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Structure of RBC 
Normal size 
Normal structure 
Hematopoiesis 
Erythropoiesis 
Definition 
Site 
Stages 
Factors affe...
Side view 
Top View 
2.0μ 
7.5μ 
1μ
HEMO: Referring to Blood Cells 
POIESIS:”The development of 
production of” 
The word HEMATOPOIESIS refers to 
developm...
 MONOPHYLETIC 
 DUALISTIC 
 TRIALISTIC or 
polyphylectic
AGE SITE OF HEMATOPOIESIS 
EMBRYO • YOLK SAC THEN LIVER 
3-7 MONTH • SPLEEN 
• MARROW CAVITY SPECIALLY-GRANULOCYTES 
AND P...
“ERYTHROPOIESIS is the process of origin, 
development and maturation of erythrocytes”
IN 
FETAL 
LIFE 
MESOBLASTIC 
STAGE 
HEPATIC STAGE 
MYELOID STAGE
IN NEW BORN 
BABIES- Upto 
age of 20 yrs 
RBCs are produced 
from red bone 
marrow of all 
bones(long bones 
and all the f...
Relative rates of red blood cell production in the bone 
marrow of different bones at different ages.
Primary cells that are capable of self-renewal 
differentiating into specialized cells. 
Hematopoietic stem cells are th...
Uncommitted pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell 
Committed pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell 
LYMPHOID STEM CELL COLONY FORM...
•Reduction in size of the cell(from diameter of 25-7.2μ) 
•Disappearance of nucleoli & nucleus 
•Appearance of hemoglobin ...
HEAMOCYTOBLAST PROERYTHROBLAST 
EARLY 
ERYTHROBLAST 
LATE 
ERYTHROBLAST 
NORMOBLAST 
RETICULOCYTE 
ERYTHROCYTE 
PLEURIPOTE...
FACTORS CLASSIFIED INTO 3 CATEGORIES 
GENERAL 
FACTORS 
•ERYTHROPOEITIN 
•THYROXINE 
•HEMATOPOIETIC 
GROWTH FACTORS 
•VITA...
 Principal factor that stimulates red blood cell 
production 
Glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 34,000 
Hypoxia i...
ROLE OF ERYTHROPOIETIN 
HEMOPOIETIC stem cells 
PROERYTHROBLASTS 
RED BLOOD CELLS 
Tissue Oxygenation 
Erythropoietin 
Inc...
OTHER FACTORS 
Hemopoietic growth factors- 
•Interleukin-3 
•Interleukin-6 
•Interleukin-11 
Vitamins 
•Vit.B 12 
•Folic a...
 Especially important for the final maturation of red blood 
cells are the two vitamins,Vitamin B12 and Folic acid 
 Bot...
•The RBCs circulate an average of 120 days before being 
destroyed 
• The metabolic system of RBC’s becomes less active, 
...
RBCs AFTER 120 DAYS 
FRAGILE 
MEMBRANES OF RBC RUPTURE 
PHAGOCYTOSED BY RETICULOENDOTHELIAL 
SYSTEM 
TISSUE MACROPHAGES 
...
Hemoglobin split 
HEME 
GLOBIN AMINO ACID 
POOL-REUSE 
Free Iron 
TRANSPORTED IN 
BLOOD BY 
TRANSERRIN 
REUSED 
STRAIGHT C...
Straight chain of 4 pyrrole nuclei 
HEME OXYGENASE 
Biliverdin 
BILIVERDIN REDUCTASE 
Free Bilirubin (released by Macropha...
Free Bilirubin in blood 
Within Hours 
Absorption in hepatic cell membrane 
Released from Albumin 
Conjugated 
Glucoronic ...
Urobilinogen 
Reabsorbed by intestinal mucosa 
Blood LIVER 
Kidneys 
Urobilinogen Stercobilinogen 
Urine FEACES 
STERCOBIL...
Apoptotic mechanisms in control of 
erythropoiesis (Ref. Leukemia (2008),1176- 
1199 ) 
Erythropoiesis-stimulating agent...
