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Detailed large-scale real-time HYPERSIM EMT simulation for transient stability assessment (TSA)

  1. Detailed large-scale real-time HYPERSIM EMT simulation for transient stability assessment (TSA) Towards cloud-based real-time HIL for wide-area special control and protection system testing ACDC 2023 : Glasgow Presentation 16:10-16:30 on the 3rd March Jean Belanger President and CTO OPAL-RT TECHNOLOGIES Montreal, Canada
  2. • Founded in 1997 in Montreal, QC, Canada • 300+ employees, and growing • Thousands of users around the world • 20% of revenue re-invested in R&D • Real-time simulators for all industries to design and test control systems • Fast simulators on HPC/Cloud • The way to AI applications and digital twins OPAL-RT in brief … Built to last - 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Number of employees International Total Montreal International development (Sales, support and R&D) is essential to the growth of our Montreal Head office High-quality jobs and sustainability 325 225 100
  3. 3 ABSTRACTS: DETAILED LARGE-SCALE REAL-TIME HYPERSIM EMT SIMULATION FOR TRANSIENT STABILITY ASSESSMENT (TSA). TOWARDS CLOUD-BASED REAL-TIME HIL FOR WIDE-AREA SPECIAL CONTROL AND PROTECTION SYSTEM TESTING High penetration of inverter-based Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), widespread installation of FACTS and HVDC interconnection systems, and the decommissioning of thermal and nuclear plants are significantly reducing inertia in large-scale power systems. Fast power- electronics based control and protection schemes act to stabilize these systems, but they are sensitive to harmonics, transients, and system imbalances. It has been shown that simplified positive- sequence RMS models alone are insufficient for Transient Stability Assessment (TSA) of large-scale, low-inertia power grids. Therefore, utilities and regulators such as NERC, as well as professional associations such as CIGRE and IEEE, have begun investigating detailed EMT simulation to assess the transient stability of large-scale, low- inertia power grids that include power-electronic plant controllers. However, detailed EMT simulation of large-scale power grids for 20 to 30 second time-frames and hundreds of contingencies presents a number of computational and analytic challenges including excessive simulation time, large-scale grid data management and the unavailability of detailed and validated models of power-electronic plant controllers. Furthermore, these plant controllers, if they are provided by OEMs, are in the form of blackbox, pre-compiled DLLs, which are implemented for specific simulation tools, without any interoperability standard. 2023-03-13 This presentation will describe OPAL-RT solutions to achieve very large-scale, detailed grid EMT simulation in real-time for Hardware- in-the-Loop (HIL) / Software-in-the-Loop (SIL) control and protection testing, as well as quasi-real-time simulation for fast TSA evaluation of large-scale, low-inertia power systems. With these solutions, blackbox control and protection systems can be implemented natively in the EMT simulation tool, HYPERSIM. PSCAD DLLs can also be co-simulated with HYPERSIM using a software interface based on the CIGRE model-interoperability guidelines. Such advances will accelerate connection studies and can be used to implement cloud-native tools to help operators assess system stability with hundreds of contingencies in 5- to 10-minute time- frames. This performance can be achieved for grids having several thousand busses with a 50-microsecond time-step using a few hundred processors. As HYPERSIM runs under Windows or LINUX, powerful cloud-based applications can be implemented for TSA and to test wide area control and protection systems using SIL or HIL with real control and protection software and hardware. Communication system emulators, such as eXata can also be used to analyze cyber-attacks and countermeasures as well as to evaluate the effect of communication failures and delays on system performance.
