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SECTION 3 & 4 report.pptx

  2. ‘- 2 There are a wide range of tools and techniques which can be used to do PRCA. They can be divided into four main categories, according to the kind of activities they facilitate and the information they generate (FAO,2014): 1. PRCA tools for warming-up, team building and energizing – ideal to introduce participants to one another and open up the discussion, remove inhibitions, develop trust, encourage teamwork and kindle creativity.
  3. ‘- 3 2. PRCA tools for identifying and analyzing critical issues -designed to elicit specific information and facilitate decision making about the key development issues and communication entry points. 3. PRCA tools for knowing more about the stakeholder group or community – more suitable for the collection of geographical, historical, socioeconomic data.
  4. ‘- 4 4. PRCA tools for collecting communication-related data – linkage diagrams, net map, ranking and scoring exercises along with focus group discussions and interviews are among the best tools to investigate stakeholders’ levels of awareness, interest, knowledge and skills, as well as the communication resources they might need or have already available.
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  8. ‘- 8 What is a problem tree? A problem tree is a participatory planning tool commonly used in community based approaches. It basically maps out the main issues affecting a community, along with their known causes and effects. 3.1 PROBLEM TREE
  9. ‘- 9 Advantages Problem tree analysis is extremely useful in planning a successful communication programmed as it can reveal the context of a rural development project and the complexities in a community. Done in a participatory manner, it contributes to build a shared sense of understanding of the problems and their possible solutions.
  10. ‘- 10 Disadvantages Differences in perception of reality among members of the community can sometimes slow down the process. A good facilitator should be able to draw out the community members or participants’ ideas and opinions in a way that puts the issue in focus, rather than digressing from it.
  11. ‘- 11 Skill Needed - It is easier to come up with a broad problem than to focus on a very specific and narrow one. A special skill for doing problem tree analysis is the ability to facilitate a group discussion that enables participants to distinguish a core problem and identify its possible causes.
  12. ‘- 12 Figure 2.6 Problem tree focusing on low farm production
  13. ‘- 13 What is key formant interview? As the name implies, key informant interview (KII) involves a one-on-one interview with people chosen because they are deemed most knowledgeable about the subject matter or issue on hand. These informants are selected by virtue of their age, experience, position, authority, and/or involvement in activities pertaining to the subject being studied. 3.2 KEY INFORMANT INTERVIEW
  14. ‘- 14 Advantages The main advantage of KII is that it provides immediate insights into a particular issue or subject. It is most useful for collecting data on highly sensitive topics, when respondents are widely distributed over a large area, and when peer pressure may influence a respondent’s answer in a group.
  15. ‘- 15 Disadvantages One limitation of KII is that results are respondent-specific and do not necessarily reflect the norm or average in the population. Another practical disadvantage is that some responses may not be accurately recorded by the interviewer as there may be a large gap between his/her knowledge and that of the respondent.
  16. ‘- 16 Skill Needed Unlike formal surveys, where the interviewer merely fills in or checks off responses, KII requires quick and creative thinking and the ability to understand and process the data provided by the informant.
  17. ‘- 17 What is focus group discussion? Focus group discussion (FGD) involves bringing together a group of stakeholders to talk about a specific topic. It takes advantage of group dynamics and allows respondents to be guided by a skilled facilitator to explore issues in depth. Focus groups should ideally be homogenous with six to eight members. 3.3 FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION
  18. ‘- 18 The composition of focus groups is determined by certain factors with bearing on project objectives and design. These may include: • Demographic data (age, gender, occupation) • Position in the organization (officers, members) •Level of knowledge and/or expertise on the subject matter for discussion • Representativeness (farmers, NGOs, local officials, women, etc.)
  19. ‘- 19 Advantages FGD provides the opportunity for group interaction, which generally stimulates richer responses and allows new and valuable thoughts to emerge. It gives first-hand insight into the respondents’ behavior and attitudes; although unlike interviews, its responses represent a group, not individuals.
  20. ‘- 20 Disadvantages Managing the discussion group is rarely problem-free as group dynamics are often unpredictable. Some participants may be shy or reluctant to speak out in public, thus there is not much variation in their responses.
  21. ‘- 21 Skills needed FGD is perhaps the most difficult PRCA technique to handle. It often requires more than one person to conduct it, as somebody else needs to do the documentation. It also requires a skillful facilitator who can stimulate group discussion without losing sight of the objectives as well as handle disruptive participants.
  22. ‘- 22 What is social mapping? Social mapping is translating information into a drawing, picture, or image that references data according to geographical location. Stakeholders draw or assist in drawing maps that depict certain elements relevant to those that are being studied. 3.4 SOCIAL MAPPING
  23. ‘- 23 Advantages A map can be used to turn complex data into easily understood and conceivable images. People generally respond well to data presented in map form. Maps make for an effective communication tool as most maps can be grasped by a wide range of people with different backgrounds.
