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Mahakal institute of technology

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Mahakal Institute of Technology ,Ujjain
(Affiliated with Rajiv Gandhi Prodhugiki Vishwavidhyalay ,Bhopal)
Session- 2014-20...
Introduction Of AI
Artificial Intelligence is made of Artificial +Intelligence,Artificial means the things that are
made b...
converge, including computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy and
neuroscience, as well as other ...
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  1. 1. Mahakal Institute of Technology ,Ujjain (Affiliated with Rajiv Gandhi Prodhugiki Vishwavidhyalay ,Bhopal) Session- 2014-2015 Seminar Report On Artificial Intelligence Submitted To :- Submitted By :- Prof. Ruchika Pachori Oman jangir (IT 3rd Year)
  2. 2. Introduction Of AI Artificial Intelligence is made of Artificial +Intelligence,Artificial means the things that are made by the human and Intelligence is referred as ‘The capacity to learn and solve problems’. Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. Some of the activities computers with artificial intelligence are designed for include:  Speech recognition  Learning  Planning  Problem solving Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and robots and the branch of computer science that aims to create it  the ability to solve problems  the ability to act rationally  the ability to act like humans It is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs. Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is an academic field of study which studies the goal of creating intelligence. Major AI researchers and textbooks define this field as "the study and design of intelligent agents", in which an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955,defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". The central problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence is still among the field's long-term goals. Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. There are a large number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others. The AI field is interdisciplinary, in which a number of sciences and professions
  3. 3. converge, including computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy and neuroscience, as well as other specialized fields such as artificial psychology. History of Artificial Intelligence :- 1950s : -The Beginnings of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research:- The person who finally coined the term artificial intelligence and is regarded as the father of the of AI is John McCarthy. In 1956 he organized a conference “the Dartmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence" to draw the talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence of a month of brainstorming. 1960s :- By the 1960’s, America and its federal government starting pushing more for the development of AI.AI's founders were profoundly optimistic about the future of the new field: Herbert Simon predicted that "machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man 1941 1949 1956 1958 1963 1968 1970 1972 1986 1991 FirstElectroniccomputer Computer Dartmouth Conference Start of DoD’s Advanced Research Projects FirstExpert System AI-basedhardware Sells $425millionto companies Firstcommercial storedprogram computer Logic theorist developed Lisp language detected Microworld program SHRDLU created AI military Systemsused Effectivelyin DESERT STORM
  4. 4. can do". The rise of expert systems also became popular due to the creation of Edward Feigenbaum and Robert K. Lindsay’s DENDRAL. DENDRAL had the ability to map the complex structures of organic chemicals. 1980s :- In the early 1980s, AI research was revived by the commercial success of expert systems, a form of AI program that simulated the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts. By 1985 the market for AI had reached over a billion dollars. In the 1990s and early 21st century, AI achieved its greatest successes. Artificial intelligence is used for logistics, data mining, medical diagnosis and many other areas throughout the technology industry. 1990s :- From 1990s until the turn of the century, AI has reached some incredible landmarks with the creation of intelligent agents. Intelligent agents basically use their surrounding environment to solve problems in the most efficient and effective manner. In 1995, the VaMP car drove an entire 158 km racing track without any help from human intelligence. In 1997, the first computer (named Deep Blue) beat a world chess champion. In 1999, humanoid robots began to gain popularity as well as the ability to walk around freely. After 1990’s AI has been playing a big role in certain commercial markets and throughout the World Wide Web. The more advanced AI projects, like fully adapting commonsense knowledge, have taken a back-burner to more lucrative industries. Comparision Between AI System and Human Brain – Human intelligence revolves around adapting to the environment using a combination of several cognitive processes. The field of Artificial intelligence focuses on designing machines that can mimic human behavior. However, AI researchers are able go as far as implementing Weak AI, but not the Strong AI. In fact, some believe that Strong AI is never possible due to
