. Between 2005 and 2012, expenditure per tertiary student increased by 10%, on average Annual expenditure per student by educational institutions in 2012 related to change since 2005. Tertiary education Chart B1.4.T USA CHE SWE NOR FIN NLD JPN FRA BEL IRE ISRESP BRA CZESVN KOR POL POR ISL CHL SVKTUR MEX EST RUS ITA HUN AUS R² = 0.0654 6 000 7 000 8 000 9 000 10 000 11 000 12 000 13 000 14 000 15 000 16 000 17 000 18 000 19 000 20 000 21 000 22 000 23 000 24 000 25 000 26 000 27 000 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Annual expenditure per student (2012, USD) Change in expenditure per student between 2005 and 2012 (%) OECD average Tertiary education OECD average
  34. 34. About 30% of spending on tertiary education comes from private sources, on average Share of private expenditure on educational institutions (2012) Chart B3.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Korea Japan Chile UnitedStates Colombia Australia NewZealand Israel Portugal Hungary Canada UnitedKingdom RussianFederation Latvia Italy Mexico OECDaverage Netherlands Indonesia Spain SlovakRepublic Poland EU21average Estonia CzechRepublic France Turkey Ireland Germany Slovenia Sweden Belgium Iceland Luxembourg Austria Norway Finland Switzerland Denmark %
  35. 35. 75% or more students in Australia, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom and the United States benefit from public loans or scholarships/grants Distribution of scholarships/grants and public loans to students in Bachelor's or equivalent level (2013-14) Chart B5.3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 UnitedKingdom Australia NewZealand UnitedStates Norway Turkey Finland France Belgium(Fl.) Italy Belgium(Fr.) Austria Switzerland % of students DO NOT benefit from public loans OR scholarships/grants benefit from public loans AND scholarships/grants benefit from scholarships/grants only benefit from public loans only benefit from public loans only or from public loans AND scholarships/grants
  36. 36. The returns to tertiary education remain strong 47
  37. 37. The employment benefit of tertiary education is significant, but not in all countries Unemployment rates, by educational attainment (2014) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 SlovakRepublic Spain Greece Lithuania Latvia CzechRepublic Ireland Poland Hungary EU21average Slovenia Italy Portugal Belgium France1 Sweden OECDaverage Finland RussianFederation1 Germany Estonia Austria Canada UnitedStates Netherlands Switzerland Turkey Denmark Australia UnitedKingdom2 Luxembourg Israel CostaRica Norway Colombia NewZealand Chile1 Iceland Brazil1 Mexico Korea Below upper secondary Upper secondary or post-secondary non-tertiary Tertiary % Chart A5.1.
  38. 38. Adults with a tertiary degree will earn 100% more than those with only below upper secondary education Difference in relative earnings for adults by level of education (upper secondary education=100) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Chile Brazil Colombia Hungary Mexico Turkey Ireland UnitedStates CzechRepublic Slovenia SlovakRepublic Poland Portugal Israel OECDaverage Luxembourg EU21average Netherlands Switzerland France Austria Japan Spain UnitedKingdom Greece Finland Korea Italy Canada Belgium NewZealand Estonia Australia Denmark Norway Below upper secondary Tertiary upper secondary education Chart A6.2.a
  39. 39. Adults with a tertiary degree will earn 100% more than those with only below upper secondary education Difference in relative earnings for adults by level of education (upper secondary education=100) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Chile Brazil Colombia Hungary Mexico Turkey Ireland UnitedStates CzechRepublic Slovenia SlovakRepublic Poland Portugal Israel OECDaverage Luxembourg EU21average Netherlands Switzerland France Austria Japan Spain UnitedKingdom Greece Finland Korea Italy Canada Belgium NewZealand Estonia Australia Denmark Norway Below upper secondary Tertiary upper secondary education Chart A6.2.a
  40. 40. The higher the level of education, the higher the relative earnings Relative earnings of tertiary-educated workers, by level of tertiary education (2013) 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 Italy Denmark Sweden Norway SlovakRepublic Finland NewZealand France Australia CzechRepublic Korea EU21average Canada UnitedKingdom OECDaverage Israel UnitedStates Portugal Austria Hungary Greece Ireland Brazil Chile Bachelor's or equivalent Master's, doctoral or equivalentIndex 450 564 Index 450 564 Chart A6.1.
  41. 41. Adults completing tertiary education benefit from substantial returns on their investment Private net financial returns for adults attaining tertiary education (2011) 0 100 000 200 000 300 000 400 000 500 000 600 000 Chile UnitedStates Poland Hungary CzechRepublic UnitedKingdom Slovenia SlovakRepublic Portugal Austria OECDaverage Netherlands Australia EU21average Germany Canada Israel Italy Finland Norway Estonia Denmark Sweden Spain NewZealand Korea Men Women Chart A7.1
  42. 42. Taxpayers benefit significantly too Public net financial returns for adults attaining tertiary education (2011) -50 000 0 50 000 100 000 150 000 200 000 250 000 300 000 UnitedStates Hungary Slovenia Germany Netherlands Italy Portugal Austria UnitedKingdom EU21average CzechRepublic Finland Australia Chile OECDaverage Poland Denmark Norway Israel SlovakRepublic Canada Switzerland Spain NewZealand Estonia Sweden Korea Men Women Chart A7.3
  43. 43. The higher the level of skills, the more likely the participation in employer-sponsored education Participation in employer-sponsored formal and/or non-formal education, by skills and readiness to use information and communication technologies for problem solving (2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Denmark Norway Finland Netherlands UnitedStates Sweden Australia England/N.Ireland (UK) Canada Estonia Average Ireland Germany CzechRepublic Flanders(Belgium) Korea Austria SlovakRepublic Japan Poland RussianFederation % Group 4 (Good ICT and problem-solving skills) Group 3 (Moderate ICT and problem-solving skills) Group 2 (Failed ICT core test or minimal problem-solving skills) Group 0 (No computer experience) Chart C6.1.