BIBLIOGRAPHY 
•TEXTBOOK OF MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY – GUYTON & 
HALL 
•GANONG REVIEW OF MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY 
•ESSENTIALS OF MEDIC...
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis
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basic insights into the process of erythropoiesis

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Erythropoiesis

  1. 1. Structure of RBC Normal size Normal structure Hematopoiesis Erythropoiesis Definition Site Stages Factors affecting erythropoiesis Fate of RBC Recent advances Bibliography
  2. 2. Side view Top View 2.0μ 7.5μ 1μ
  3. 3. HEMO: Referring to Blood Cells POIESIS:”The development of production of” The word HEMATOPOIESIS refers to development and production of blood cells •ERYTHROCYTES- erythropoiesis •LEUKOCYTES- leukopoiesis •THROMBOCYTES- thrombopoiesis Begins in the 20th week of life in fetal liver and spleen, continues in the bone marrow till young adulthood & beyond!!!!
  4. 4.  MONOPHYLETIC  DUALISTIC  TRIALISTIC or polyphylectic
  5. 5. AGE SITE OF HEMATOPOIESIS EMBRYO • YOLK SAC THEN LIVER 3-7 MONTH • SPLEEN • MARROW CAVITY SPECIALLY-GRANULOCYTES AND PLATELETS 4TH & 5TH MONTH 7th MONTH • MARROW CAVITY-ERYTHROCYTES • MOSTLY BONE MARROW;SPLEEN & LIVER WHEN NEEDED BIRTH • NUMBER OF ACTIVE SITES IN BONE MARROW DECREASES BUT RETAIN ABILITYFOR HEAMATOPOIESIS BIRTH TO MATURITY • BONE MARROW OF SKULL,RIBS,STERNUM,VERTEBRAL COLUMN,PELVIS,PROXIMAL ENDS OF FEMUR ADULT
  6. 6. “ERYTHROPOIESIS is the process of origin, development and maturation of erythrocytes”
  7. 7. IN FETAL LIFE MESOBLASTIC STAGE HEPATIC STAGE MYELOID STAGE
  8. 8. IN NEW BORN BABIES- Upto age of 20 yrs RBCs are produced from red bone marrow of all bones(long bones and all the flat bones) The shaft of long bones becomes yellow bone marrow because of fat deposition and looses the erythropoietic function After the age of 20 years: RBCs are produced from membranous bones like vertebra, sternum ,ribs and ends of long bones In adults , liver & spleen may produce blood cells if bone marrow is destroyed or fibrosed
  9. 9. Relative rates of red blood cell production in the bone marrow of different bones at different ages.
  10. 10. Primary cells that are capable of self-renewal differentiating into specialized cells. Hematopoietic stem cells are the primitive cells in the bone marrow which give rise to blood cells. Hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow are called uncommitted pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells(PHSC) When the cells are designed to form a particular type of blood cells, the uncommitted PHSCs are called committed PHSCs.