  5. 5. the various differences between the human brain and a computer. So, at the moment, the mere ability to mimic the human behavior is considered as Artificial Intelligence.  There are 10^12 neurons in a human brain while there are 10^8 or more transistors per cpu. A supercomputer have  In human brain synapases(10^14) connects neuron ,and there are various interconnecting device and wires in the computer.  cycle time of a human brain: 10 -3 seconds (1 millisecond),while Cycle time of a computer System: order of 10 - 9 seconds. Applications of Artificial Intelligence :- 1. Natural Language Processing 2. Speech Recognition 3. Computer Vision 4. Intelligent Robot 5. Expert Systems 1. Natural Language Processing :- Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages. As such, NLP is related to the area of human–computer interaction. Artificial Intelligence is used to design and build software that will analyze understand and generate languages that human use naturally. One of the challenges inherent in natural language processing is teaching computers to understand the way humans learn and use language. Take, for example, the sentence "Baby swallows fly." This simple sentence has multiple meanings, depending on whether the word "swallows" or the word "fly" is used as the verb, which also determines whether "baby" is used as a noun or an adjective. In the course of human communication, the meaning of the sentence depends on both the context in which it was communicated and each persons understanding of the ambiguity in human languages. This sentence poses problems for software that must first be programmed to understand context and linguistic structures. NLP is also referred to as computational linguistics. 2. Speech Recognition :-
  6. 6. In computer science and electrical engineering, speech recognition (SR) is the translation of spoken words into text. It is also known as "automatic speech recognition" (ASR), "computer speech recognition", or just "speech to text" (STT). Speech Recognition is process of converting sound signal captured by microphone or mobile/telephone to a set of words.The user communicates with the application through the appropriateinput device i.e. a microphone. The Recognizer converts the analog signalinto digital signal for the speech processing. A stream of text is generate after the processing. This source-language text becomes input to the Translation Engine ,which converts it to the target language text. 3. Computer Vision :- Computer vision is the ability of a machine to extract information from an image that is necessary to solve a task  Image Acquisition  Image Processing  Image Analysis  Image understanding Computer Vision has influenced the field of Artificial Intelligence greatly. The Robocup tournament and ASIMO are examples of Artificial Intelligence using Computer Vision to its greatest extent. The Robocup tournament is a tournament for robot dogs playing soccer. To be able to play soccer, these dogs must be able to see the ball, then react to it accordingly. Engineers of these robot dogs have been challenged to create robot dogs who can beat the best soccer players at soccer in around fifty years. ASIMO, is another example of how computer vision is an important part of Artificial Intelligence. ASIMO is a robot created by Honda, but of course, all robots need to be able to know where to move around and what is in its surroundings. To be able to do this, ASIMO uses cameras to visualize computationally what is in its surroundings, then uses it to achieve its goal. 4. Intelligent Robot :- Robotics is one branch of artificial intelligence. Robots are now widely used in factories to perform high-precision jobs such as welding and riveting. They are also used in special situations that would be dangerous for humans -- for example, in cleaning toxic wastes or defusing bombs. Tend to mimic human sensing and decision making abilities so that they can adopt themselves to certain conditions and modify their actions.
  7. 7. 5. Expert Systems :- A computer application that performs a task that would otherwise be performed by a human expert. For example, there are expert systems that can diagnose human illnesses, make financial forecasts, and schedule routes for delivery vehicles. Some expert systems are designed to take the place of human experts, while others are designed to aid them .Expert systems are part of a general category of computer applications known as artificial intelligence. To design an expert system, one needs a knowledge engineer, an individual who studies how human experts make decisions and translates the rules into terms that a computer can understand. Fields Of Aritificial Intelligence :- Computer science:  Graphical User Interface  Automatic Storage management  Object Oriented Programming  Data mining  computer gaming Telecommunication:  Automated Online Assistants  Voice dialing  Speech Recognization Aviation & Automation:  NASA's fight research centre  Voice recognition in fighter jets  Directions to A.I pilots through air traffic controllers  Automatic Gearing System in Cars Robotics:
  8. 8.  Assembling Robots  Welding Robots  Behavior based robotics  Dancing Robots  Robot navigation Daily Life Application of Artificial Intelligence :- 1. Finance - Banks use artificial intelligence systems to organize operations, invest in stocks, and manage properties. In August 2001, robots beat humans in a simulated financial trading competition. Financial institutions have long used artificial neural network systems to detect charges or claims outside of the norm, flagging these for human investigation. 2. Hospital and Medicines – A medical clinic can use artificial intelligence systems to organize bed schedules, make a staff rotation, and provide medical information and other important tasks .Artificial neural networks are used as clinical decision support systems for medical diagnosis, such as in Concept Processing technology in EMR software. 3. Heavy industry Robots have become common in many industries. They are often given jobs that are considered dangerous to humans. Robots have proven effective in jobs that are very repetitive which may lead to mistakes or accidents due to a lapse in concentration and other jobs which humans may find degrading. Japan is the leader in using and producing robots in the world. In 1999, 1,700,000 robots were in use worldwide. 4. Online and telephone customerservice An automated online assistant providing customer service on a web page.Artificial intelligence is implemented in automated online assistants that can be seen as avatars on web pages.It can avail for enterprises to reduce their operation and training cost.A major underlying technology to such systems is natural language processing.
