Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.

8th standard-social-science-tamil-medium-1

28 644 vues

Publié le

  • Very nice tips on this. In case you need help on any kind of academic writing visit website ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐ and place your order
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • I think you need a perfect and 100% unique academic essays papers have a look once this site i hope you will get valuable papers, ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • Hi there! I just wanted to share a list of sites that helped me a lot during my studies: .................................................................................................................................... www.EssayWrite.best - Write an essay .................................................................................................................................... www.LitReview.xyz - Summary of books .................................................................................................................................... www.Coursework.best - Online coursework .................................................................................................................................... www.Dissertations.me - proquest dissertations .................................................................................................................................... www.ReMovie.club - Movies reviews .................................................................................................................................... www.WebSlides.vip - Best powerpoint presentations .................................................................................................................................... www.WritePaper.info - Write a research paper .................................................................................................................................... www.EddyHelp.com - Homework help online .................................................................................................................................... www.MyResumeHelp.net - Professional resume writing service .................................................................................................................................. www.HelpWriting.net - Help with writing any papers ......................................................................................................................................... Save so as not to lose
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE Format, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/y6a5rkg5 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici
  • DOWNLOAD FULL BOOKS, INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF EBOOK here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc Ebook here { https://tinyurl.com/yxufevpm } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Répondre 
    Voulez-vous vraiment ?  Oui  Non
    Votre message apparaîtra ici

8th standard-social-science-tamil-medium-1

