What is steel?
• Alloy of Iron & Carbon
• Less than 2% carbon & 1% manganese
• Silicon , phosphorus , Sulphur & Oxygen
• Most important in Engineering & Construction Material
What is alloys ?
• Metallic substance composed of
two or more elements, as either a
compound or a solution.
• The components of alloys are
ordinarily themselves metals,
though carbon, a nonmetal, is an
essential constituent of steel
What are all the alloys ?
• Cast iron
• Sterling silver
• White gold
Properties & Uses of Aluminium
• ability to form alloys
• qualities of appearance
• Power lines. ...
• High-rise buildings. ...
• Window frames. ...
• Consumer electronics. ...
• Household and industrial
• Aircraft components. ...
• Spacecraft components. ...
• Ability to withstand friction
• It is worth noting that, while it
may mean the same as
strength and toughness in
• Commercially pure aluminum
• It is strengthened when
alloyed and tempered.
• The “Degree” to which the
material can be stretched or
compressed before it breaks
• what percent does the
material bend before breaking
• High ductility. Aluminum can
be beaten very thin
• High malleability. Aluminum is
very capable of being shaped
• strength is a measurement of
the force required to break
• Aluminium has a thermal
expansion coefficient of 23.2.
This is between zinc—which
expands more—and steel,
which expands half the range
Making of steel furniture
• Aluminum alloys.
• aluminum blended with a different metal to achieve improved strength
• making lightweight furniture like outdoor or office furniture
• against rust and other effects of weather such as warping
• Wrought iron.
• durability that can span decades if well cared for
• prone to rust, treated and all parts covered in paint
• outdoor furniture and pieces that do not require much movement
because it is heavy.
Construction of floors
Steel open and closed grated flooring is a cost-effective solution
for large areas of flooring in industrial and commercial buildings
• Different types
• Short-span composite beams and composite slabs with metal decking
• Slimdek floor system
• Cellular composite beams with composite slabs and steel decking
• Slimflor beams with precast concrete units
• Long-span composite beams and composite slabs with metal decking
• Composite beams with precast concrete units
• Non-composite beams with precast concrete units
Short-span composite beams and composite
slabs with metal decking
• Various steel deck profiles are available and their span
ranges are from 3m to 4m.
• thickness of the beams ranges from 0.9 m to 1.2m;
• slab thickness is 130mm
• steel deck depth is about 60mm.
• The span of primary beams varies between 6m and 9m
secondary beam span ranges from 6m to 7.5m.
Long-Span Composite Beams and
Composite Slabs with Metal Decking
• two main beam arrangements for this floor system.
• at spacing of 3 to 4m and act as secondary beams
• short span secondary beams and these beams are
supported by long span primary beams
Composite Beams with Precast Concrete
• steel beams on which shear studs are welded
• precast units is 150-160mm for hollow units and 75-
100mm for solid units
• span of both beams and precast concrete units are
between 6m and 9m
• entire floor thickness if around 900mm
Slim flor Beams with Precast Concrete
• slim beam and precast
• span ranges from 4.5m to
• 150mm for span of 6m,
200mm for span of 7.5m ,
260-300 mm for span of 9m
Construction of Roof
• the steel roof truss is becoming increasingly popular
• primarily used in buildings and houses which walls are also
based on a steel frame.
• when a flat roof is converted into a pitched roof.
• lightweight steel roof structure is used
• used for large-area buildings, such as warehouses and
Advantages of steel structures
• it is easy and quick to erect
• it has high strength
• it is a relatively cheap solution
• it does not require drying out or maintenance,
• lighter than wooden rafter framing,
• high resistance to adverse weather conditions,
• steel elements are covered with special additional protective
and anti-corrosive coatings.
Dis-Advantages of steel structures
• corrosion proofing must be carried out
• protective coating is scratched, it will become susceptible to
• does not require regular maintenance, regular inspections are
• low weight, heavy roofing, such as ceramic and especially
cement tiles, cannot be laid on it,
• Cost more than their wooden counterparts
• for large or complicated roofs, steel trusses may prove to be an
Light steel framed infill walls
• light steel components used in infill
• C sections and U sections of 75 to 150
• The galvanizing (zinc layer) provides
• 400 or 600 mm spacing
Light steel separating walls
• light steel infill walls and are used to provide acoustic
separation and fire compartmentation
• C sections of 55 to 90 mm depth
• internal pressure of 0.5 kN/m²
• (typically 0.9 mm thick)
Concrete infill wall
• large precast concrete panels
• dictated by the column spacing
• bear onto the floor slab using a boot
arrangement, and are bolted back to
the structure on the level above or
• Weights approximately 300 kg/m²
• widths of between 3 and 9 m and
height of 3.5 to 4.2 m
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