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Reconstructing Grit: Potential for maladaptivity and the role of self-efficacy

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Reconstructing Grit: Potential for maladaptivity and the role of self-efficacy

  1. 1. Yong Jia Yin Paul Englert Reconstructing Grit: Potential for maladaptively and the role of self-efficacy
  2. 2. Who are ya' Yong Jia Yin Asia Manager Paul Englert Managing Director, Asia
  3. 3. Grit - The News Headlines • Grit is defined as the passion and perseverance for long-term goals, and this includes working strenuously toward challenges and maintaining effort and interest over years despite failure, adversity, and plateaus in progress (Duckworth et al., 2007). • Perseverance of effort • Consistency of interest • Upsides of grit in the literature: • Better job performance (Dugan et al., 2018) • Retention in job and marriage (Eskreis-Winkler et al., 2014) • Better academic performance (Duckworth et al., 2007)
  4. 4. Grit - The Science • Is grit just conscientiousness? (Schmidt et al., 2018) • While perseverance may add something to the construct definition, does it add anything to the criterion validity? (Credé et al., 2017) • Could too much grit be maladaptive? (Alaoui & Fons-Rosen, 2016; Lucas et al., 2015) • Are there other contributing factors? (Alhadabi & Karpinski, 2020; Multon et al., 1991) All of these questions are important for the application of Grit within an I/O context
  5. 5. The Current Study The purpose of this study is two-fold: • To examine if grit is related to the maladaptive trait of compulsivity and whether it will, in turn, be related to maladaptive behaviours; • To investigate the role of self-efficacy and its influence on grit as a construct, and whether self-efficacy has an impact on grit in producing adaptive or maladaptive outcomes.
  6. 6. Hypotheses 1. Grit will be highly correlated with conscientiousness, and also positively correlated with compulsivity. 2. Grit will be correlated with time spent on unsolvable anagrams. 3. Self-efficacy will mediate the relationship between passion for word problems and grit. 4. Self-efficacy will moderate the relationship between grit and time spent on unsolvable anagrams.
  7. 7. Methods Participants completed a 20-minute anagram task consisting of solvable and unsolvable anagrams. We measured: • Task persistence (Time spent persisting on unsolvable anagrams) • Grit • Self-efficacy • Compulsivity • Conscientiousness • Passion for word problems
  8. 8. Methods Measure of compulsivity • Compulsivity subscale of the Derailers questionnaire. (Guenole, 2015) • Measure of a non-clinical maladaptive personality traits based on the DSM-5 trait framework. (Skodol, Clark, et al., 2011) • Focuses on extreme, maladaptive variants of normal personality. • Why? Standard measures of the Big Five do not adequately capture maladaptive levels of conscientiousness; most items describe adaptive behaviours. (Haigler & Widiger, 2001; Saulsman & Page, 2004) • We needed a measure that tapped into the extreme ends of the continuum of personality, beyond the normal range.
  9. 9. Results 1. Grit correlated with conscientiousness (r=.77) and compulsivity (r=.33). 2. No significant relationship found between task persistence and grit. But task persistence was found to be negatively associated with self- efficacy (r=-.20) and passion for word problems (r=-20).
  10. 10. 3. Self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between passion and grit. 4. Self-efficacy was not found to moderate the relationship between grit and task persistence. Results Self-efficacy Passion for word problems Grit .49 (.04)*** 2.73 (.63)*** .168*
  11. 11. There may be something there, but it is early days (hence the presentation!) • Conceptually the idea of Grit makes sense. • But it appears that there is at least the potential for grit to be maladaptive, especially given the absence of environment cues and feedback. • Is there a missing piece to what makes people build and maintain passion over the long-term? • Limitations: • We are using cross sectional data, which is no place for mediation. • The measure of self-efficacy needs to be more of a scale and the match between the scale and the criterion could be stronger. • The independence of conscientiousness and maladaptive compulsivity is questionable.
  12. 12. The Key Question • Is grit essential? • Usher et al., 2019 - An examination of competing mediation models revealed that self-efficacy partially or fully mediated the relationship between grit and school outcomes. • Conversely, little evidence supported grit as a mediator of self-efficacy’s relationship to outcomes. • In essence, grit and self-efficacy are related but grit adds little to our ability to model or explain results when more fundamental constructs are applied. • The bar to add something unique to the selection or development equation is high. Everyone wants to have the new best thing as that is where the money and fame is. • The question is: beyond the constructs that we already know to be predictive, is there any incremental gain or are we simply repackaging existing concepts in new clothes? • We leave you with a question: What would Einstein do?
  13. 13. References • Alaoui, L., & Fons-Rosen, C. (2016). Know when to fold'em: The grit factor. Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra. • Alhadabi, A., & Karpinski, A. C. (2020). Grit, self-efficacy, achievement orientation goals, and academic performance in University students. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 25(1), 519-535. • Credé, M., Tynan, M. C., & Harms, P. D. (2017). Much ado about grit: a meta-analytic synthesis of the grit literature. Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 113(3), 492-511. • Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(6), 1087–1101. • Dugan, R., Hochstein, B., Rouziou, M., & Britton, B. (2019). Gritting their teeth to close the sale: the positive effect of salesperson grit on job satisfaction and performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 39(1), 81-101. • Eskreis-Winkler, L., Shulman, E. P., Beal, S. A., & Duckworth, A. L. (2014). The grit effect: Predicting retention in the military, the workplace, school and marriage. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 36. • Guenole, N. (2015). The hierarchical structure of work-related maladaptive personality traits. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 31(2), 83-90.
  14. 14. References • Haigler, E. D., & Widiger, T. A. (2001). Experimental manipulation of NEO-PI-R items. Journal of Personality Assessment, 77(2), 339-358. • Lucas, G. M., Gratch, J., Cheng, L., & Marsella, S. (2015). When the going gets tough: Grit predicts costly perseverance. Journal of Research in Personality, 59, 15-22. • Multon, K. D., Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38(1), 30. • Saulsman, L. M., & Page, A. C. (2004). The five-factor model and personality disorder empirical literature: A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 23(8), 1055-1085. • Schmidt, F. T., Nagy, G., Fleckenstein, J., Möller, J., & Retelsdorf, J. (2018). Same same, but different? Relations between facets of conscientiousness and grit. European Journal of Personality, 32(6), 705- 720. • Skodol, A. E., Bender, D. S., Morey, L. C., Clark, L. A., Oldham, J. M., Alarcon, R. D., ... & Siever, L. J. (2011). Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(2), 136- 169. • Usher, E. L., Li, C. R., Butz, A. R., & Rojas, J. P. (2019). Perseverant grit and self-efficacy: Are both essential for children’s academic success?. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(5), 877.

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Is grit just conscientiousness?
    Studies of grit have consistently shown that it is highly correlated with the Big Five trait of conscientiousness (Duckworth et al., 2007; Schmidt et al., 2018). + updated lit (Hagen & Solem, 2020)

    Could too much grit be maladaptive?
    Gritty people persevere and are not easily discouraged, and Alaoui and Fons-Rosen (2016) suggest that because of this, gritty people also have more difficulty stopping and accepting failure.
    Too high levels of grit may be dysfunctional and even maladaptive if gritty individuals persist too long in tasks where the potential or ability to succeed is not guaranteed (Credé et al., 2017).

    Self efficacy
    Hagen and Solem (2020) paper

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