  1. 1. jkpH;ehL muR rK:f mwptpay;© Kjw;gjpg;g[ - 2005 kWgjpg;g[ - 2006 FGj; j iyth; f s;tuyhW (k)Foikapay; g[ t papay; (tuyhW ? Foikapay; ? g[tpapay;)nguhrphpah; Kidth ;jpU/gp/ uhkehjd; . rh/, uhzp bre; j hkiu.tuyhw;Wj;Jiw. g[tpapay;Jiw.khepyf;fy;Y}up (jd;dhl;rp). khepyf;fy;Y}hp (jd;dhl;rp).brdid - 600 005/ ; brdid - 600 005/ ; vl; l hk; tFg; g [ nkyha; t hsh; f s;Kidth; f/tp$ah. jpU/ V/ jkpHurd;.KJepiy tphpt[iuahsh;. KJepiy tphpt[iuahsh;.tuyhw;wpay; Jiw. g[tpapay; Jiw.fhapnjkpy;yj; muR kfsph; fy;Y}hp. khepyf;fy;Y}hp (jd;dhl;rp). ;brdid - 600 002/ ; brdid - 600 005/ ; E}yhrphpah; f s;jpUkjp.P.C. ghDkjp/ jpUkjp. V. kPdhl; r p/KJfiy Mrphpia-tuyhW/ tphptiuahsh;/ [vd;.nf.o njrpa bgz;fs; khtl;l fy;tp kw;Wk; jP z ; l hik xU ghtr; b ray;nky;epiyg;gs;sp/ gapwrp epiyak;/ FKSh;/ ; jP z ; l hik xU bgU’; F w; w k;jpUty;ypf;nfzp/ jpUr;rp khtl;lk;brdid - 600 005/ ; jP z ; l hik kdpjj; jd; i kaw; w bray;j p U k j p . S. b $ a y l ; R k p / jpUkjp. K . nrhgdh/gl;ljhhp Mrphpah;/ KJfiy Mrphpia (g[tpapay;)/muR nky;epiyg;gs;sp/ vd;.nf.o. njrpa bgz;fs;/mUk;ghf;fk;/ brd;id - 600106/ nky;epiyg;gs;sp/ jpUty;ypf;nfzp/ brdid - 600 005/ ;jpU. T.S. gf; j tr; r yk; /gl;ljhhp Mrphpah;/murpdh; cah;epiyg;gs;sp/Rg;ghbul;o ghisak;/jpUts;s{h; - 600 120 jkpH; e hl; L g; ; ghl’fs; jahhpgg[ ; ; ; ; ; jkpHehL muRffhf gsspffytp ,afffk. jkpHehL/ ; ; ; ; ghlE]y; f Hfk; fy; Y ]hpr; r hiy. brd; i d-600006. ,eE}y; 60 $p/v!/vk/ jhspy; mrrplgglLssJ/ ; ; ; ; ; ; ;btg; Mg; b rl; Kiwapy; mr; r pl; n lhh; :
  2. 2. bghUslf; f k; g[ t papay; gffk; ; tuyhW Kft[iu 187 gffk; ; 1/ gtpapd; cssikgg[ [ ; ; 1881/ jkpHfjjpwF Inuhggpah; tUif ; ; ; 1 2/ gtp efutfs; [ ; [ 1952/ ghisaffhuhfs; gulrp ? ntY}hfyfk; ; ; [ ; ; 15 3/ vupkiyfs; 2083/ M’fpnyah; Mjpffjjpd; fH; jkpHfjjpd; ; ; ; P ; bghUshjhu epiy 27 4/ epy eLff’fs; ; ; 2254/ tpLjiyfF Kd; jkpHfjjpy; fytp tshrrp ; ; ; ; ; 37 5/ ghiwfs; 2385/ tpLjiyg;nghuhl;lj;jpy; jkpHfj;jpd; g’;F 48 6/ MWfs; 2486/ 19 kwWk; 20 Mk; E}wwhzLfspy; jkpHfjjpy; ; ; ; ; 7/ epyjjo eu; ; P 265 Vwgll rKjha rhjpUjj ,aff’fs; ; ; P ; ; ; ; 58 8/ gdpahWfs; 2807/ tpLjiyfF gpd; jkpHfjjpy; fytp tshrrp ; ; ; ; ; 69 9/ bgU’fly; miyfs; ; 2938/ jkpHfjjpy; bghUshjhu tshrrp ; ; ; 83 10/ fhwW ; 3019/ jkpHf murpd; rKf eyjjpll’fs; : ; ; ; 98 11/ bgU’;fly;fs; 31210/ jwfhy jkpHfjjpy; ,yffpak; kwWk; ; ; ; ; gzghlod; tshrrp ; ; ; ; 112 12/ ,aw;if nghplh; tot’;fs; I 326 Foikapay ; 13/ kdpj?Mf;f nghplh; tot’;fs; II 3541/ ekJ njrpaf; Fwpfnfhsfs; ; ; 1212/ njrpa xUikgghL ; 1353/ njrpa ghJfhgg[ Kiw ; 1434/ ekJ rKfg; gpurridfSk; jhtfSk; : ; P ; [ 1545/ ekJ bghUshjhug; gpurridfs; ; 1666/ kdpj chpikfs; ? bgz; chpikfs; 178 iii iv
  3. 3. tuyhW nghh;r;Rf;fy; kw;Wk; !;bgapd; ehLfs; j’; f Sila khYkpfis fly; t Hpg; ghlk; 1 gazk; nkw;bfhs;s Cf;Ftpj;jd/ jkpHfj ; j pw ; F Inuhg ; g pah ; tUif 1/nghh;r;Rf;fPrpah;fs; tUif : Kjd; Kjypy; ,e;jpahtpw;F fly; tHpiaf; th!;nfhlfhkh fw; w y; nehf; f ’; f s; fzLgpojjthfs; nghhrRffrpahfs; Mth/ ; ; ; ; ; ; P ; ; 1/ Inuhg; gpah; f s; tUif gw; wp mwpjy ; / nghh;r;Rf;fy; kd;dh;. khYkp b~d;wp.fly;tHpg;gazk; 2/ M’; f pnyaUf; F k; . gpbu”; R f; f huh; f Sf; F k; nkw; bfhs;s khYkpfis Cf;Ftpj;jhh;/ mjd; tpisthf ,ilna ele;j Mjpf;fg; nghl;oapidg; gw;wp 1498 Mk; Mz;L th!;nfhlfhkh vd;w nghh;rRf;frpa khYkp ; P g[hpe;J bfhs;Sjy;/ nkw;F flw;fiuapYs;s nfhHpf;nfhL vd;w ,lj;ij 3/ uhgh;l; fpistpd; rhjidfisg; gw;wp mwpjy;/ mile;jhh;/ nfhHpf;nfhL gFjpia Mz;l rhkhpd; vd;w kd ; d h ; th! ; n fhlfhkhit md ; g [ l d ; tuntw ; w hh ; / ,e;epfH;r;rp nghh;r;Rf;fPrpah;fs; j’;fsJ gw;wpl’;fis rpwe;j gz;ghl;oidf; bfhz;l ,e;jpa jkpH;ehl;oy; mikj;Jf;bfhs;s tHp tFj;jJ/khepy’;fspy; xd;whd