  4. 4 KEY TAKE AWAYS  DETAILED EMT SIMULATION IS NEEDED FOR TSA: Modern power grids integrating large numbers of inverter-based resources (IBR) will become very sensitive to control system instabilities. Detailed EMT simulation will be required to analyse transient system stability (TSA) of critical low-inertia systems.  GRID STABILITY IS BECOMING A CONTROL ISSUE, NOT AN ELECTROMECHANICAL INTERACTION PROBLEM Control systems will interact with each other as well as with local protections, HVDC grids, interconnections and wide area Special Protection and Control System (SPS). These interactions will dominate the stability of low-inertia grids  BLACKBOX CONTROLLER EMULATORS HVDC and inverter-based resource models are now provided as precompiled black-box models. Utilities cannot easily develop their own models as was the case with conventional generators.  EMT SIMULATION IS REQUIRED FOR VERY LARGE GRIDS Until a better method is found, TSA will require EMT simulations to be performed over very large interconnected territories of several thousands of kilometers and hundreds of power electronic systems.  MODEL INTEROPERABILITY STANDARDS will become essential for TSA and DER interconnection and planning studies to make sure that blackbox models can be executed on different simulation platforms  BLACKBOX MODEL VALIDATION BY INDEPENDENT ORGANISATIONS WILL BE NECESSARY to ensure that models used for connections, planning and system operation studies behave the same as blackbox models provided by hundreds of OEMs, even after several controller code updates  DIGITAL TWINS: NEW EMT-BASED ON-LINE TSA TOOLS FOR SYSTEM OPERATORS MAY BE REQUIRED to help system operators to evaluate the grid stability for hundreds of contingencies  POWERFULL EMT PARALLEL SIMULATORS WILL BE NEEDED  IN-HOUSE AND PUBLIC CLOUD COMPUTERS WILL BE WELCOMED
  5. WINDOWS DLLs CAN NOW BE USED FOR HARD REAL-TIME HiL SIMULATION AND SiL  Windows DLLs models on LINUX-RT Container  No additional hardware  Microsecond performance HIL-IN-THE-CLOUD CAN NOW BE USED TO TEST ACTUAL EQUIPMENT AND SOFTWARE FOR WIDE AREA SPECIAL PROTECTION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS  Soft real-time simulation on the cloud compatible with C37.118 PMU communication protocol  Use case 1: Grid simulated on the cloud and SPS in the lab  Use case 2: Grid and SPS on the cloud for SiL GRID SIMULATION Multi-rate EMT 50us AND PMU MEASUREMENT SPS Controller Equipment in the lab C37.118 (20 millis) PSCAD to HYPERSIM INTERFACE AND UNIFIED MODEL DATA BASE ARE NOW AVALAIBLE BREAKING NEWS
  6. 6  WINDOWS DLLs CAN NOW BE USED FOR HIL HARD REAL-TIME SIMULATION WITH MICROSECOND PERFORMANCE BLACKBOX PRECOMPILED OEM CONTROLLER INTEGRATION WITH HYPERSIM Method 1: Direct integration using User Code Model interface feature Method 2: Integration using CIGRE B4 or FMU or SIMULINK interface Method 3: SiL and real-time HIL simulation using Windows precompiled DLLs OEM controller models made for PSCAD or other software using OPAL-RT LINUX Real-Time Container
  7. Integration of OEM controller code on real-time simulators and for SiL simulation Method 1 and 2: HYPERSIM NATIVE INTERFACE – CIGRE B4.42 Standard OPAL-RT provides the UCM interface to easily integrate OEM controller codes on real-time simulators - Allows to execute dozens/hundreds of controllers on a single standard simulator - Offer the best microsecond performance since our simulators are equipped with the latest INTEL processors (4GHz). Nanos performance can be achieved with FPGA-based simulation - Compatible with any C/C++ and Fortran model source code - Minimal adaptation is required to recompile the code for real-time Linux environment - Support real-time (HIL), offline and accelerated simulation (SIL) - Cluster model: Deploy code locally or on a remote computer to accelerate simulation - User could change parameters during simulation - Orchestra co-simulation framework with low-latency fabric can be used to facilitate integration - Protect and secure IP/code using black box approach  OEM controller code integrated directly in HYPERSIM or using standard interface such as Simulink/CIGRE B4.82/FMU  Require no additional hardware – controllers could be simulated on standard OPAL-RT OP4600 or OP5700 simulators