  11. 11. Uncommitted pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell Committed pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell LYMPHOID STEM CELL COLONY FORMING BLASTOCYTE L COLONY forming unit-E Colony forming unit-GM R Granulocytes N B E COLONY forming unit- M M MEGAKARYOCYTE P L=LYMPHOCYTE R=RED BLOOD CELL N=NEUTROPHIL B=BASOPHIL E=EOSINOPHIL M=MONOCYTE P=PLATELET
  12. 12. •Reduction in size of the cell(from diameter of 25-7.2μ) •Disappearance of nucleoli & nucleus •Appearance of hemoglobin •Change in the staining properties of cytoplasm
  13. 13. HEAMOCYTOBLAST PROERYTHROBLAST EARLY ERYTHROBLAST LATE ERYTHROBLAST NORMOBLAST RETICULOCYTE ERYTHROCYTE PLEURIPOTENT STEM CELL DERIVED FROM MESENCHYME COMMITTED CELL DEVELOPMENT PATHWAY PHASE 1 RIBOSOME SYNTHESIS PHASE2 Hb ACCUMULATION PHASE 3 EJECTIO N OF NUCLEUS
  14. 14. FACTORS CLASSIFIED INTO 3 CATEGORIES GENERAL FACTORS •ERYTHROPOEITIN •THYROXINE •HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTORS •VITAMINS MATURATION FACTORS •Vit.B 12 •INTRINSIC FACTOR OF CASTLE •FOLIC ACID FACTORS NECESSARY FOR Hb FORMATION •FIRST CLASS PROTEINS & AMINO ACIDS •IRON •COPPER •COBALT & NICKEL •VITAMINS
  15. 15.  Principal factor that stimulates red blood cell production Glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 34,000 Hypoxia is a key factor in increased production of erythropoietin
  16. 16. ROLE OF ERYTHROPOIETIN HEMOPOIETIC stem cells PROERYTHROBLASTS RED BLOOD CELLS Tissue Oxygenation Erythropoietin Increases KIDNEY Factors that decrease oxygenation 1. Low blood volume 2. Anemia 3. Low hemoglobin 4. Poor blood flow 5. Pulmonary disease Function of the erythropoietin mechanism to increase the production of red blood cells when various factors decrease tissue oxygenation Decreases
  17. 17. OTHER FACTORS Hemopoietic growth factors- •Interleukin-3 •Interleukin-6 •Interleukin-11 Vitamins •Vit.B 12 •Folic acid •Vit.C •Vit.D •Vit.E Dietary factors •Metal ions Iron Copper Cobalt •Proteins
  18. 18.  Especially important for the final maturation of red blood cells are the two vitamins,Vitamin B12 and Folic acid  Both are essential for synthesis of DNA INTRINSIC FACTOR OF CASTLE •Produced in gastric mucosa by parietal cells •Essential for absorption of Vit. B12
  19. 19. •The RBCs circulate an average of 120 days before being destroyed • The metabolic system of RBC’s becomes less active, membrane of RBC’s becomes fragile •Destroyed in the spleen
  20. 20. RBCs AFTER 120 DAYS FRAGILE MEMBRANES OF RBC RUPTURE PHAGOCYTOSED BY RETICULOENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM TISSUE MACROPHAGES KUPFFER CELLS SPLEEN
  21. 21. Hemoglobin split HEME GLOBIN AMINO ACID POOL-REUSE Free Iron TRANSPORTED IN BLOOD BY TRANSERRIN REUSED STRAIGHT CHAIN OF 4 PYRROLE NUCLEI
  22. 22. Straight chain of 4 pyrrole nuclei HEME OXYGENASE Biliverdin BILIVERDIN REDUCTASE Free Bilirubin (released by Macrophages into plasma) Combination with plasma Albumin Blood Interstitial fluids Liver kidney-- Nil Free Bilirubin
  23. 23. Free Bilirubin in blood Within Hours Absorption in hepatic cell membrane Released from Albumin Conjugated Glucoronic acid Sulfates Other substances Bilirubin Glucoronide Bilirubin Sulfate
  24. 24. Urobilinogen Reabsorbed by intestinal mucosa Blood LIVER Kidneys Urobilinogen Stercobilinogen Urine FEACES STERCOBILIN Reexcreted Into Gut Oxidation Oxidation Urobilin
  25. 25. Apoptotic mechanisms in control of erythropoiesis (Ref. Leukemia (2008),1176- 1199 ) Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents & other methods to enhance oxygen transport (Ref.Br J Pharamacol;v 154(3)2008 jun ) Erythroblastic islands- niches for erythropoiesis (Ref. Blood (2008),112;470- 478 )
  26. 26. BIBLIOGRAPHY •TEXTBOOK OF MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY – GUYTON & HALL •GANONG REVIEW OF MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY •ESSENTIALS OF MEDICAL PHYSIOLOGY-K SEMBULINGAM •GOOGLE SEARCH ENGINE
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