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Introductory Entomology<br />Master Gardener Training<br />February 16, 2010<br />Linn and Benton Co., OR<br />Laurel Moul...
The Menu for today:<br />Basic Entomology<br />Identifying plant damage<br />Common insect orders<br />BREAK<br />Lab<br /...
Goals for today<br />Basic knowledge<br />Questions to ask<br />Resources<br />What is this ?<br />How do I fix it???<br />
Small bodies, BIG impact<br /><ul><li>waste management
nutrient cycling
crop protection
food webs
cultural value
plant propagation
entomophagy
disease transmission
destroy commodities</li></ul>Christian Grantham<br />
from Gullen & Cranston, “The insects: and outline of entomology”<br />
Basic anatomy<br />Head: <br /><ul><li>Sensory
Intake
Communication</li></ul>Thorax: <br /><ul><li>Wing attachment
 leg attachment</li></ul>Abdomen: <br /><ul><li>Digestion
Respiration
Reproduction</li></ul>Arthropods:<br />       Insects= 6 legs<br />Non insect Arthropods:<br />
What’s inside?<br />
Sensory: Visual <br />Geoff Woodard<br /><ul><li>Ocelli</li></ul>light vs. dark<br /><ul><li>Compound eyes</li></ul>Mosaic...
Chemosensory: Antennae<br />“Smell”<br />Pheromones <br />Structure = function!<br />
Chemosensory: Antennae<br />filiform<br />pectinate<br />aristate<br />clavate<br />setacious<br />serate<br />flabellate<...
Legs/tarsi<br />Vibration<br />Taste <br />Ovipositor<br />Suitable habitat<br />Egg laying preference<br />Sensory: Other...
Piercing-sucking<br />Mouthparts<br /><ul><li>Structure = Function
Variable
Modified </li></ul>sponging<br />chewing<br />siphoning<br />D.G. MacKean<br />From: A. Imms<br />
Zweibel laboratory<br />
Insect Metamorphosis<br />COMPLETE<br />SIMPLE<br />nymph – adult<br />same habitat<br />same resources<br />“adult”<br />...
What’s in a name?- Taxonomy - <br />Organizational language<br />Family  Genus species<br />Classification<br />Latin root...
Insects & plants<br />
Herbivory<br />Plant experiences:<br />Tissue loss<br />Seed reduction<br />Reduced vitality/vigor<br />Pathogens<br />Ins...
Phytophagy = plant eater<br />Polyphagous<br />Monophagous	<br />Oligophagous<br />Most specific<br />Specialists<br />1:1...
Unrelated families
1: whatever’s in the fridge</li></li></ul><li>Defoliation<br />Chewing<br />Lepidoptera, Coleoptera<br />Symptoms<br />Hol...
Ravenous plant munching can be a good thing… Biocontrol<br />Peter McEvoy<br />
Ragwort fleabeetle<br />Peter McEvoy<br />Cinnabar moth<br />Peter McEvoy<br />
Plant Mining<br />Chewing  <br />Larvae of <br />Diptera<br />Lepidoptera<br />Symptoms<br />Trails, tunnels<br />Frass<br...
Sap Suckers<br />Piercing-Sucking <br />Most life stages:<br />Homoptera<br />Heteroptera<br />Symptoms<br />discoloration...
Gall Formation<br />Piercing-sucking<br />Plant response<br />salivary fluids<br />egg laying<br />not generally harmful<b...
Common insect orders<br />
James Young 2008<br />       Coleoptera“sheath-wings”<br />Beetle<br />BEETLES<br />Chewing mouthparts<br />Complete metam...
Not all beetles have full elytra…<br />
Cabbage seed weevil<br />Cucumber beetle<br />Coleoptera: Black vine weevil<br />Potato flea beetle<br />James Young 2007<...
<ul><li>Wire worm
Seed weevil
Spotted cucumber     beetle</li></ul>Mark Gray<br />Ground beetle larva <br />NOT wire worm<br />Mark Fowler 2005<br />
Black vine weevil<br />
Black vine weevil<br />Chris Adam 2007<br />B. Anderson and M. Reding 2009<br />
Box elder bug<br />Heteroptera<br />“different-winged“<br /><ul><li>TRUE BUGS
Piercing-Sucking mouthparts
Simple metamorphosis
Front wing is divided
 thickened at base
 membranous at tip
Scutellum</li></li></ul><li>  Pest Alert:<br />Brown Marmorated Stink Bug<br />Peter Shear<br />Peter Shear<br />James LaB...