  24. ‘- 24 Disadvantages When using maps, special care must be given to ensure that they closely resemble the real technical map. Standardization of information (symbols for schools, farms, communication services, settlements, radio station) must be carried out at the beginning of the activity to ensure that different map elements are recorded in the same way by all participants.
  25. ‘- 25 Skills needed Social mapping requires familiarity with the area or place and ability to estimate distance and locations.
  27. ‘- 27 What is matrix ranking? This is a convenient and highly effective tool for prioritizing items. It involves ordering various items, conditions or perceptions in an objective manner. A popular one, which is most relevant to farming communities, is the preference ranking for communication channels especially among widely dispersed groups. 3.5 MATRIX RANKING
  28. ‘- 28 Advantages Matrix ranking complements other forms of data collection by generating basic information which leads to more direct questioning. Ranking is most useful for sensitive information. Often, informants tend to be more willing to rank preferences in a relative order than absolute order.
  29. ‘- 29 Disadvantages Ranking can sometimes be a long process. Respondents can get bored quickly and begin to lose their concentration during the exercise. It is important to keep the number of items and criteria being ranked between four and eight to avoid confusion. It is also important to avoid mixing radically different types of items. Skills needed Matrix ranking requires some training and a good deal of practice.
  30. ‘- 30 What is Direct observation? Direct observation is a technique in which the planner systematically observes individuals, groups, events, processes, or relationships and records his/her observations. Included here is participant observation – when the planner stays in the community for a certain time to carry out an in-depth study. 3.6 DIRECT OBSERVATION
  31. ‘- 31 Advantages Direct observation is a tool for collecting actual social data. It is useful for validation because it can be used to cross-check respondents’ answers. It is also easy to learn, but one has to record his/her observations systematically.
  32. ‘- 32 Disadvantages For collecting data about social issues and conditions, observation should not be used as the sole monitoring method, especially if the members of the monitoring team are not from the project area.
  33. ‘- 33 Skills needed Direct observation requires attention to detail and the ability to record one's observations in a detailed fashion.
  34. ‘- 34 What is a time line? A time line is a visual tool for planning that depicts the occurrence of major events in the history of a community. The type of event depends on the issue being addressed. 3.7 TIME LINE
  35. ‘- 35 Advantages Understanding the past of a community is often necessary to analyze the present conditions, and to try to forecast how present conditions may evolve in the future. The time line helps the community understand which local, regional, or international events they consider important in their history, and how such events affected their lives (FAO, 2013).
  36. ‘- 36 Disadvantages A timeline can only show the chronological flow of events hence it should be accompanied by a textual report, written or oral, when presented.
  37. ‘- 37 What is a Venn diagram? The Venn diagram is considered a social data gathering tool. It uses circles to illustrate how different components of an institution or a community are linked, thus showing the relative significance of people, places, institutions, or ideas. 3.8 VENN DIAGRAM
  38. ‘- 38 Advantages The Venn diagram is very useful to get an initial overall picture of the stakeholder community and to analyze the social and power relations among different actors. It comes in handy especially to: •compare aspects like relative importance and accessibility of different institutions or services (both local and external institutions can be represented); •explore the relationships between people, institutions and services and their effects on vulnerability.
  39. ‘- 39 It may be used to generate discussion on the following topics (Ford et al., 1992): •levels of communication among organizations; •role of project bodies; •potentials for collaborative work; •roles and significance of various institutions to community members; •potential roles of new organizations; •roles and significance of various institutions to one specific organization.
  40. ‘- 40 Disadvantages The Venn diagram exercise should be undertaken after the problems and opportunities in the community have been clearly identified. This is because the Venn diagram can help identify the actors that will be involved in implementing the communication plan.
  42. ‘- 42 PREPARING THE PRCA REPORT Section 4
  43. ‘- 43 • After undertaking the communication appraisal, all the data and information generated is ready to be analyzed and compiled into a coherent report. PRCA results will give a comprehensive picture of the communication gaps and opportunities related to the key development issue – as identified and prioritized by the stakeholders – as well as the policy, institutions and organizations that can support the implementation of ComDev activities. • Different groups in the stakeholder community will be profiled, revealing their background and culture, as well as their knowledge, skills, attitudes and practices. • Findings will include evidence on how people communicate within their community, their main sources of information from outside, the patterns of interaction, social influence and knowledge exchange. All of this shall constitute a baseline for the envisioned ComDev strategy and plan (see Module 3).