Wood is the hard fibrous lignified substance under the bark of tree. This
fibrous material make up to greater part of the stems and branches of tree
and shruby plant, and is found to ales extent in herbaceous stem.
4. I) Physical properties of wood
The physical properties of wood such as size,
color, density etc. determines the uses of wood
1) Size : the size of wood depends upon the
age of trees.
2) Colour : color is the visual sensation
produced by the light on the eye. The colour
of wood helps
5. I)Physical properties of wood
3) Luster : Luster is the ability of the object to reflect the light. The wood showing
good luster is used in furniture industries.
4) Odour : If refers the fragrance emitted from the wood.
Ex. Sandal wood
5) Density and weight : The density is the weight of unit volume of the material.
6. II) Chemical properties of wood
Wood contains two types of chemical components
I) Cell wall substances : Cell wall substances are insoluble in neutral solvents which are also
called as wood substances. Cell wall components of cell wall and comprise of cellulose, other
polysaccharides and lignin. Cellulose forms the skeleton of the cell walls and it constitutes 40
to 50% of wood.
II) Extraneous substances : The extraneous substance are extractable by solvents. These are
varied in nature of inorganic and organic composition. The inorganic composition substances
include pure salts and salts of organic acids . The various organic constituents are as below :
7. II) Extraneous substances :
A) Essential oils : in wood ranged from 1-12 % . The oil in the wood is extracted by steam distillation ,
solvent extraction or destructive distillation .
B) Wood resins : Are found in the intercellular passages in cell wall and in the interior of the cells. They
are composed of resin acids and fatty acids. The amount of resin varies from 0.8 to 25% in softwood
and from 0.7 to3% in hard wood .
Oleo resin contains about 66% resin acids, 25% turpentine and the rest as non volatile neutral material
called “Gum Resin”. It is used in paper , soap, paint, varnish and pharmaceuticals industries .
Wood rosin is obtained from aged stump by first distilling turpentine by steam distillation and later
extracting it with gasoline or benzene.
Tall oil is a mixture of free fatty and resin acids equal proportion and 10% neutral material.
8. II) Extraneous substances :
C) Dyes and tans : Dyes and tans are obtained from certain wood e.g. red
sandars , Khair.
D) Carbohydrate components : Includes various polysaccharide present in the
wood and cell wall and fluids . These are simple carbohydrates , sugars,
9. III) Mechanical properties
I) Strength : refers to the mechanical properties of wood . Simply it describe the
ability of the wood to withstand the various stresses such as tension and
II) Hardness : refers to the resistance of wood to penetration by any other body.
III)Flexibility : of the wood enables the wood to bend out of shape without any
IV) Elasticity : of the wood enable it to regain its original shape after the external
forces is released .
V) Aptitude for being worked : is the property of wood which enables it to with
stand the stresses and impacts of machine working at high speed.
VI) Durability : of wood indicates the service life of wood.
A skilled craftsperson who performs carpentry. Carpenters work with wood to
construct, install and maintain buildings, furniture, and other objects.
12. Types and Occupations
I) Finish carpenter : - is one who does finish carpentry; that is,
cabinetry, furniture making, fine woodworking, model building,
instrument making, parquetry, joinery, or other carpentry where
exact joints and minimal margins of error are important.
II) Trim carpenter : specializes in molding and trim, such as door
and window casings, mantels, baseboard, and other types of
III)Cabinetmaker : - is a carpenter who does fine and detailed work,
specializing in the making of cabinets made from wood,
wardrobes, dressers, storage chests, and other furniture designed
13. Types and Occupations
IV) Ships carpenter : specializes in shipbuilding, maintenance, and
repair and carpentry specific to nautical needs.
V) Scenic carpenter : - in film – making , TV, and the theater builds
and dismantles temporary scenery and sets.
VI) Framer : - is a carpenter that builds the skeletal structure or
framework of buildings.
VII) Framework carpenter : - creates the shuttering and false work
used in concrete construction.
14. Wood is one of the major building materials used by
humans throughout our existence.
17. Common Softwoods Used for
Cedars are strong, aromatic softwoods that are capable of enduring outdoor
elements, the most common of which is the Western Red Cedar. Western Red Cedar
can sustain wet environments without succumbing to rot, and as a result is
commonly used for outdoor projects such as patios, outdoor furniture, and building
exteriors. This wood can be easily found at most home centers for a moderate price.
Fir, also known as Douglas Fir, is very inexpensive and common at local home
centers. It has a characteristic straight, pronounced grain with a red-brown tint.