Identification:<br />Brown Marmorated Stink Bug<br />Can be confused with:<br />Rough Stink Bug<br />
Identification:<br />Brown Marmorated Stink Bug<br />Can be confused with:<br />Rough Stink Bug<br />Pro thorax<br />Prono...
Azalea lace bug<br />Identifying character: lacy wings!<br />Damage: extensive leaf stippling<br />Photos: Robin Rosetta<b...
Homoptera<br />“same-winged“<br /><ul><li> APHIDS, WHITEFLIES, SCALES, PLANT HOPPERS, CICADAS
Piercing-Sucking mouthparts                         </li></ul> - Vector disease<br /><ul><li> Wings with uniform texture</...
     Aphids!<br />WSU Whatcom Co. Extension<br />Blueberry scorch virus<br />= disease vector!<br />Cornicles = Aphid<br /...
Diptera“two-wings”<br />FLIES<br />Chewing, often modified<br />Sponging (cutting)<br />Piercing-sucking<br />Complete met...
Apple maggot<br /><ul><li>Red sphere trap+lure</li></ul>NEW PEST ALERT…<br />Canadian ministry of Ag.<br />Cal extension<b...
Fungus gnat<br />Debbie Roos NC extenstion<br />Goldenrod <br />gall fly<br />W. Abrahamson and P. Heinrich<br />
Spotted winged drosophila<br />Spotted Wing Drosophila<br />D. Bruck 2009<br />M. Hauser, CDFA<br />Mike Reitmajer 2009<br />
Drosophila suzukii locations in Oregon, 2011<br />Confirmed locations from collected fruits or trapping by ODA, APHIS and ...
Guidelines for Monitoring Adult SWD Presence<br />Clear container with lid, ~10 holes (3/16”) around the side of container...
Spotted Winged Drosophila<br />Drosophila suzukii, an invasive pest<br />of berry and stone fruits<br />Oregon Non-Commerc...
    Fill out the online excel record sheet and email  to :  SWD.OREGON@GMX.COM</li></ul>Found on SWD website, For Gardener...
Orthoptera<br />“long-winged“<br /><ul><li> GRASSHOPPERS, KATYDIDS, CRICKETS
 Chewing
 Simple metamorphosis
Characteristic legs</li></ul> - Hind leg= modified for jumping, <br /> - thickened femur<br /> - sound production<br /><ul...
Isoptera<br />“similar-winged“<br /><ul><li> TERMITES
Chewing
Structural pests
Beaded antennae
Social castes</li></ul> - colonies<br /> - queen, workers<br />© Lucas Raptis 2008<br />photo: Kevin Hall 2008<br />
Thysanoptera“fringe-wing”<br />THRIPS<br />Sucking or rasping-sucking<br />Intermediate development <br />wings develop in...
Feed on flowers, fruit, leaves, twigs, buds<br />Disease vectors<br />A.M Varela<br />
Butterflies of Singapore<br />Glen K. Peterson<br />Lepidoptera: Butterflies & moths“scale-wings”<br />Long proboscus: sip...