jkpH;ehL. r’;f fhyj;jpy; gy g[fH; th!;nfhlfhkhtpd; fly;tHp fz;Lgpog;g[ ,e;jpabgw; w murh; f shy; Msg; g l; l J/ jkpH; e hl; o d; tuyhw;wpy; xU jpUg;g[ Kidahff; fUjg;gLfpwJ/gz;ghl;ow;Fk;. ehfhPfj;jpw;Fk; mth;fs; Mw;wpa gzpFwpg;gplj;jf;fJ/ gz;ila jkpH;kf;fs; fpnuf;f kw;Wk; gpuhd;rp!;nfh?o?my;bka;lh (1505?1509):nuhkhdpa ehLfSld; thzpfj; bjhlhg[ bfhzoUejhhfs/ ; ; ; ; ; ,ejpahtpy; ,Uej nghhrRffrpag; gwwpl’fspd; Kjy; ; ; ; ; ; P ; ;nkYk; btdpR efu gazp khh;f;nfh nghnyh ,uz;lhk; MSeuhf ,th; epakpffggllhh/ ,ejpag; bgU’flypy; ; ; ; ; ; ;ghz;oa muR fhyj;jpy; jkpHfj;jpw;F tUif je;jhh;/ nghh;r;Rf;fPrpah;fs; Mjpf;fk; bgw;wth;fsha;,e;jpa th;j;jfg; bghUs;fshd thridj; jputpa’;fs;. tps’fntzLbkd mth; tpUkgpdhh/ mth; gpdgwwpa ; ; ; ; ; ;gUj;jp kw;Wk; gl;L nghd;w bghUs;fisg; gw;wp mth; bfhs;if ePyf;fly; bfhs;if vd miHf;fg;gl;lJ/Fwpg;g[fs; je;Js;shh;/ mtuJ Fwpg;g[fs; kw;w Inuhg;gp my; n ghd; n rh ? o ? my; g [ f h; f ; F (1509?1515): ,th;ah;fisj; jkpHfj;Jld; tpahghuj; bjhlh;g[ bfhs;s nghh; r ; R f; f P r pa gw; w pl’; f spd; ,uz; l htJ MSeuhfCf;Ftpj;jd/ epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ ,th; ,e;jpahtpy; nghh;r;Rf;fPrpahpd; Mjpf;fk; tsu moj;jskpl;ltuhthh;/ ,th; fp/gp/ 1510 fp/gp/ 1453 Mk; Mz;L JUf;fpah; fhd;!;lhd;o Mk; Mz;L gp$g;g{h; Ry;jhdplkpUe;J nfhthitf;nehgpisf; ifg;gw;wp. kj;jpa jiuf;fly; tHpiaa[k; ifg; g w; w pdhh; / mjd; g pd; nfhth nghh; r ; R f; f P r pahpd;milj;;jdh;/ vdnt Inuhg;gpah;fs; fpHf;F ehLfSf;Fr; jiyikaplkhf mike;jJ/bryy gjpa fly; tHpia fzLgpoff ntzoajhapwW/ ; [ ; ; ; ;15 kw; W k; 16 Mk; E}w; w hz; o d; fz; L gpog; g [ f s; nghh;r;Rf;fPrpahpd; tsh;r;rp: fhyg;nghf;fpy;Inuhg;gpah;fs; fPiHehLfSld;. Fwpg;ghf ,e;jpaht[ld; nghh; r ; R f; f P r pah; f s; j”; i ria Mz; l brt; t g; gthzpfj ; bjhlh ; g [ bfhs ; s tHp tFj ; j J/ nkYk ; ehaf;fhplkpUe;J ehfg;gl;odj;jpy; tpahghuk; bra;a[k; 1 2
  4. 4. chpikia bgw;wdh;/ nghh;rRf;frpah;fspd; fg;gw;gil 1533 ; P ntz; o apUe; j J/ ,jdhy; kf; f splj; j py; mth; f sJMk; Mz;L fpHf;Ff; flw;fiuf;F te;J ehfg;gl;odk; bry;thf;F Fiwa Muk;gpj;jJ/kw; W k; J}j; J f; F o Mfpaj; JiwKf efu’; f isf;ifggwwpaJ/ brdidapYss rhenjhk. nghhrRffrpag; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; P 2/ M’;fpnyah;fspd; fg;gw;gil Mjpf;fj;jpd; tpisthfgw;wpl’;fspy; xd;whf mike;jJ/ kJiu ehaf;fh;fs; lr; R f; f huh; f s; ,e; j pahtpy; j’; f s; gw; w pl’; f isnghh;rRf;frpaiu ehl;iltpl;L btspnaw;w ntz;Lbkd;W ; P M’; f pnyahplk; xg; g ilf; f ntz; o a NH; e piyKaw;rp bra;J mk;Kaw;rpapy; njhy;tpa[w;wdh;/ cUthdJ/ lrRffhuhfs; ,ejpahittpl ,enjhnerpahtpy; ; ; ; ; ; thzpfk; bra;tjpnyna mjpf <LghL bfhz;ldh;/nghh ; r ; R f ; fPr pahpd; t PH ;r ;r pf;fhd fhuz’ ;f s; : 3/ M’; f pnyah; f s; tUif : ,e; j pahtpy; thzpfk; bra;tjw;fhdg; gl;laj;ij ,’;fpyhe;J kfhuhzp 1/ nghh;r;Rf;fy; kpfr;rpwpa ehL/ ,e;jpah nghd;w kpfg;bghpa ehl;il. me;ehl;oduhy; Kjyhk; vyprbgjjplkpUeJ. orkgh; 31. 1600 Mk; MzL ; ; ; ; fl;Lg;gLj;j ,aytpy;iy/ M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpaf; fk;bgdpg; bgw;wJ/ gpwF 1639 Mk; Mz;L gpuhd;rp!;nl vd;gth; re;jpufphp 2/ nghh;rRf;frpa tzpfh;fs; neh;ika[ld; bray;glj; ; P MSehplkpUe;J brd;dg[hp vd;w ,lj;ij (,d;iwa jtwpdh;/ brd;id) bgw;whh;/ me;j ,lj;jpw;fhf fk;bgdp rpwpa 3/ , e ; j p a h t e ; j l r ; R k w ; W k ; M ’ ; f p y bjhifia tUlhe;jpu thlifahf brYj;j Kd;te;jJ/ tzpff;FGf;fs; nghh;r;Rf;fPrpah;fspd; ty;yik tha;e;j nghl;oahsh;fshf khwpdh;/2/lr;Rf;fhuh;fs; tUif : lr;R tzpfh;fs; ~hye;Jehl;il rhh;e;jth;fs;/ ,th;fs; 1608Mk; Mz;L njtdhk;gl ; o zj ; j py ; xU bjhHpw ; r hiyia mikj ; j hh ; f s ; /fhiuf;fhy;. g[ypfhl; kw;Wk; ehfg;gl;odk; Mfpa fpHf;Ff;flw;fiug; gl;oz’;fs; mth;fshy; ifg;gw;wg;gl;ld/nkYk; ,th;fs; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fsplkpUe;J brd;idapy;cs; s rhe; n jhika[ k ; ifg; g w; w pdhh; f s; / mth; f s; g[dpj $hh;$; nfhl;illj’;fSila gw;wpl’;fis tYg;gLj;jpdhh;fs;/ 1689Mk;Mz;L ehfg;gl;odk;. lr;Rf;fhuh;fspd; jiyikaplkhf fp/gp/ 1640 Mk; Mz;L g[dpj $hh;$; nfhl;ilkhwpaJ/ brd;idapy; fl;lg;gl;lJ/ 1654 Mk; Mz;L fpHf;Fg; gFjpapYs;s M’;fpy Fonaw;w’;fspd; jiyikaplkhflr;R f;fhuh; fspd; njhy; tpf; fhd fhuz’; f s; : g[dpj $hh;$; nfhl;il mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ/ gpd; 1681 Mk; Mz;L flY}h;. gu’;fpg;ngl;il Mfpa ,l’;fspy; g[jpa1/ lr;Rf;fhuh;fs; moik tpahghuj;jpy; <Lgl;ljhy;. Fonaw; w ’; f s; mikf; f g; g l; l d/ g[ d pj nltpl;eP j pkd; w tHf; F tptfhu’; f spy; ftdk; brYj; j nfhl;ila[k; flY}hpy; fl;lg;gl;lJ/ 3 4
  5. 5. 4/nldpah;fs; tUif : nldpaf; fpHf;fpe;jpa tzpff;FG Kjy; f h; e hlfg; nghh; (1746?48)1616 Mk; Mz;L bld;khh;f;fpy; epWtg;gl;lJ/ 1620 Mk; fhuz’; f s; : Inuhg ; g pahtpy ; 1744 Mk ; Mz ; LMz; L nldpah; f s; ju’; f k; g ho vd; D kplj; j py; Xh; M!;jphpahtpw;Fk;. gpbuc&;ahtpw;Fk; ,ilapy; M!;jpupagw;wplj;ij mikj;jdh;/ 19 Mk; E}w;whz;od; kj;jpapy;. thhpR chpikg;nghh; Vw;gl;lJ/ ,e;jg; nghl;oapy;j’; f Sila ehl; o ypUe; J epjp cjtp fpilf; f hj M!; j phpahtpw; F M’; f pnyah; f Sk; gpbuc& ; a htpw; Ffhuzj; j pdhy; nldpah; f s; j’; f Sf; F brhe; j khd gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fSk; Mjut[ mspj;jdh;/ mnj neuj;jpy;bjhHpw;rhiyfis M’;fpnyaUf;F tpw;Wtpl;ldh;/ M’;fpnyah;fSk; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fSk; ,e;jpahtpy; j’;fspd;,jdhy; ,th;fs; j’;fSila bry;thf;if ,He;jdh;/ thzpf nkyhjpf;fj;ij tphpt[g; gLj;j tpUk;gpdh;/5/gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; tUif : gpbu”;Rf; fpHf;fpe;jpaf; ghz;or;nrhpia eph;tfpj;j gpbu”;R fth;dh; La{g;ns.fk;bgdp 1664 Mk; Mz;L Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ/ ,e;jpahtpypUe;J M’;fpnyaiu tpul;l vz;zpdhh;;/gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; rhe;njhikf; ifg;gw;wp. mij kPz;Lk;lr;Rf;fhuh;fsplk; xg;gilj;jhh;fs;/ 1674 Mk; Mz;L nghh; e pfH; r ; r pfs; : oa{g; n s brd; i dia nehf; f pgpuhd;rp!; khh;l;od; vd;gth; gp$g;g{h; kd;dhplkpUe;J gilbaLj;Jr; brd;W. M’;fpy fg;gw;giliaj; njhw;foj;Jg[Jr;nrhp vd;Dk; fpuhkj;ijg; bgw;whh;/ Mdhy; 1699 y; g[ d pj $hh; $ ; nfhl; i liaf; ifg; g w; w pdhh; / ,e; jg[Jr;nrhpia lr;Rf;fhuh;fs; ifg;gw;wpdhh;fs;/ gpwF. hp!;tpf; eltof;ifia M’;fpnyah;fs; Mw;fhl;L ethg;ghdcld;gof;ifapd;go g[Jr;nrhpiag; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; md; t hUjP d plk; Kiwapl; l hh; f s; / g[ d pj $hh; $ ;jpUk; g g; b gw; w hh; f s; / 1701 Mk; Mz; L ,e; j pahtpy; nfhl;ilia M’;fpnyahplk; xg;gilf;Fk;go md;thUjPd;gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fspd; jiyikaplkhf g[Jr;nrhp cj; j utpl; l hh; / Mdhy; oa{g; n s mjw; F ,z’; fmwptpf; f g; g l; l J/ j”; r ht{iu Mz; l kuhj; j pa kWj;Jtpl;lhh;/ vdnt oa{g;nsaplkpUe;J brd;idiakd;dh;fsplkpUe;J. 1725 Mk; Mz;L kyghh; kPlf md;thUjPd; xU gilia mDg;gpdhh;/ fp/gp/ 1746Mk; ;flw;fiuapYs;s kh~p gFjpiaa[k;. 