1. Social Media for Brand Awareness:
Implementing the Technology Acceptance Model to Examine
the Attitudes in the Architectural Engineering Business
31st International Business Research Conference
Ryerson University - Toronto
Dr. Oday Aswad
Mobile: +1 (613) 276 1391; +971 50 3156987
2. The Intent of This Research
To examine… the attitudes of marketing managers
Towards… incorporating social media
Into… the business of Architectural Engineering
Because… this business relies on Brand Awareness and
networking for marketing, which social media
can amplify via the high speed of transfer and
viral capability of reaching.
Architectural Engineering (Arch/Eng.)
The Marketing Activity
The Suggested Tool
3. The Managerial Attitude
Managers apply the visions or the leaders. Managers are the most influencing in the decision making process.
“Managers’ decisions depend great deal on their own perceptions of risks and order of predictability of events”. Alrafi
(2009, pp. 49-54)
Managers risk-averse and resource oriented. They organize, control, recruit the staff and put the budget. Mintzberg
4. How managers should Re-Think their way to deal with social media.
To explain the influence on the managerial attitude towards social media.
To survey the selected sample of Arch/Eng. Firms’ managers in Dubai.
To select & develop a model that can assist to examine the attitude of Arch/Eng. managers.
To summarize and classify perceived risks and benefits Arch/Eng. Managers to integrate social media into business.
The Research Agenda
5. The Literature Review
• Risks – Benefits Analysis
• Risks & Benefit categories based on Past literature of the
Social & Cultural
Network Expansion &
Client & Audience
Security & Privacy
6. The Literature Review
• Selecting & Developing the Research Model
• Attitude is the output, similar inputs & pervious
1- Theory of Reasoned Action – TRA
2- Theory of Planned Behavior - TPB
3- Technology Acceptance Model - TAM
4- Technology Acceptance Model Two - TAM2
5- Technology Readiness Index – TRI
6- The Technology Readiness Acceptance Model – TRAM
7- The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology – UTAUT
7. The Research Methods
• Technology Acceptance Model - TAM
• The Original Model
Model – TAM
by Davis et al. (1989)
Davis’s model focused on
“Perceived Usefulness and
perceived Ease of Use as
fundamental determinants” Perceived
The Attitude The
8. The Literature Review
• Risks – Benefits Analysis
• Suggested Risks categories based on influence on
the Arch/Eng. Business
Perceived Business Risks
Perceived Operational Risks
(Time, cost and
9. The Research Methods
• Technology Acceptance Model - TAM
• Related Extensions
Extended TAM model by Choi and Chung. (2013)
Perceived Risk Facets by
(Crespo, et al., 2009)
10. The Proposed Model
The newly extended constructs
Choi & Chung (2013)
Social MediaPerceived Ease of
11. The Research Methods
• Model Validation
• According to similar studies in the past
Face & Content Validity:
Construct Reliability & Validity
To import validated question items from past literature’s question pools that are related to each construct.
To interview industry executives to evaluate the question items’ fitness for the purpose of this research.
To use Likert’s scale of five levels of agreement to represent the experts’ evaluation.
To conduct a Pilot survey to a minimum sample
12. The Research Methods
• The Population, Sample & Demographics of the sample
Firm’s Size (Number
1 – 25 66
26 – 100 131
More than 100 23
Table – 1:
Unlimited floors 123
G + 12 floor 43
G + 4 floor 50
G + 1 floor 4
Table – 2:
471 Arch/Eng. firms which are actively operating as per Dubai Municipality.
264 firms agreed to participate in the main survey. Calculated for a confidence level of 95% and marginal error of 4%
220 managed to complete the questionnaire. 83.3% of response rate.
13. The Research Findings
• Representation of the Explanatory Power
• The Explanation of Influence
Attitude towards Social Media 0.765Perceived Ease of Use 0.732
Perceived Usefulness 0.665
Perceived Operational Risks Perceived Business
14. The Research Findings
• The Resulted Formulae
where PEOU = Perceived Ease of Use; PU = Perceived Usefulness; SN = Subjective Norm; PSC = Perceived Social
Capital; Err = Error Variance
Attitude = -0.236 (Business) + 0.25 (PEOU) + 0.149 (PU) + 0.318 (SN) + err
PU = 0.463 (PSC) + 0.398 (PEOU) + err
PEOU = -0.427 (Operational Risks) + 0.475 (PSC) + err
16. The Research Findings
• Descriptive Analysis
• The Experts’ feedback
That the understandability applies only for the personal level. while on the commercial level, the experts
believed the other way around.
The disagreement regarding the level of staff delegation to undertake social media communication on
behalf of the firm, was attributed to different cultural and security backgrounds.
The disagreement regarding the Time management was attributed to the lack of policies and training.
17. Conclusions & Recommendations
• Reputation and Audience’s Opinion
The Attitude was 76.5% explained by the proposed model
Only Two constructs explained 55.4% of managers’ attitude towards social media. Business Risks &
Managers perceived audience’s perspective about the firm, as essential.
•The audience’s perspective was a common priority existed within both constructs.
Managers perceived the reputational and security risks as the most concerning
•Those concerns had the maximum level of agreement by managers (PR_SOC_1, PR_SEC_1 and PR_SEC_3 ) showing a 100% agreement
18. Conclusions & Recommendations
• Prepare your firm to get the Benefits
Managers acknowledged the benefits of social media and linked them with ability to handle it.
•Firms acknowledged that they have to be prepared in terms of the availability of workforce and acquiring technical capabilities by which firms
would consider social media easy to use.
Managers had comparable perceptions regarding Operational risks and benefits of social media.
•Manager were not over-attracted to engaging with social media, but at the same time they were not intimidated either.
•Managerial perceptions of the Ease of Use can be influenced by operational concerns like time at work and availability of staff.
Managers admitted the need to policies and training to implement social media into their business.
•Policies are needed to govern the usage of social media at work and on behalf of the firm. While training is needed to master social media at a
Managers perceived their staff as unprepared to communicate the firm’s audience.
•In terms of technical, marketing and security awareness. While reputational concerns were emphasized regarding staff delegation.