Cabbage Looper<br />Indian meal moth<br />Peach tree borer<br />
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Basic Entomology

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Basic Entomology

  1. 1. Introductory Entomology<br />Master Gardener Training<br />February 16, 2010<br />Linn and Benton Co., OR<br />Laurel Moulton<br /> --Graduate Student -- <br />Oregon State University<br />
  2. 2. The Menu for today:<br />Basic Entomology<br />Identifying plant damage<br />Common insect orders<br />BREAK<br />Lab<br />Beneficial insects<br />Habitat<br />
  3. 3. Goals for today<br />Basic knowledge<br />Questions to ask<br />Resources<br />What is this ?<br />How do I fix it???<br />
  4. 4. Small bodies, BIG impact<br /><ul><li>waste management
  5. 5. nutrient cycling
  6. 6. crop protection
  7. 7. food webs
  8. 8. cultural value
  9. 9. plant propagation
  10. 10. entomophagy
  11. 11. disease transmission
  12. 12. destroy commodities</li></ul>Christian Grantham<br />
  13. 13. from Gullen & Cranston, “The insects: and outline of entomology”<br />
  14. 14. Basic anatomy<br />Head: <br /><ul><li>Sensory
  15. 15. Intake
  16. 16. Communication</li></ul>Thorax: <br /><ul><li>Wing attachment
  17. 17. leg attachment</li></ul>Abdomen: <br /><ul><li>Digestion
  18. 18. Respiration
  19. 19. Reproduction</li></ul>Arthropods:<br /> Insects= 6 legs<br />Non insect Arthropods:<br />
  20. 20. What’s inside?<br />
  21. 21. Sensory: Visual <br />Geoff Woodard<br /><ul><li>Ocelli</li></ul>light vs. dark<br /><ul><li>Compound eyes</li></ul>Mosaic<br />Movement<br />UV detection<br />Bjorn Roslett<br />Photo credits: Univ. of Wisconsin Dept. of Entomology<br />
  22. 22. Chemosensory: Antennae<br />“Smell”<br />Pheromones <br />Structure = function!<br />
  23. 23. Chemosensory: Antennae<br />filiform<br />pectinate<br />aristate<br />clavate<br />setacious<br />serate<br />flabellate<br />
  24. 24. Legs/tarsi<br />Vibration<br />Taste <br />Ovipositor<br />Suitable habitat<br />Egg laying preference<br />Sensory: Other<br />Stanislav Georb<br />
  25. 25. Piercing-sucking<br />Mouthparts<br /><ul><li>Structure = Function
  26. 26. Variable
  27. 27. Modified </li></ul>sponging<br />chewing<br />siphoning<br />D.G. MacKean<br />From: A. Imms<br />
  28. 28. Zweibel laboratory<br />
  29. 29. Insect Metamorphosis<br />COMPLETE<br />SIMPLE<br />nymph – adult<br />same habitat<br />same resources<br />“adult”<br />winged<br />reproductive<br />egg – larva – pupa - adult<br />different habitats<br />often different diet<br />advantages ?<br />parasitism<br />adults may not feed<br />Invasive.org<br />
  30. 30. What’s in a name?- Taxonomy - <br />Organizational language<br />Family Genus species<br />Classification<br />Latin roots: “-ptera”,“hemi-”,“holo-”<br />Directional<br />dorsal, ventral<br />anterior, posterior<br />basal, apical<br />
  31. 31. Insects & plants<br />
  32. 32. Herbivory<br />Plant experiences:<br />Tissue loss<br />Seed reduction<br />Reduced vitality/vigor<br />Pathogens<br />Insect receives:<br />Nutrition<br />Growth<br />Habitat<br />
  33. 33. Phytophagy = plant eater<br />Polyphagous<br />Monophagous <br />Oligophagous<br />Most specific<br />Specialists<br />1:1<br />More broad<br />Related genera<br />1: a few<br /><ul><li>a.k.a Generalists
  34. 34. Unrelated families
  35. 35. 1: whatever’s in the fridge</li></li></ul><li>Defoliation<br />Chewing<br />Lepidoptera, Coleoptera<br />Symptoms<br />Holes<br />Skeletonizing<br />Defoliation<br />Univ. of Kentucky<br />D G Mackean<br />
  36. 36. Ravenous plant munching can be a good thing… Biocontrol<br />Peter McEvoy<br />
  37. 37. Ragwort fleabeetle<br />Peter McEvoy<br />Cinnabar moth<br />Peter McEvoy<br />
  38. 38. Plant Mining<br />Chewing <br />Larvae of <br />Diptera<br />Lepidoptera<br />Symptoms<br />Trails, tunnels<br />Frass<br />Secondary infections<br /> Univ. of Hawaii<br />USDA-APHIS<br />