1739 Mk; Mz;L Mz;L milahWf;F mUfpy; cs;s rhe;njhk;fhiuf;fhy; gFjpiaa[k; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; ifg;gw;wpdhh;fs;/ vd;Dkplj;jpy; ehthgpd; gilfs; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fshy; njhw;fof;fg;gl;ld/ nkYk; gpbu”;Rg;gilfs; brd;idg;M’;fpnyah; ? gpbu”;Rf;fhuh; ? Mjpf;fg;nghl;o gFjpiaa[k; Niwahor; brd;wdh;/ ,t;btw;wpf;Fg; gpd;dh; 18Mk; E}w;whz;od; Kw;gFjpapy; ,e;jpahtpy; flY}hpy; cs;s g[dpj nltpl; nfhl;ilia ifg;gw;wM’fpnyahfSk. gpbu”RffhuhfSk; typik kpffthfshf ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; Kad;wdh;/ Mdhy; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fspd;,Ue;jdh;/ brd;id. fy;fj;jh kw;Wk; gk;gha; Mfpa ,e; j Kaw; r p M’; f pnyaj; jsgjp nk$h; yhuhd; ! ;,l’;fspy; M’;fpnyah;fs; jkJ Mjpf;fj;ij epiy vd;gthpd; jpwikapdhy; Kwpaof;fg;gl;lJ/ehl;odhh;fs;/ gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; ghz;or;nrhpapy; jkJ gpbu”Rffhuhfs; gdpj nltpl; nfhlilia ifggwwj; ; ; ; [ ; ; ;gw;wplj;ij mikj;jdh;/ ,UtUk; j’;fsJ Mjpf;fj;ij jtwpdhYk;. ,g;nghh; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fspd;,e;jpahtpy; epiyehl;l tpUk;gpdh;/ ,jd; tpisthf nkyhz; i kiaa[ k ; . oa{g; n sapd; jpwikiaa[ k ;fh;ehlfg; nghh;fs; Vw;gl;ld/ btspggLjjpaJ/ ; ; 5 6
  6. 6. tpist[fs; : 1748 Mk; Mz;L ifbaGj;jplg;gl;lva;?yh?rhg;ngy; cld;gof;ifapd;go Kjy; fh;ehlfg; nghh;Kotile;jJ/ M’;fpnyau;fSf;Fk;. gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fSf;Fk; Be¡X - ©ùWgÑ úTôh¥,ilna Vw;gl;l xg;ge;jj;jpd;go gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs;brd;idia M’;fpnyahplk; xg;gilj;jdh;/,uz; l hk; fh; e hlfg; n ghh; (1749?54)fhuz’;fs; : i~juhghj;ij Ml;rp bra;J te;j ep$hk;1748 Mk; Mz;L ,we;Jtpl;ljhy;. mtUila kfd; úLôRôY¬ehrh;$’; gjtp Vw;whh;/ ,jw;F ep$hkpd; ngudhd Krgh;$’; vjph;g;g[j; bjhptpj;jhh;/ ,ijg;nghd;nw Mw;fhl;oy;md;thUjPd; jd;Dila khkhthfpa re;jh rhfpg;igvjphjjhh/ Krgh; $’; kwWk; rejh rhfpg; ,UtUk; xdwhf ; ; ; ; ; ; YeLô[,ize;J gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fspd; cjtpia ehodh;/ Ijuhghj; ¡ÚxQô ®¬ÏPôkw;Wk; Mw;fhl;Lg; gFjpfspy; Vw;gl;l mhpaiz VWk; ùTinghl;ona nghUf;F fhuzkhapw;W/ Qôßnghhpd; nghfF : 1749 Mk; Mz;L gpbu”;Rg;gilfs; ; AW©dLPpMw;fhL vd;Dkplj;jpy; re;jh rhfpg; kw;Wk; K$gh;$’;Mfpnahh;fspd; gilfSld; ,ize;jJ/ ,f;Tl;Lg;gilfspd; Kaw;rpahy; md;thUjPd; njhw;fof;fg;gl;Lf; LôúY ¬ 8bfhy;yg;gl;lhh;/ gpwF re;jh rhfpg; fh;ehlf ethghfepakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ vdnt oa{gnsapd; cjtpf;Ff; ifkhwhf ; 1. TZúYtLôÓ ûYûLtGjht{h. tpy;ypaD}h; kw;Wk; ghz;or;nrhpf;F mUfpYs;s ; 2. ùNuû] (AûPVôo)ghTh; Mfpa ,l’;fis re;jhrhfpg; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fSf;Ff; 3. BtLôÓbfhLj;jhh;/ 4. YkRYô£ 5. Tôi¥fúN¬ ,e;jr; NHypy;. md;thUjPdpd; kfd; KfkJ myp 6. LPío CXeûLfh;ehlfj;jpypUe;J jg;gp Xor;brd;W jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp Ck§VlùTÚeLPp 7. TWe¡lúThûPnfhl;ilapy; j”;rk; g[Fe;jhh;/ mf;nfhl;il re;jhrhfpg;ghy; 8. LôûWdLôpKw; W ifaplg; g l; l J/ KfkJ myp M’; f pnyahplk; 9. SôLlTh¥]mjk;ikf; fhg;ghw;Wk;goa[k;. Mw;fhl;ilj; jhf;Fk;goa[k; 10. Ls°dúLôhûPnfl;Lf;bfhz;lhh;/ 7 8