  44. 44. Internationalisation continues 61
  45. 45. OECD countries attract 73% of all foreign and international students Distribution of foreign and international students in tertiary education, by country of destination (2013) United States 19% United Kingdom 10% Australia 6% France 6% Germany 5% Russian Federation 3% Japan 3% Canada 3% China 2% Italy 2% Austria 2% Netherlands 2% Saudi Arabia 2% Spain 1% Korea 1% Turkey 1% Other OECD countries 10% Other non-OECD countries 20% Chart C4.3.
  46. 46. Students from Asia form the largest group of international students Distribution of foreign and international students in tertiary education, by region of origin (2013) Asia 53% Europe 25% Africa 8% Latin America and the Caribbean 5% North America 3% Oceania 1% Not specified 5% Chart C4.4.
  47. 47. International student enrolments vary greatly across countries International or foreign student enrolments as a percentage of total tertiary education 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Total tertiary education OECD Average OECD Average Chart C4.1. %
  48. 48. Gender differences
  49. 49. Women are more likely than men to have attained tertiary education Percentage of 25-34 year-olds who have attained tertiary education, by gender (2014) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Korea Canada RussianFederation Norway Luxembourg Ireland Israel Australia Sweden Poland Latvia UnitedKingdom Belgium UnitedStates Denmark Estonia Slovenia Netherlands France Finland Spain Iceland OECDaverage EU21average Switzerland NewZealand Greece Austria Portugal Hungary SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic SaudiArabia Japan Colombia Italy Germany Chile Mexico Turkey CostaRica Brazil Indonesia SouthAfrica % Men Women Chart A10.1
  50. 50. There is a large difference between the shares of women with bachelor's and doctoral degrees Percentage of female graduates in tertiary levels of education (2013) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Sweden Latvia Norway SlovakRepublic CzechRepublic Slovenia NewZealand Hungary SouthAfrica Portugal SaudiArabia Denmark Canada Belgium Austria EU21average Finland Italy Israel RussianFederation Australia Spain Colombia OECDaverage UnitedStates Netherlands Luxembourg UnitedKingdom Chile Mexico Indonesia China Germany Switzerland Turkey Japan Bachelor’s or equivalent Doctorate or equivalent % Chart A3.3.
  51. 51. The public benefit for a man attaining tertiary education is higher than that for a woman Public net financial returns for adults attaining tertiary education (2011) -50 000 0 50 000 100 000 150 000 200 000 250 000 300 000 UnitedStates Hungary Slovenia Germany Netherlands Italy Portugal Austria UnitedKingdom EU21average CzechRepublic Finland Australia Chile OECDaverage Poland Denmark Norway Israel SlovakRepublic Canada Switzerland Spain NewZealand Estonia Sweden Korea Men Women Chart A7.3
  52. 52. Boys tend to perform worse in school than girls Gender differences in the percentage of 15 year-olds students who are low achievers in all subjects (e.g. mathematics, reading, science) (PISA 2012) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Indonesia Brazil Colombia Mexico Chile CostaRica Israel Greece Turkey SlovakRepublic Sweden Iceland Lithuania Croatia Hungary France Portugal UnitedStates Luxembourg Italy Norway OECDaverage RussianFederation NewZealand Belgium Slovenia Spain Austria Latvia UnitedKingdom Australia CzechRepublic Denmark Germany Netherlands Switzerland Ireland Poland Canada Finland Japan Korea Estonia Girls Boys % Chart A10.2
  53. 53. The highest proportion of female teachers are concentrated in the earlier years of schooling and shrink at each successive level of education Percentage of women among teaching staff in public and private institutions, by level of education (2013) Chart D5.3 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Latvia RussianFederation Estonia Iceland Israel Slovenia Italy Hungary Sweden SlovakRepublic Norway CzechRepublic Poland Finland Austria Portugal Denmark Brazil EU21average Korea Chile OECDaverage UnitedStates Greece Germany NewZealand France Belgium UnitedKingdom Spain Luxembourg Colombia Switzerland Indonesia Mexico Turkey China Netherlands Japan Canada Ireland Lower secondary education Pre-primary education Primary education Upper secondary education All Tertiary education%
  54. 54. www.oecd.org/edu Andreas.Schleicher@oecd.org Follow us on: @OECDEduSkills @EduSkills OECD @EduSkills OECD

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