  39. 39. Sap Suckers<br />Piercing-Sucking <br />Most life stages:<br />Homoptera<br />Heteroptera<br />Symptoms<br />discoloration<br />reduced vigor <br />wilting, curling<br />spittle<br />Disease transmission<br />D G Mackean<br />APSnet.org<br />
  40. 40. Gall Formation<br />Piercing-sucking<br />Plant response<br />salivary fluids<br />egg laying<br />not generally harmful<br />Hymenoptera, Homoptera<br />Symptoms on<br />leaves<br />stems/twigs<br />flowers<br />Univ. Of Wisc.onsin<br />Ohio State Univ.<br />Oregon BLM<br />
  41. 41. Common insect orders<br />
  42. 42. James Young 2008<br /> Coleoptera“sheath-wings”<br />Beetle<br />BEETLES<br />Chewing mouthparts<br />Complete metamorphosis<br />Elytra<br />hardened/leathery front wings <br />Largest order if insects<br />Sam Houston 2009<br />
  43. 43. Not all beetles have full elytra…<br />
  44. 44. Cabbage seed weevil<br />Cucumber beetle<br />Coleoptera: Black vine weevil<br />Potato flea beetle<br />James Young 2007<br />
  45. 45. <ul><li>Wire worm
  46. 46. Seed weevil
  47. 47. Spotted cucumber beetle</li></ul>Mark Gray<br />Ground beetle larva <br />NOT wire worm<br />Mark Fowler 2005<br />
  48. 48. Black vine weevil<br />
  49. 49. Black vine weevil<br />Chris Adam 2007<br />B. Anderson and M. Reding 2009<br />
  50. 50. Box elder bug<br />Heteroptera<br />“different-winged“<br /><ul><li>TRUE BUGS
  51. 51. Piercing-Sucking mouthparts
  52. 52. Simple metamorphosis
  53. 53. Front wing is divided
  54. 54. thickened at base
  55. 55. membranous at tip
  56. 56. Scutellum</li></li></ul><li> Pest Alert:<br />Brown Marmorated Stink Bug<br />Peter Shear<br />Peter Shear<br />James LaBonte<br />
  57. 57. Identification:<br />Brown Marmorated Stink Bug<br />Can be confused with:<br />Rough Stink Bug<br />
  58. 58. Identification:<br />Brown Marmorated Stink Bug<br />Can be confused with:<br />Rough Stink Bug<br />Pro thorax<br />Pronotum<br />Shoulders<br />
  59. 59. Azalea lace bug<br />Identifying character: lacy wings!<br />Damage: extensive leaf stippling<br />Photos: Robin Rosetta<br />
  60. 60. Homoptera<br />“same-winged“<br /><ul><li> APHIDS, WHITEFLIES, SCALES, PLANT HOPPERS, CICADAS
  61. 61. Piercing-Sucking mouthparts </li></ul> - Vector disease<br /><ul><li> Wings with uniform texture</li></ul>- Held tent-like over body<br /><ul><li>Many plant pests</li></ul>Robin Rosetta<br />UC IPM<br />Eric Matthews<br />
  62. 62. Aphids!<br />WSU Whatcom Co. Extension<br />Blueberry scorch virus<br />= disease vector!<br />Cornicles = Aphid<br />WSU Whatcom Co. Extension<br />Barley yellow dwarf virus<br />
  63. 63. Diptera“two-wings”<br />FLIES<br />Chewing, often modified<br />Sponging (cutting)<br />Piercing-sucking<br />Complete metamorphosis<br />One pair of wings<br />Hind “wings” reduced: Halter<br />
  64. 64. Apple maggot<br /><ul><li>Red sphere trap+lure</li></ul>NEW PEST ALERT…<br />Canadian ministry of Ag.<br />Cal extension<br />Beet leaf miner<br />Crane fly<br />A. Schattmann<br />
  65. 65. Fungus gnat<br />Debbie Roos NC extenstion<br />Goldenrod <br />gall fly<br />W. Abrahamson and P. Heinrich<br />
  66. 66. Spotted winged drosophila<br />Spotted Wing Drosophila<br />D. Bruck 2009<br />M. Hauser, CDFA<br />Mike Reitmajer 2009<br />
  67. 67. Drosophila suzukii locations in Oregon, 2011<br />Confirmed locations from collected fruits or trapping by ODA, APHIS and OSU<br />
  68. 68. Guidelines for Monitoring Adult SWD Presence<br />Clear container with lid, ~10 holes (3/16”) around the side of container<br />1.5-2 inches of solution<br />Real apple cider vinegar + small drop of unscented liquid dish soap<br />Service traps weekly<br />Hang from plant or stake in shade at fruiting level in the canopy, out of wind<br />Place as many traps in your susceptible crops as you can reasonably maintain<br />Pay particular attention to high risk areas<br />Diverse field edges with ample shade<br />Deploy traps just prior to fruit coloring<br />Count and record the number of male SWD weekly<br />*Watch website for regional detections of SWD<br />