  7. 7. M’ ; f py ,uhQqt mjpfhhp ,uhgh ; l ; f pist ; cld ; g of ; i fapd ; g o. ,e ; j pahtpYk ; ghz ; o r ; n rhp.Mw; f hl; i lj; jhf; f pdhh; / re; j hrhfpg; Mw; f hl; i lf; fhiuf;fhy; Mfpa ,uz;L gFjpfSk; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fsplk;ifg;gw;Wtjw;fhf jpUr;rpuhg;gs;spapypUe;J xU gilia kPz;Lk; xg;gilf;fg;gl;ld/ Mdhy; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs;mDg;gpdhh;/ Mdhy; ,uhgh;l;fpist;. M’;fpyj; jsgjp nfhl;ilfisg; gGJ ghh;f;f TlhJ vd;W epge;jidyhud;Rld; ,ize;J jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp kPJ gilbaLj;J tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ/ 1763 Mk; Mz;L M’;fpnyah;fSf;Fk;re; j h rhfpg; i gj; njhw; f oj; j hh; / nkYk; Muzp. gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fSf;Fk; ,ilnaahd Mjpf;fg;nghl;ofhnthpg;ghf;fk; Mfpa ,l’;fspy; gpbu”;Rg;gilfs; KotilejJ/ ;njhw;fof;fg;gl;ld/tpistfs; : ,g;nghhpy; M’;fpnyah; btw;wp bgw;wdh;/ [ M’;fpnyahpd; btw;wpf;fhd fhuz’;fs; :1755 Mk; Mz;L Vw;gl;l ghz;or;nrhp cld;gof;if 1/ gp b u ” ; R g ; g i l j; js g jp fs ; xw ; W i kn a hL,g; n ghiu Kot[ f ; F bfhz; L te; j J/ KfkJ myp bray;gltpy;iy/ Mdhy; M’;fpnyah;fs; xw;WiknahLMw;fhl;L ethghf mwptpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ bray;gl;lhh;fs;/ vdnt M’;fpnyah;fs; btw;wp bgw;wdh;/K:d;whk; fh;ehlfg;nghh; (1758 ? 63) 2/ uhgh;l; fpist;. yhud;!;. mah;Tl; nghd;w rpwe;jfhuzk; : Inuhg;ghtpy; eilbgw;w VHhz;Lg;nghh; jsgjpfs; M’;fpnyah; trk; ,Ue;jdh;/K:dwhk; fh;ehlfg; nghUf;F cldof; fhuzkhf mike;jJ/ ; 3/ Inuhg;ghtpy; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; njhy;tpiaj; jGtpdh;/nghhpd; nghf;F : ft[d;l;?o?yhyp vd;gth; gpbu”;R vdnt fh;ehlfg; gFjpfspy; M’;fpnyaiu vjph;j;JMSeuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ mth; brd;idiaf; ifg;gw;wj; mth;fshy; nghl;oapl ,aytpy;iy/jpl;lkpl;L flY}hpy; cs;s g[dpj nltpl; nfhl;iliaf;ifg;gw;wpdhh;/ gpd;dh; mth; j”;rht{iu jhf;fpdhh;/ 4/ gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fis tpl M’;fpnyahpd; flw;gilbrd;idiaf; ifg;gw;wj; jpl;lkpl;l mth; typik thaejjhf ,UejJ/ Mjyhy; gpbu”Rffhuhfshy; ; ; ; ; ; ;Ijuhghj;jpypUe;J gpbu”;Rj; jsgjp g[!;!pia cjtpf;F M’;fpnyaUld; nghl;oapl ,aytpy;iy/ ,jdhy;miHj;jhh;/ uhgh;l; fpist;. jdJ gilj; jsgjp mah;Tl;vd; g tiu gpbu”; R g; gilfSld; nghhpLtjw; F gpbu”Rffhuhfs; njhytpailejdh/ ; ; ; ; ; ;mDg; g pdhh; / te; j thrp vd; D kplj; j py; gpbu”; R f;fhuh; f Sf; F k; . M’; f pnyah; f Sf; F k; ,ilna nghh; 5/ M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpa fk;bgdp xU jdpahh; epWtdk;Vw ; g l ; l J/ mg ; n ghhpy ; ft [ z ; l ; ? o?yhyp. mah ; T l ; MFk;/ Mdhy; gpbu”;Rf; fpHf;fpe;jpa fk;bgdp xUvd;gtuhy; njhw;fof;fg;gl;lhh;/ gpbu”;Rg;gFjpfis murh’;f epWtdk; MFk;/ Mfnt gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fspdhy;M’;fpnyah;fs; ifg;gw;wpdhh;/ epjp epiyikia nkk;gLj;j ,aytpy;iy/ rh; mah; T l; ‘te; j thrp tP u d; ’ vd; w gl; l g; b gaUld; kjpggL ; P : rpwg ; g pf ; f g ; g l ; l hh ; / ,uhgh;l;fpist; : 1743 Mk; Mz;L uhgh;l; fpist;tpist [ f s ; : 1763 Mk; Mz; L Vw; g l; l ghhp!; M’; f pyf; fpHf; f pe; j paf; fk; b gdp apd; vGj; j uhfcld;gof;ifapd;go VHhz;Lg;nghh; Kot[w;wJ/ mnj ,e;jpahtpw;F te;jhh;/ gpd;dh; mth; ,uhQqtg; gzpapy; 9 10
  8. 8. jk;ik ,izj;Jf; bfhz;lhh;/ g[dpj $hh;$; nfhl;ilapy; fw; w y; tpist[ f s;mike;Js;s fpwpj;Jt nguhyaj;jpy; jpUkzk; bra;J 1 / jkpH; e hl; o w; F te; j Inuhg; g pah; f isg; gw; w pj;bfhz;lhh;/ ,e;jpahtpy; M’;fpy Ml;rp miktjw;F bjhpe;J bfhz;ldh;/moj;jsk; mikj;jth; ,uhgh;l; fpist; Mthh;/nkYk; 2/ M’; f pnyah; ? gpbu”; R f; f huh; Mjpf; f g; n ghl; o f; f hd fhuz’;fis Muha;e;jdh;/ Rakjpg ; g P L I/ rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf : 1/ fhd;!;lhd;onehgps; ifg;gw;wg;gl;l Mz;L (m) 1498 (M) 1453 (,) 1492 (<) 1484 ,uhgh;l; fpist; oa{g;ns 