  8. Thanks to our real-time container allowing to bring windows- based code from PSCAD or other simulation software into OPAL-RT real-time simulator.  Very useful for users who don’t have access to the source code of the controls • Reuse the exact Windows and 64 bits or 32bits DLL/Library of PSCAD or other simulation software in real-time • No need to recompile the controller code on Linux • Offer microsecond performance • Save time by reusing the existing controller code developed for other software • OPAL-RT provide a tool to automatically import PSCAD controls inside HYPERSIM • HIL and SIL simulation support • Cluster model: Deploy code locally or on a remote computer to accelerate simulation • Allows to execute dozens/hundreds of controllers on a single standard simulator Integration of OEM Blackbox Windows pre-compiled controller code (HIL) METHOD 3: WITH HYPERSIM LINUX REAL-TIME CONTAINER FOR HIL SIMULATION  OEM pre-compiled PSCAD Windows DLL controller code integrated directly in HYPERSIM for real-time HIL simulation  Require no additional hardware: controllers can be simulated on available cores of standard OPAL-RT OP4610 or OP5707 simulators used to simulate the grid.
  9. OPAL-RT invites OEM to import their existing control code to HYPERSIM real-time simulator (if not done yet) • OPAL-RT offers free services to help OEM to compile and integrate controller with OPAL-RT simulation software • Optimize real-time performance • Develop user interface for custom block • Help testing software integration • Help OEM to protect their IP and codes as black box • Offer training to learn HYPERSIM and get started with controller code integration • Help to compare and validate results with several simulation software OPAL-RT also invites customers that need to integrates OEM controller into HS to contact us. • OPAL-RT offers advanced support to select best approach for the integration of controllers • OPAL-RT could help customers to involve OEM in controller integration. Integration of OEM controller code on real-time simulators: Free services offered to OEMs OPAL-RT also supports working group CIGRE B4.82 that intents to standardize interface of real-time controller code with EMT simulation software  Facilitate OEM to reuse their code in different simulation software  Facilitate OEM to develop and test their controller codes for various environment  Facilitate to support future version of simulation software  Facilitate OEM to use as much as possible actual code that is used in embedded hardware The use of such standard shall be supported and specified by all utilities
  10. SINGLE-SOURCE-OF-TRUTH CENTRALIZED MODEL DATABASE- Schematic Editor I/O Configuration HYPERSIM ePHASORSIM – CPU-based electromechanical toolbox eHS – FPGA-based electrical toolbox RT-LAB ePHASORSIM ARTEMiS – CPU-based electrical toolbox Test Scenarios Conversion tools Customer corporate DB interface Phasor EMT Integrated algorithms for model-to-model interfacing PSCAD, PSS®E, EMTP, CYME, ETAP, PowerFactory, Simulink, … Results & Analysis PSCAD, PSSe and EMTP available now Power Factory and CYME under progress Models are a key asset for TSOs
  11. 11  HIL-ON-THE-CLOUD TESTING OF COMPLEX WIDE AREA SPS USED ON VERY LARGE GRID CAN NOW TAKE ADVANTAGE OF CLOUD COMPUTING TECHNOLOGIES  Large Grid simulated on the cloud  SPS hardware in the lab  PMU signal interfaced to actual hardware using C37.118 protocol  Windows or LINUX