  69. 69. Spotted Winged Drosophila<br />Drosophila suzukii, an invasive pest<br />of berry and stone fruits<br />Oregon Non-Commercial Homeowners<br />Backyard Management Guide<br />Backyard Gardener Monitoring<br />To share your information with OSU researchers, make sure to provide as much of the requested information as possible.<br /><ul><li>Report any findings of SWD adults and larvae in fruit to your nearest extension office
  70. 70. Fill out the online excel record sheet and email to : SWD.OREGON@GMX.COM</li></ul>Found on SWD website, For Gardeners<br />http://swd.hort.oregonstate.edu<br />
  71. 71. Orthoptera<br />“long-winged“<br /><ul><li> GRASSHOPPERS, KATYDIDS, CRICKETS
  72. 72. Chewing
  73. 73. Simple metamorphosis
  74. 74. Characteristic legs</li></ul> - Hind leg= modified for jumping, <br /> - thickened femur<br /> - sound production<br /><ul><li> Not much of a pest on west side…</li></ul>©Red Planet Inc. <br />
  75. 75. Isoptera<br />“similar-winged“<br /><ul><li> TERMITES
  76. 76. Chewing
  77. 77. Structural pests
  78. 78. Beaded antennae
  79. 79. Social castes</li></ul> - colonies<br /> - queen, workers<br />© Lucas Raptis 2008<br />photo: Kevin Hall 2008<br />
  80. 80. Thysanoptera“fringe-wing”<br />THRIPS<br />Sucking or rasping-sucking<br />Intermediate development <br />wings develop in 3rd larval stage<br />Go through pupal stage<br />4 wings fringed with hair<br />Sample: yellow sticky card<br />TX A&M extension<br />Bumblebee.org<br />
  81. 81. Feed on flowers, fruit, leaves, twigs, buds<br />Disease vectors<br />A.M Varela<br />
  82. 82. Butterflies of Singapore<br />Glen K. Peterson<br />Lepidoptera: Butterflies & moths“scale-wings”<br />Long proboscus: siphoning<br />Complete metamorphosis<br />2 pairs of wings<br />Butterfly wings upright at rest<br />Moth wings flat at rest<br />
  83. 83. Cabbage Looper<br />Indian meal moth<br />Peach tree borer<br />
  84. 84. Cabbage butterfly<br />Cabbagelooper<br />OSU IPPC<br />NM extension<br />TX A&M extension<br />Love Apple Farm 2008<br />
  85. 85. Cutworms: Black spotted cutworm<br />Photos: OSU IPPC<br />Robin Rosetta<br />
  86. 86. Other common cutworms…<br />Black cutworm<br />NOT a cutworm: What is it? Why?<br />Glassy cutworm<br />
  87. 87. Other common cutworms…<br />Black cutworm<br />NOT a cutworm: What is it? Why?<br />Glassy cutworm<br />No legs!<br />Ruffly posterior<br />
  88. 88. WSU extension<br />Coddling Moth<br />Doug Wilson USDA-ARS<br />Apple maggot<br />
  89. 89. Be on the lookout for: Light brown apple moth<br />D. Williams<br />
  90. 90. Class: Isopoda“same foot”<br /><ul><li> PILL-BUGS, ROLY-POLYS, SOWBUGS
  91. 91. “non-insect arthropod”
  92. 92. Habitat:
  93. 93. moist, damp, dark
  94. 94. soil macrofauna
  95. 95. Scavengers =
  96. 96. plant tissue
  97. 97. detritus</li></li></ul><li>Symphyla“”<br />Garden symphylans<br />Related to millipedes<br />3-6mm long<br />Feed on fine roots and germinating seeds<br />7-8 per shovel= pest<br />Sampling with potato…<br />
  98. 98. Arachnida“spider”<br />spiders, mites, ticks, scorpions<br />Two body segments<br />4 pairs of legs<br />Bio-bee.com<br />
  99. 99. Mites<br />Spruce spider mite<br />European red mite<br />Canadian ministry ofagriculture<br />Jack DeAngeles<br />UC Georgia<br />Spider mite<br />Maple Gall mite<br />Ronald S. Kelly<br />
  100. 100. Hobo??<br />Giant house spider??<br />D. Hagon<br />
  101. 101. NOT a Hobo<br />D. Boe<br />NOT a Hobo<br />NOT a Hobo<br />David Phillips<br />Maybe a Hobo<br />R. Vetter<br />
  102. 102. Black widow<br />Most poisonous spider in Oregon<br />Less than 1% of bites result in death<br />Dark places: wood piles, basements, garages<br />ID characteristic: red hourglass on females<br />False black widow: no red markings<br />
  103. 103. Break time!<br />
  104. 104. Beneficial insects<br />
  105. 105. Lee R. 2007<br />Dave Ingram<br />
  106. 106. Predatory mites<br />Denis Crawford<br />
  107. 107. Neuroptera<br />“net-wing”<br />LACEWING<br />
  108. 108. Mantodea<br /><ul><li>PRAYING MANTIS
  109. 109. Predators!