2/ Kjd; Kjypy; ,e; j pahtpw; F fly; t Hpiaf; fzLgpojj Inuhggpahfs; ; ; ; ;,th; ‘,e;jpahit btd;wth;’ vd;Wk; miHf;fg; gLfpwhh;/,uhgh;l; fpist; Mw;fhl;ilf; ifg;gw;wpaJ M’;fpy (m) nldpah;fs; (M) gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs;fpHf;fpe;jpa fk;bgdpapd; tuyhw;wpy; xU jpUg;g[ Kid (,) nghh;r;Rf;fPrpah;fs; (<) M’;fpnyah;fs;ahf mike;jJ/ Mfnt mth; ‘Mw;fhl;L tPuh;’ vdmiHf;fg; gLfpwhh;/ mth; bgw;w btw;wp apd; fhuzkhf 3/ lr;Rf;fhuh;fs; ve;j ehl;ilr; rhh;e;jth;fs;mth; t’; f h sj; j pd; Kjy; MSeuhf (1757?60) (m) ,’;fpyhe;J (M) gpuhd;Repakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/mth; t’;fh sj;jpy; ,ul;il Ml;rp Kiw (,) ~hye;J (<) bld;khh;f;vd;w xU g[jpa eph;thf Kiwia mwpKfg;gLj;jpdhh;/ 4/ Kjy; fh;ehlfg; nghiu Kotpw;F bfhz;L te;joa{gns : ,e;jpahtpy; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fspd; Mjpf;fj;ij ; cldgofif ; ;epiybgwr; bra;tjpy; oa{g;nsapd; g’;F Fwpg;gplj; (m) ma;?yh?rhg;ngy; (M) ghz;or;nrhpjf;fjhFk;/ ,th; 1697 Mk; Mz;L gpwe;jhh;/ 1731 Mk; Mz;Lt’;fhsj;jpy; cs;s gpbu”;Rf; FoapUg;ghd re;jpuehThpd; (,) ghhp!; (<) myfhghj;MSeuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ 1742 Mk; Mz;L ,th; 5/ Mw;fhl;L tPuh; vd miHf;fg;gl;lth;ghz;or;nrhp kl;Lky;yhJ ,e;jpahtpYs;s gpbu”;Rg; (m) oa{g;ns (M) ft[z;l;?o?yhypgw;wpl’;fs; midj;jpw;Fk; MSeuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ (,) g[!;!p (<) ,uhgh;l; fpist;,e;jpa kz;iz tpl;L M’;fpnyah;fis tpul;LtnjmtuJ Fwpf;nfhshf ,Ue;jJ/ ,e;jpahtpy; gpbu”;R Ml;rpepWtntz;Lk; vd tpUk;gpdhh;/ Mdhy; mtuhy; mijepiwntw;w ,aytpy;iy/ 11 12
  9. 9. II. nfhol;l ,l’;fis epug;g[f : IV. RUf;fkhd tpilasp : 1/ btdpR efug; gazpahd __________ jkpH;ehl;ilg; 1/ jkpH;ehl;oy; cs;s lr;Rg; gw;wpl’;fs; ahit> gw;wp Fwpg;g[fs; je;Js;shh;/ 2/ Kjy; fh;ehlfg; nghUf;fhd fhuz’;fs; ahit> 2/ ___________ vd ; D kplj ; j py ; 1608 Mk ; Mz ; L 3/ ghz;or;nrhp cld;gof;if ? Fwpg;g[ tiuf/ lr;Rf;fhuh;fs; xU bjhHpw;rhiyia Vw;gLj;jpdhh;fs;/ 4/ K:d;whk; fh;ehlfg; nghUf;fhd fhuzk; ahJ> 5/ te;jthrp tPuh; vd mah;Tl; miHf;fg;glf;fhuzk; 3/ gpbu”;Rf;fpHf;fpe;jpa fk;bgdp ____________ Mk; ahJ> Mz;L Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ/ 4/ ,e;jpahtpy; thzpfk; bra;tjw;fhd gl;laj;ij V. tphpthd tpilasp : ,’;fpyhe;J kfhuhzp ___________ ,lkpUe;J 1/ nghh;r;Rf;fPrpah;fs; jkpH;ehl;oy; jkJ Mjpf;fj;ij ork;gh; 31. 1600 Mk; Mz;L M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpa vt;thW epiyehl;odh;> fk;bgdp bgw;wJ/ 2/ Kjy; fh;ehlfg; nghiu tpthp/ 5/ Inuhg;ghtpy; eilg;bgw;w ______________ nghh; 3/ ,uz;lhk; fh;ehlfg; nghUf;fhd fhuz’;fisa[k; K:d;whk; fh;ehlfg; nghUf;Ff; fhuzk; MFk;/ nghhpd; nghf;ifa[k; tpthp/ 6/ rh; mah;Tl; ___________ vd;w gl;lg;bgaUld; 4/ jkpH;ehl;oy; M’;fpnyahpd; btw;wpf;fhd fhuz’;fs; bfsutpf;fg;gLfpwhh;/ ahit> 7/ 1763 Mk; Mz; L ghhp!; cld; gof; i fapd; go _________ Kot[w;wJ/ bra;Kiwg; gapw;rp 1/ jkpH ; e hL tiu glj ; j py ; nghh ; r ; R f ; f P r pah ; f s ; .III. bghUj;Jf : lr;Rf;fhuh;fs; kw;Wk; M’;fpnyah;fs; mikj;j m/ M Fonaw;w’;fisf; Fwpf;ft[k;. 1/ fhd;!lhd;onehgps; ; flY}h; 2/ fh;ehlfg; nghUld; bjhlh;g[ila ,l’;fis jkpH;ehl;od; tiuglj;jpy; Fwpf;ft[k;/ 2/ gpuhd!p!nfh?o? ; ; my;bka;lh lr;Rf;Fonaw;wg;gFjp 3/ gpuhd;rp!; khh;l;od; JUf;fpah; 4/ g[dpj nltpl; nfhl;il ePyepwf;bfhs;if 5/ ehfgglodk; ; ; ghzornrhp ; ; 13 14
