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Outline
 What is cohesion ?
 Types of cohesion
 Reference
Cohesion
 Cohesion is the sense of connection and flow
as one sentence leads into the next.
 It involves the tying toget...
Types of Cohesion
There are five major types of cohesion in English Language:
 Reference
 Substitution
 Ellipsis
 Lexi...
Reference
Linguistic forms which identify or refer
something.
Yesterday I bought a book
I will give it to my sister
Reference can be categorized
into three major types:
Personal Reference: I ,me, mine,it,he,she,her etc.
I talked to marry....
Substitution
Substitution is the replacement of a word or
phrase with a ‘‘filler’’ word to avoid repetition.
I never saw a...
Types of Substitution
Nominal substitution: The element of nominal substitution are
one, ones and some.
Nominal substituti...
Types of Substitution
Clausal Substitution: Replacement of a clause
by clausal substitute.
Do you think the question will ...
Ellipsis
Ellipsis is the omission of one or more words
from a sentence.
What percentage was left?
“20”(20 percentage)
Types of Ellipsis
Nominal Ellipsis: Ellipsis within nominal group.
 Noun and potentially accompanying modifiers are omitt...
Types of Ellipsis
Clausal Ellipsis: Ellipsis or omission of a
modal element or proposition element in a
sentence.
Has she ...
Lexical Cohesion
 Achieved by the selection of vocabulary
 Created by the general noun or repetition of same lexeme
Reit...
Conjunction
 A word or group of words used to connect
words, phrase or clauses.
 They express certain meaning which
pres...
Types of Conjunction
Additive: It is structurally coordinate and used to add more
information.
(and, also, moreover, in ad...
Types of Conjunction
Clausal : Clausal relations include the specific ones of
result, reason and purpose.
(yet, still, tho...
Cohesion presentation
Cohesion presentation
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Cohesion presentation

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Cohesion presentation

  1. 1. Outline  What is cohesion ?  Types of cohesion  Reference
  2. 2. Cohesion  Cohesion is the sense of connection and flow as one sentence leads into the next.  It involves the tying together of old information and new.
  3. 3. Types of Cohesion There are five major types of cohesion in English Language:  Reference  Substitution  Ellipsis  Lexical Cohesion  Conjunction
  4. 4. Reference Linguistic forms which identify or refer something. Yesterday I bought a book I will give it to my sister
  5. 5. Reference can be categorized into three major types: Personal Reference: I ,me, mine,it,he,she,her etc. I talked to marry. She is very friendly Demonstrative Reference: This, that, those etc. how do you like a cruise in that yacht? Comparative Reference: Refers by means of identity or similarity through the use of such words as same, equal etc. It’s the same flower as we saw at campus
  6. 6. Substitution Substitution is the replacement of a word or phrase with a ‘‘filler’’ word to avoid repetition. I never saw a purple cow I hope to see one
  7. 7. Types of Substitution Nominal substitution: The element of nominal substitution are one, ones and some. Nominal substitution also include some indefinite pronouns . My pen is too blunt, I must get a sharper one Verbal substitution: Replacement of a verb element by a verbal substitute. Does Jean sing?- No , but Mary does sing.
  8. 8. Types of Substitution Clausal Substitution: Replacement of a clause by clausal substitute. Do you think the question will be hard? Yes , I think so. No, I think not.
  9. 9. Ellipsis Ellipsis is the omission of one or more words from a sentence. What percentage was left? “20”(20 percentage)
  10. 10. Types of Ellipsis Nominal Ellipsis: Ellipsis within nominal group.  Noun and potentially accompanying modifiers are omitted from a noun phrase. I heard Mary's dog, and you heard Bill's dog. Verbal Ellipsis: Ellipsis within the verbal group. She won't laugh, but he will laugh.
  11. 11. Types of Ellipsis Clausal Ellipsis: Ellipsis or omission of a modal element or proposition element in a sentence. Has she taken her medicine? - yes
  12. 12. Lexical Cohesion  Achieved by the selection of vocabulary  Created by the general noun or repetition of same lexeme Reiteration: Repetition of a lexical item. I took leave and turned to the ascent of the peak. The climb is perfectly easy Collocation: The association of lexical item.
  13. 13. Conjunction  A word or group of words used to connect words, phrase or clauses.  They express certain meaning which presuppose the presence of other components in the discourse
  14. 14. Types of Conjunction Additive: It is structurally coordinate and used to add more information. (and, also, moreover, in addition) and negative (nor). jonny wants to learn French and he has also some basic knowledge on it. Adversative: It is conjunction which relates two clauses that state contras each other . (but, yet, on the other hand, however) Jonny wants to learn French but he has no enough time.
  15. 15. Types of Conjunction Clausal : Clausal relations include the specific ones of result, reason and purpose. (yet, still, though, despite this, however, even so, all the same, nevertheless). It was raining and I didn’t get any transport. So I returned home. Temporal :Refers to the phenomenon of new information to what has already been given in terms of time. For preparing the presentation I went through many books on this topic. Then I started preparing my slides.

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