  110. 110. Simple metamorphosis</li></ul> - Ootheca – Nymph – Adult<br /><ul><li>Raptorial foreleg
  111. 111. Business of Bugs</li></ul>Lance Cromwell<br />©2004 V.J.Hickey<br />
  112. 112. <ul><li>Big eyed bug
  113. 113. Minute pirate bug
  114. 114. Crab spider
  115. 115. Hover fly</li></ul>Jack Dykinga<br />Jack Dykinga<br />Pamela Martin<br />
  116. 116. Hymenoptera “membrane wing”<br />WASPS, BEES, SAWFLIES, ANTS<br />Chewing, lapping<br />Complete metamorphosis<br />4 membranous wings<br />Ovipositor often modified into stinger <br />Beneficial services:<br />Pollinators<br />Parasitoids<br />mutualism<br />Dan Perlman<br />©Red Planet Inc. <br />©Red Planet Inc. <br />
  117. 117. What are these?<br />
  118. 118. Parasitoid wasps<br /><ul><li>What is the difference between a Parasite and parasitoid??
  119. 119. Parasite = host survives
  120. 120. Parasitoid = host is killed
  121. 121. All life stages are targeted
  122. 122. Egg
  123. 123. Larvae
  124. 124. Pupae
  125. 125. Adult
  126. 126. Hyperparasitoidism</li></ul>© Dwight Kuhn<br />©Red Planet Inc. <br />
  127. 127. Pollinators: beyond honey bees<br />
  128. 128. Pollination<br />Diptera , Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera<br />Bats, birds…<br />Specificity<br />corolla structure<br />nectar timing<br />co-evolution?<br />Cheating<br />Visit ≠ pollination<br />Nectar thieves<br />James Altland, OSU<br />Yoshioka et al., 2005<br />
  129. 129. Diptera<br /><ul><li>Syrphid flies
  130. 130. Adults
  131. 131. pollinate
  132. 132. feed on nectar
  133. 133. Larvae
  134. 134. predacious
  135. 135. 1 can consume >100 aphids per month</li></li></ul><li>Go to native bee slides…<br />
  136. 136. Habitat: Conservation Biocontrol<br />Be careful with pesticides<br />Provide alternative habitat<br />Shelter<br />Pollen<br />nectar<br />Alternative prey<br />
  137. 137. Carrot family: <br />Lovage<br />Lomatium<br />G.D. Car 2007<br />Angelica<br />Cilantro/Coriander<br />
  138. 138. Cosmos<br /> Tom Adams 2005<br />Goldenrod<br />Chamomile<br />Oregon sunshine<br /> Native seed network<br />
  139. 139. Habitat:<br />Plant flowers… try some natives<br />Let some of your salad mix go to seed!<br />Flowers from mustards & cabbages beneficial<br />Leave “beetle banks” in farm fields<br />Diverse structure<br />Water<br />Hiding places<br />
  140. 140. Resources!<br />Don’t forget the resource handout!<br />

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