  12. HIL-ON-THE CLOUD Local PC/Laptop Cloud server Windows SEL Linux PC Windows Windows PMU meas (C37.118) PQVI meas (TCP) HYPERSIM (network) HYPERSIM GUI RTlab (controller) RTlab GUI Labview panel (HMI) Remote connection Virtual machine lnitiate scenario CB control (TCP) P,Q,V, I measurements (TCP) Scenario control Industrial controller (SEL) executing SIMULINK-BASED wide area control TCP SPS CONTROLLER IN THE LAB
  13. 13 DETAILED EMT SIMULATION NEEDED FOR TSA WHY EMT simulation is required for low-inertia grid – examples • Evolution of Power Grids • Transient response examples
  14. 14 Evolution of the Grid: Increasing Speed and Complexity 10 ms 50 us 5 us - High Inertia – slow reaction - Passive Distribution - Unidirectional distribution - Schedulable generation - Local, slow protection Pre-1970s 1 s Relative Complexity Transmission Distribution Time Scale
  15. 15 Evolution of the Grid: Increasing Speed and Complexity 10 ms 50 us 5 us - High Inertia – slow reaction - Passive Distribution - Unidirectional distribution - Schedulable generation - Local, slow protection - High Inertia – slow reaction - Passive Distribution - Unidirectional distribution - Schedulable generation - Fast control and protection Machine V Regulators HVDC, FACTS, SVC Control & protection - Wide-Area Control & Protection - Operates near stability limits - Communication Systems Pre-1970s Through 21st Century 1 s Transmission Distribution Time Scale
  16. 16 Evolution of the Grid: Increasing Speed and Complexity Time Scale 10 ms 50 us 5 us - High Inertia – slow reaction - Passive Distribution - Unidirectional distribution - Schedulable generation - Local, slow protection - High Inertia – slow reaction - Passive Distribution - Unidirectional distribution - Schedulable generation - Fast control and protection Machine V Regulators HVDC, FACTS, SVC Control & protection - Wide-Area Control & Protection - Operates near stability limits - Communication Systems - Low inertia – fast reaction - Active Distribution - Bi-directional distribution - Un-schedulable generation - Stability relies on interaction between: Fast Protection Systems Power Electronic Controllers HVDC, FACTS. SVC - More Wide Area Control & Comms - High dependence on communication systems. - Large numbers of power-electronics based Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) - Microgrid penetration Pre-1970s Through 21st Century Today and the Future 1 s Relative Complexity Transmission Distribution
  17. SIMULATION METHOD OVERVIEW EMT-Electromagnetic Transients Simulation Fast EMT Phasor domain Electro- mechanical Dynamic Simulation (Wide-Area) 17 RMS value Detailed waveforms EMT Phasor Power electronic control and protection functions can react to harmonic and fast transients only visible with EMT simulation
  18. WHY EMT SIMULATION FOR TSA? • The basic voltage and power control loops of power electronic system are very simple • But several additional non-linear control functions are added to improve performance during large disturbances. (may be 90% of controller/protection code is related to special functions) • Some controller include self-adaptation of controller gain to improve performance during variation of power grid short- circuit conditions and controller limiters if some components are out of services (degraded mode) • Several non-linear protection functions are added to protect components during large disturbances. These protections can react to fast transients, harmonic and unbalanced conditions • Analytical method are not yet available to analyse system stability during large disturbances • Phase-locked-loops (PLLs) used to synchronize firing pulses, must be tuned to follow the phase and frequency of the voltage as fast as possible but without reacting to transients and harmonics. Several non-linear functions are usually added to optimise the PLL dynamic behavior