2. ELEMENTS OF MARITIME LAW
• LABOUR LAW
• CLASSIFICATION SOCIETY
• MARINE SAFETY
• CARRIAGE OF GOOD
General- Familiarization of marine engineers to
areas of Maritime law relating to Cargo
Documentation, Arrival and Procedures,
Certificates and Documents required to be
carried on board the ship.
• Introduction to arrival procedures and
• Introduction to certificates required to keep the
ship moving and to allow the ships to enter ports
Marine Engineers are the members of a ship's
crew that operate and maintain the propulsion
and other systems onboard the vessel. Marine
Engineering staff also deal with the "Hotel"
facilities onboard, notably the sewage, lighting,
air conditioning and water systems.
Sometimes, they are involved in the design and construction of these
complicated systems. New design is mostly included within the naval
architecture or ship design. The field is closely related to mechanical
engineering, although the modern engineer requires knowledge (and
hands on experience) with electrical, electronic, pneumatic, hydraulic,
chemistry, control engineering, naval architecture, process
engineering, gas turbines and even nuclear technology on certain
A ship's crew is divided into two distinct sections: those who navigate
the ship and those who maintain the machinery and controls, carrying
out all repair functions on-board.
The navigators are deck officers and report to the Master (also
functionally referred to as Captain), which is a Naval rank.
Engineers are running and maintaining all machinery, reporting to the
Chief Engineer. Also on board are the crew or 'Ratings', who are 'other
ranks' or hands who, though not officers, play a key role in running the
ship by assisting the officers in daily operations.
In the Engine department, this includes Wiremen (who assist Electrical
Officers), Fitters, Motormen (or donkey greasers, depending on
nomanclature)and Wipers or utility men who play a large role in the
daily upkeep of the engine room.
• Patience and a logical approach needs to be maintained at all times,
especially when dealing with heavy machinery in a seaway.
• There are 4 classifications of Marine Engineering licenses throughout the
merchant marine, those being Chief Engineer, First Assistant/Second
Engineer, Second Assistant/Third Engineer, and Third Assistant/Fourth
Engineer. Those who join without experiance are Fifth Engineers /
Trainee Marine Engineers (TMEs)
• The purpose of this procedure is to establish the
engine room watch keeping guidelines.
• These guidelines are established within the
Standard for Training, Certification and
• Responsibility of the Chief Engineer to assign
the engine room watch keeping assignments
and establish the watch keeping standards.
The main aims of the revision were:
• 1.to transfer all detailed technical requirements to an
• 2.to clarify the skills and competence required
• 3.to require Administrations to maintain direct control over
and endorse the qualifications of those masters, officers and
radio personnel they authorize to serve on their ships
• 4.to make Parties to the Convention accountable to each
other, through IMO, for their proper implementation of the
Convention and the quality of their training and certification
• 5.to have the amendments enter into force for all Parties to
the Convention with the least possible delay.
• This regulation is regarded as particularly
important because it means that
Governments will have to establish that they
have the administrative, training and
certification resources necessary to
implement the Convention.
• No such proof was required in the original
Convention (or in any other IMO instrument),
leading to complaints that standards differed
widely from country to country and
certificates could therefore not always be
• The regulation is backed up by section A-I/7 of the STCW Code which requires the
information to be submitted to IMO by 1 August 1998 and says that it must include
1 the name, postal address and telephone and facsimile numbers and organization chart
of the ministry, department or governmental agency responsible for administering the
2 a concise explanation of the legal and administrative measures provided and taken to
ensure compliance, particularly with regulations I/6 (training and assessment) and I/9
(medical standards and the issue and registration of certificates);
3 a clear statement of the education, training, examination, competency assessment and
certification policies adopted;
4 a concise summary of the courses, training programmes, examinations and
assessments provided for each certificate issued pursuant to the Convention;
5 a concise outline of the procedures followed to authorize, accredit or approve training
and examinations, medical fitness and competency assessments, required by the
Convention, the conditions attaching thereto, and a list of the authorizations,
accreditations and approvals granted;
6 a concise summary of the procedures followed in granting any dispensation under
article VIII of the Convention; and 7 the results of the comparison carried out
pursuant to regulation I/11 and a concise outline of the refresher and upgrading
• Section A-I/7 also requires the Secretary-
General to maintain a list of competent persons
approved by the MSC who may be called upon
to assist in the preparation of the report required
by regulation I/ 7. Meetings of those on the list
may be held at the discretion of the Secretary-
General and their views shall be taken into
account in the report submitted to the MSC.
• Regulation I/8 of the Convention requires a
quality standards system to be used where
training, assessment of competence,
certification, endorsement and revalidation
activities are carried out. Further provisions
covering this point are contained in Section A-I/8
of the Code.
• Other important amendments to Chapter I (General Provisions)
include the following:
• · Enhanced procedures concerning the exercise of port State control
under Article X of the Convention have been developed to allow the
competence of seafarers in carrying out watchkeeping to be
assessed and to permit intervention in the case of deficiencies
deemed to pose a danger to persons, property or the environment
(regulation I/4). This can take place if certificates are not in order or
if the ship is involved in a collision or grounding, if there is an illegal
discharge of substances (causing pollution) or if the ship is
manoeuvred in an erratic or unsafe manner, etc.