  9. 9. Similar techniques may be used in answering machines of call centres, such as speech recognition software to allow computers to handle first level of customer support, text mining and natural language processing to allow better customer handling, agent training by automatic mining of best practices from past interactions, support automation and many other technologies to improve agent productivity and customer satisfaction. 5. Transportation Fuzzy logic controllers have been developed for automatic gearboxes in automobiles. For example, the 2006 Audi TT, VW Toureg and VW Caravell feature the DSP transmission which utilizes Fuzzy Logic. A number of Škoda variants (Škoda Fabia) also currently include a Fuzzy Logic based controller. 6. Telecommunications maintenance Many telecommunications companies make use of heuristic search in the management of their workforces, for example BT Group has deployed heuristic search in a scheduling application that provides the work schedules of 20,000 engineers. 7. Toys and games The 1990s saw some of the first attempts to mass-produce domestically aimed types of basic Artificial Intelligence for education, or leisure. This prospered greatly with the Digital Revolution, and helped introduce people, especially children, to a life of dealing with various types of Artificial Intelligence, specifically in the form of Tamagotchis and Giga Pets, iPod Touch, the Internet (example: basic search engine interfaces are one simple form), and the first widely released robot, Furby. A mere year later an improved type of domestic robot was released in the form of Aibo, a robotic dog with intelligent features and autonomy. 8. Music The evolution of music has always been affected by technology. With AI, scientists are trying to make the computer emulate the activities of the skillful musician. Composition, performance, music theory, sound processing are some of the major areas on which research in Music and Artificial Intelligence are focusing. Among these efforts, Melomics seems to be ahead by powering computer-composers that learn to compose the way humans do. 9. Aviation The Air Operations Division (AOD) uses AI for the rule based expert systems. The AOD has use for artificial intelligence for surrogate operators for combat and training simulators,
  10. 10. mission management aids, support systems for tactical decision making, and post processing of the simulator data into symbolic summaries. Pros and Cons of Artificial Intelligence Human intelligence takes account of several knowledge and skills such as reflex and understanding actions, learning, decision making, and problem solving. Lots of expert artificial intelligence professionals have planned of making machines which can copy human intelligence. This procedure has set rise to many opportunities; on the other hand the area of artificial intelligence requires being unstated from pros and cons. Pros Of Artificial Intelligence or AI 1. Tireless Performance: Doing tasks without getting tired is the significant benefits offered by artificial intelligence. With the help of false intelligence, it really likely to get a specific task finished without coffee break or lunch break. Not like human who require a break, a machine can complete a particular job completed instantly. 2. Copying is Easier: With AI copying turns into an easy job. Copying with artificial intelligence doesn’t refer to a learner copying from her seatmate in a test. As a matter fact it refers to the teaching of false mind so as to do a specific job, copying of job performance when you want. Unlike educating a huge workforce to do a particular set of jobs, teaching artificial mind to perform similar jobs is a more feasible choice. Cons Of Artificial Intelligence 1. Breakdown: The possibility of breakdown is one of the most popular disadvantages of artificial intelligence. It is like spending so much of your money on an item in order to get from one point to another and needing to agree with the concern of an item breaking down after procure. The same way as artificial intelligence, it is about the easy performance of a task, however in the case of a malfunction, it can turn the whole thing to nothing. 2. Loss of Essential Information: Aside from the possibility of breakdown, there is also the possibility of losing your essential information. In particular cases, because of the malfunction of specific parts, artificial mind can fall short to keep its memory all the files which it must have. This thing can also occur with humans. Once a person is liable of the keeping of information and collection of data and fall short to do the job, it is somewhat that is accepted and frequently branded as your mistake. On the other hand, with artificial mind it is not assumed and this really makes the entire difference, in the end making it an issue.

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