However, its grain pattern is relatively plain and it does not stain well, so Fir is
commonly used when the finished product will be painted. While commonly used
for building, this softwood would also be suitable for furniture-making.
18. Common Hardwoods Used for Furniture
This hardwood is relatively easy to work with and takes stain well, but its white to light brown color with a
straight grain is visually appealing on its own. However, ash is much more difficult to find than other
common woods, and won’t be found at the local home center. Larger lumber yards should have it in stock.
Whether yellow or white birch, these hardwoods are stable and easy to work with. Despite this, Birch is
prone to blotching when stained, so painting birch products is probably best. Birch is easily found at many
home centers and is a relatively inexpensive hardwood.
Popular and easy to work with, cherry is in high demand for its reddish-brown color and ease of staining and
finishing. Cherry likely won’t be at the local home center, but should be at a lumberyard for a somewhat
expensive price. This hardwood is a very common material for furniture, and is resistant to normal wear-
and-tear, but it is best for indoor pieces.
19. Common Hardwoods Used for Furniture
A hardwood, mahogany has a trademark reddish-brown to deep-red tint and is known as “one of the great
furniture woods.” However, mahogany is not typically grown in sustainable forests, and thus runs a steep
price at local lumber yards.
With two varieties, red and white, oak is known to be easy to work with and relatively strong. However,
furniture makers often opt for white oak over red oak for its attractive figure and moisture-
resistance. Depending on the kind needed, oak can probably be found at a local home center or a
lumberyard for a bit pricier than other hardwoods.
With strength, sturdiness, and durability, maple is a common material for furniture for the bedroom and
even china cabinets. Maple is moisture-resistant and frequently displays stand-out swirls in the wood grain,
an aesthetically pleasing differentiator from other hardwoods. While most commonly a lighter color, maple
also can take stains and paint well.
21. Woods with good working properties
Alder (Alnus glutinosa)
Basswood (Tilia americana)
Obeah (Triplochiton scleroxylon)
Western Cedar (Thuja plicata)
22. Very durable woods
Teak (Tectona grandis)
Iron (Milicia excelsa)
Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata)
23. Woodworking Machines
Types of Woodworking Machines Woodworking machines are
used for processing wood. These are mostly used for small scale
industrial and commercial purpose. There are various types of
machines used for woodwork and producing wood items. Some
of the machineries are:
1. Stationery machineries
2. Moveable machineries
38. Wood working Machines - General
Woodworking tools can be dangerous if not used properly.
Only use woodworking machines that you have been trained to use
properly and safely.
Read the owner's manual carefully.
Make sure you understand instructions before attempting to use any
tool or machine. Ask questions if you have any doubts about doing
the work safely.
39. Working proceed time follow as:-
Always wear safety glasses or goggles, or a face shield (with safety glasses or
Wear dust masks when required.
Wear hearing protection that is suitable for the level and frequency of the noise you
are exposed to in the woodworking area. If you have trouble hearing someone speak
from three feet away, the noise level from the machine is too high. Damage to
hearing may occur.
Use gloves to protect hands from splinters when handling wood but do not wear
them near rotating blades and other machinery parts where the gloves can catch.
Wear protective footwear when required.
40. Follow as :-
Make sure the guard is in position, is in good working condition, and guards the machine adequately
before operating any equipment or machine. Check and adjust all other safety devices.
Make sure the equipment is properly grounded before use.
Check that keys and adjusting wrenches are removed from the machine before turning on the power.
Inspect stock for nails, staples, loose knots or other defects before cutting, planning, routing or carrying
out similar activities.
Make sure that all machines have start and stop buttons within easy and convenient reach of an
operator. Start buttons should be protected so that accidental contact will not start the machine. A collar
around the button 3 to 6 mm (1/8 to 1/4 inch) above the button is recommended.
41. What you avoid work with machine
Do not wear loose clothing, work gloves, neckties, rings, bracelets or other
jewelry that can become entangled with moving parts.
Avoid awkward operations and hand positions where a sudden slip could cause
your hand to move into the cutting tool or blade.
Do not stand directly behind stock that is being cut, planed, or jointed to avoid
injury from kick-back.
Do not remove sawdust or cuttings from the cutting head by hand while a
machine is running. Use a stick or brush when the machine has stopped moving.
42. What you avoid work with machine
Do not use compressed air to remove sawdust, turnings, etc. from machines or
Do not leave machines running unattended (unless they are designed and
intended to be operated while unattended). Do not leave a machine until the
power off is turned off and the machine comes to a complete stop.
Do not try to free a stalled blade before turning the power off.
Do not distract or startle an operator while he or she is using woodworking
Horse play should be prohibited. It can lead to injuries.