• · Parties are required to establish procedures for investigating acts
by persons to whom they have issued certificates that endanger
safety or the environment. Penalties and other disciplinary measures
must be prescribed and enforced where the Convention is not
• · Technical innovations, such as the use of simulators for training
and assessment purposes have been recognized. Simulators will
become mandatory for training in the use of radar and automatic
radar plotting aids. Parties will be required to ensure that training,
certification and other procedures are continuously monitored by
means of a quality assurance system (regulation I/8).
• · Every master, officer and radio operator shall be required at
intervals not exceeding five years to meet the fitness standards and
the levels of professional competence contained inSection A-I/11 of
the STCW Code.
• In order to assess the need for revalidation of certificates after 1
February 2002, Parties must compare the standards of competence
previously required with those specified in the appropriate certificate
in part A of the STCW Code. If necessary, the holders of certificates
may be required to undergo training of refresher courses (regulation
• · Provisions covering the use of simulators, in particular radar and
automatic radar plotting aids equipment, are contained in regulation
I/12 (and section A-I/12 of the STCW Code).
• The remaining chapters are as follows:
Chapter II: Master and deck department
Chapter III: Engine department
Chapter IV: Radio communication and radio personnel
Chapter V: Special training requirements for personnel on certain types of ships.
• Special requirements have been introduced concerning the training and qualifications
of personnel on board ro-ro passenger ships. Previously the only special
requirements in the Convention concerned crews on tankers. This change was made
in response to proposals made by the Panel of Experts set up to look into ro-ro safety
following the capsize and sinking of the ferry Estonia in September 1994.Crews on
ro-ro ferries will have to receive training in technical aspects and also in crowd and
crisis management and human behavior.
Chapter VI: Emergency, occupational safety, medical care and survival functions.
Chapter VII: Alternative certification. Regulations regarding alternative certification
also known as the functional approach) have been included in a new
Chapter VII. This involves enabling crews to gain training and certification in various
departments of seafaring rather than being confined to one branch (such as deck or
engine room) for their entire career. Although it is a relatively new concept, the
Conference was anxious not to prevent its development. At the sametime, the new
Chapter is intended to ensure that safety and the environment are not threatened in
any way. The use of equivalent educational and training arrangements is permitted
under article IX.
Chapter VIII: Watchkeeping. Measures have been introduced for watchkeeping
personnel to prevent fatigue. Administrations are required to establish and enforce
rest periods for watchkeeping personnel and to ensure that watch systems are so
arranged that the efficiency of watchkeeping personnel is not impaired by fatigue.
15. Marine Engineering departments
• A common Engineering crew for a ship is:
• (1) Chief Engineer
• (1) Second Engineer / First Assistant Engineer
• (1) Third Engineer / Second Assistant Engineer
• (1-2) Fourth Engineer / Third Assistant Engineer
• (0-2) Fifth Engineer / Junior Engineer
• (1-3) Oiler (unlicenced qualified rating)
• (0-3) Greaser/s (unlicensed qualified rating)
• (1-5) Entry-level rating (such as Wiper (occupation), Utility man, etc)
Engineer Officers bear the same number of stripes, on cuffs and on
epaulettes, as Deck Officers with the complementary rank. For
instance, a Chief Engineer bears 4 stripes, as a Captain does, but
they are distinguished by the cuffs and epaulettes bearing the
Engineer's Blue or purple between the stripes.
16. WATCH KEEPING SYSTEM
At Sea Watches
• The normal at sea engine room watches are performed on a 4 and 8 watch
rotation. Each watch is 4 hours long.
• Starting at midnight the 2nd Assistant Engineer and on Oiler have the
watch. At 0400 the 1st Assistant Engineer and the senior Oiler stand the
next 4 hours until 0800.
• The 3rd Assistant Engineer and the third Oiler have the watch from 0800 to
1200. At noon the rotation resumes again.
In Port Watches
• Normal in port watches start and end at the discretion of the 1st Assistant
Engineer and the Chief Engineer.
• The rotation is also at the discretion, though usually will start with the watch
that was due to have the next watch at the last in port period. In port
watches are 24 hours long with the licensed engineer and an Oiler
alternating 6 hours on and 6 hours off.
• The watch stander with the 6 hours off must be aboard and be on call
during the entire watch period.
• The Oiler starts at noon and at midnight. The licensed Engineer starts at
1800 and 0600. The noon watch change must be handed over to the
licensed Engineer coming on duty by the Engineer being relieved.
17. WATCH KEEPING SYSTEM
• The watch stander’s primary responsibility is to be present
monitoring the engine room from the ECR.
• The engineer and the Oiler should alternate making rounds in the
Auxiliary Machinery Space, Main Machinery Space and SCR room.
The thruster rooms, motor room and fan rooms should be checked
at least once each watch.
• Depending on operations, deck machinery should also be checked.
• Watch standing is a science as well as an art.
• Watch standers must keep aware of normal machinery sound,
temperatures and vibrations so they can be alert to small changes
form the normal running of the machinery and so head off larger