during fault conditions • The settings of these non-linear control and protection functions are specific to each OEM and must normally be included in the blackbox models. • Several control and protection functions have time-constants and reaction time much faster than a few milliseconds, which is out of range of simplified RMS models • Consequently, the dynamic performance and TSA of grids integrating several power electronic system cannot be done using only small-signal analysis. Large balanced and unbalanced disturbances must be analysed for several contingencies • Blackbox controller models or emulators must however be validated against field test of HIL simulation made with controller replica
  19. 19 RMS vs. EMT: HVDC Commutation Failure Source: AEMO system strength workshop RMS EMT RMS EMT RMS EMT –sustained small oscillations
  20. 20 RMS vs. EMT: Response during the South Australian Blackout 2016 Courtesy of Dr. Babak Badrzadeh EMT RMS RMS simulation stopped after islanding EMT Actual measurement
  21. SIMULATION RESULTS WITH BLACKBOX SVC CONTROLLER • Sustained fast oscillations observed in the tested scenario at the POC of one SVC plant • Results with blackbox controllers from PSCAD and HYPERSIM are superimposed About 2.8 Hz sustained oscillation
  22. SIMULATION RESULTS WITH BLACKBOX PV PLANT CONTROLLER • Sustained fast oscillations observed in the tested scenario at the POC of one PV plant About 4-Hz sustained oscillation
  23. 23  EMT SIMULATION TSA FOR VERY LARGE GRIDS IS REQUIRED  AND IS NOW POSSIBLE EMT SIMULATION OF LARGE POWER GRIDS IS NOW POSSIBLE In real-time or quasi-real-time suitable for on- line TSA analysis  EMT SIMULATION TSA FOR VERY LARGE GRIDS IS REQUIRED Until a better method is found, TSA will require EMT simulations to be performed over large interconnected territories of several thousands kilometers and hundreds of power electronic systems.  MODERN COMMERCIAL MULTI-CORE COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES ENABLE LARGE EMT GRID SIMULATION UNDER WINDOWS OR LINUX WITH HYPERSIM  EFFICIENT PARALLEL PROCESSING IS THE KEY ENABLING TECHNOLOGY – Available with HYPERSIM since more than 25 years
  24. Theoretical off-line simulation, cHIL and HIL vs Digital Twins Theoretical Off-Line simulation with Generic control models SiL Software-in-the- loop simulation with real-code controller emulation cHiL Controller Hardware- in-the-Loop Simulation with control system replica EMT Digital Twin For Transient Dynamic Stability Assessment (TSA) with real-code controller emulation System design and EMT analysis to evaluate equipment stresses, TSA for DER integration studies (planning) Detailed protection and control design and testing System operation Simulator must be initialized using state-space estimator Parallel HPC Processing nice-to-have to perform more analyses and tests in less time to increase test coverage must-have to reach real-time to interface with hardware must-have to enable TSA at each 5 to 10 minutes interval Quasi or faster-than-real-time
  25. SETUP AND RESULTS FOR THE 4000-GRID EMT SIMULATION BENCHMARK - 30s simulation in 90s wall clock time, 500-core Windows server (LINUX can also be used) - 50 us time step for the main grid - 6 or 10 us for DLL controller 1x High Performance 128-core Windows Computer 22 x High-Performance 4-GHz 18-core Computers High-speed 5-Gbps links between computer SETUP MODEL BENCHMARK Approximate number of components (3-phase) Buses (3-phase) 4,000 Lines, loads, switched shunts reactors … 6,700 Transformers and machines 2,000 Inverter-based systems (DER and energy storage systems) 150 Controllers, subsystems using real-code (precompiled DLLs) 300+ FACTS and HVDC converters 70 Protection relays 100 500+ cores PERFORMANCE IS LIMITED BY DLL CODE About 100 cores are used for the 4000-bus grid simulation and 300 cores for the DLL.
  26. CONTINIOUS RMS SIGNALS CAN BE DISPLAYED IN QUASI- REAL-TIME EVEN FOR THIS VERY LARGE 4000-BUS GRID EMT SIMULATION Standard tools actually used to analyse the stability of transients responses obtained with typical phasor/RMS dynamic stability tools can be used to analyse results from EMT simulation since fundamental (RMS) transient values computed by PMUs are available
  27. CIGRE MMC HVDC GRID Benchmark 27 Cd-E1 Cb-C2 Ba-A0 Ba-B0 Cb-D1 DC Sym. Monopole DC Bipole AC Onshore AC Offshore Cable Overhead line AC-DC Converter Station DC-DC Converter Station DCS1 200 200 200 50 300 200 200 400 500 200 300 200 200 200 200 200 100 200 100 200 DCS2 DCS3 Ba-A1 Bm-A1 Bb-A1 Cm-A1 Cb-A1 Bb-C2 Bo-C2 Bo-C1 Bm-C1 Cm-C1 Bb-D1 Bb-E1 Bb-B4 Bb-B2 Bb-B1 Bb-B1x Bm-B2 Bm-B3 Bm-B5 Bm-F1 Bm-E1 Cm-B2 Cm-B3 Cm-E1 Cm-F1 Bo-D1 Bo-E1 Bo-F1 Cd-B1 Cb-B2 Cb-B1 Ba-B1 Ba-B2 Ba-B3 This system can be simulated in real-time on CPU only at 25 us or with a multi-rate multi CPU-FPGA simulation at 500 nanoseconds. 1 2 1000 cells per leg Half-leg (or Half- arm) Leg/Arm Ce ll C el l S1 S2 R1 C D2 D1 + - 500 nanoseconds to simulate all 6000 MMC cells of an MMC converters in only one FPGA
  28. LARGE DISTRIBUTION CIRCUITS: 1000 NODES IN 4 US USING 3 FPGA 28 : 333 3-Ph RL connections : 204 3-Ph RL Loads : 340 3-Ph Bus Bars : 9 3-Ph Breaker Circuit Total NB. 3-ph RL/RC: 537  Simulated circuit triple-FPGA based Solution: Six eHS-128 Solvers
  30. … … . Electric Grid Digital Twins in the Control Room STATE ESTIMATOR Special Control and Protection System Dynamic Stability Assessment using simplified models and pre-simulated contingencies (10 to 20 millis resolution) Ts ≈ 5 to 10 minutes Optimal Power Flow, Economic dispatch, TSA… SCADA Automatic Control (SPS) Operator actions Conventional TSA using phasor-mode simulation for high-inertia power grids integrating large thermal and hydro generators
  31. … … . TSA using EMT simulation for low-inertia grid integrating a large quantity of inverter-based generation system and loads. STATE ESTIMATOR Special Control and Protection System Dynamic Stability Assessment (TSA) using simplified RMS models and pre-simulated contingencies Ts ≈ 5 to 10 minutes Risk evaluation Best scenarios Operator actions Automatic Control (SPS) SCADA HYPERSIM EMT DIGITAL TWIN (< 50 us resolution) On-Line Transient stability analysis using high-accuracy EMT models Analysis of several contingencies in parallel Ts ≈ 5 to 10 minutes TSA Initial conditions Prediction EMT Digital Twins in the Control Room for Low-Inertia Grids
  32. 32 • EMT Simulation is recommended to evaluate the stability and power transfer capability of critical low-inertia grids • Parallel computing, multidomain simulation, and model interoperability are invaluable for the implementation of EMT electrical grid digital twins - PSCAD and other simulation tool models delivered as blackboxes can now be interfaced with HYPERSIM - Windows DLLs can now be used as is without any modification for SiL and hard real-time HIL simulation on the same simulator hardware used to simulate the grid and other plants - HPC and cloud technologies can now be used for HIL testing of wide area SPS hardware and software controllers interfaced with large EMT grid models over the C37.118 protocol • Benchmarking tests have demonstrated the feasibility of high-accuracy on-line EMT digital twins for large power grids • Standards for model interoperability and test configurations need to be established - Enable transition between offline and accelerated/real-time EMT simulation as well as RMS-EMT co-simulation - Allow wide-area transient stability assessment considering highly dynamic behaviour of converter-driven DERs • Model verification by independent organisations will be needed - During HIL factory tests, commission and continuously after code modification in the field • Digital twins will be useful for system planning and operation - Enable fast prediction of grid behavior under myriad scenarios - Enable operators to be proactive, reduce downtime and improve stability Summary