  10. 10. nkw;Fg; gFjpapdh; g[ypj;;njthpd; fl;Lg;ghl;od; fPGk;. ghlk; 2 fpHf;Fg; gFjpapdh; fl;lbghk;kdpd; fl;Lg;ghl;od; fPGk; thH;eJ te;jdh;/ ; ghisaf; f huh; f s; g[ u l; r p ? ntY}h; fyfk; M’; f pyf; fpHf; f pe; j paf; fk; b gdp j’; f sJ thptNypg;ig mjpfhpf;Fk; vz;zj;jpy;. ghisaf;fhuh;fspd; fw; w y; nehf; f ’; f s; thptNy; bra;a[k; Kiwia vjph;j;jJ/ 1792 Mk; Mz;L fh;ehlf cld;gof;ifapd;go M’;fpnyah;fs; 1/ jkpHh ; f s ; M’ ; f pnyaiu vjph ; j ; J Kjd ; Kjypy ; ghisaf; f huh; f is j’; f sJ fl; L g; g hl; o d; fP H ; nghuhoath;fs; vd;gij bjhpe;J bfhs;Sjy;/ bfhz;Lte;jdh;/ bjd; gFjpapd; ghisaf;fhuh;fSf;Fk; 2/ fl;lbghk;kd; kw;Wk; Cikj;Jiu nghd;w ghisaf; M’; f pyf; fpHf; F ,e; j pa fk; b gdpf; F k; ,ilapy; fhuh ; f spd ; jpahfj ; j pid bjhpe ; J bfhs ; S jy ; / eilbgw; w Muk; g fhy nghuhl; l ’; f s; murpay; 3/ M’;fpnyaUf;Fk; kUJ rnfhjuh;fSf;Fk; ,ilna Vw;gl;l Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;jjhf fUjg;gLfpwJ/ M’;fpnyah;fs;. nkhjy; gw; wpj; bjhpe ; J bfhs; Sjy; / ghisaf;fhuh;fis jk;Kila vjphpfshfnt elj;jpdh;/ ghisaf;fhuh;fSk; btspehl;odh; jk; kPJ Mjpf;fk; ghisaf ; f huh ; f s ; g [ u l ; r p brYj;Jtij tpUk;gtpy;iy/ mjd; tpisthf 1799 Mk; Mz;L ghisaf;fhuh;fs; g[ul;rp btoj;jJ/ jkpH;ehl;oy;. kw;w ,e;jpag; gFjpfisg;nghyM’; f pnyaUf; F vjpuhd czh; r ; r pfspd; btspg; g hL g[ul;rpf;fhd fhuz’;fs; :cs;ehl;Lf; fpsh;r;rpfshft[k; vGr;rpfshft[k; njhd;wpd/ 1/ 1792 Mk; Mz;L ifbaGj;jplg;gl;l fh;ehlf kw;Wk;mtwWs; 1799 Mk; MzL M’fpy fpHffpejpaf; fkbgdpfF ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ru’fggllz cldgofiffs; ghisaffhuhfspd; P ; ; ; ; ; ; ;vjpuhfj; njhd;wpa ghisaf;fhuh;fs; fyfnk kPJ M’;fpnyah;fspd; Mjpf;fk; tYg;gl tHpKjd;ikahdjhFk;/ nfhypaJ/ ghisaf; f huh; f s; M’; f pnyaiu jkpH;ehl;oypUe;J tpulLtjwFj; jffj; jUzjij ; ; ; ; jkpH;ehl;oy; tpraefug;nguuR Ml;rp bra;j fhyj;jpy; vjph;ghh;jJf;bfhz;oUe;jdh;/ ;Fwpg; g hf. kJiuia Mz; l tp!; t ehj ehaf; f hpd; 2/ fh;ehlf cld;gof;if K:yk; ghisaf;fhuh;fsplk;Ml;rpf;fhyj;jpy; ghisaf;fhuh;fs; njhd;wpdh;/ thptNypf;Fk; chpikiag; bgw;w M’;fpnyah;fs;.ghisaf;fhuh;fs; vd;gth;fs; ghisak; my;yJ bghpa thp tNypf;f Ml;rpah;fis epakpj;jhh;fs;/epyg;gug;gpw;F chpikahsh;fs; Mthh;/ 3/ ghisaf;fhuh;fs; M’;fpnyaUf;Ff; fl;Lg;gl;L ghisak; vdgJ mthfsJ ,uhQqt nritiag; ; ; gzpg[hpa tpUk;gtpy;iy/ghuhl;o mth;fSf;F mspf;fg;gl;l epyg;gFjp MFk;/ 17kw;Wk; 18 Mk; E}w;whz;Lfspy; ghisaf;fhuh;fs; jkpHf 4/ M’; f pnyah; f s; Mf; f ukpg; g [ f ; bfhs; i fiag;murpaypy; mjpf brythfF bgwwpUejhhfs/ ehsiltpy; ; ; ; ; ; ; gpd;gw;wpdh;/ ,uhkehjg[uk;. kzg;ghiw. gHdp.mth;fs; j’;fis Rje;jpuk; bgw;wth;fshf vuf; n fhl; i l. kw; W k; brd; d y; F o Mfpa gymwptpj;Jf;bfhz;lhh;fs;/ jpUbey;ntypapd; nkw;Fg; ghisa’; f is M’; f pnyah; f s; Mf; f pukpj; j dh; /gFjpapy; thH;e;j ghisaf;fhuh;fs; kwth;fs; vd;Wk; M’;fpnyah;fspd; ,e;j Mf;fpukpg;g[f; bfhs;ifiafpHfFggFjpapdh; ehaffhfs; vdWk; miHffgglldh/ ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ghisaf;fhuh;fs; tpUk;gtpy;iy/ 15 16
  11. 11. I/g[ypj;njth; :,e;jpahtpy; M’;fp nya gh”;rhy’;Fwpr;rp ghisaj;jpd; Ml;rpg;bghWg;gpid Vw;whh;/Mlrpia jkpH; ehloypUeJ Kjd; Kjypy; ; ; ; M’;fpnyahpd; thptNy; bfhs;ifna M’;fpnyaUf;Fk;vjph; j ; j th; vd; w rpwg; g [ bfhz; l th; ; fl;lbghk;kDf;Fk; ,ilna tpnuhjk; Vw;gl Kf;fpaf;g[ypj;njth; Mthh;/ ,th; jpUbey;ntypf;F fhuzkhf mike;jJ/ 1798 Mk; Mz;L brg;lk;gh; khjk;mUfpy; cs;s bew;fl;Lk;brt;ty; vd;w gh”; r hy’; F wpr; r pg; ghisak; M’; f pyf; fpHf; f pe; j paghisaj; j py; Mjpf; f k; brYj; j pdhh; / fk;bgdpf;Fr; brYj;jntz;oa thpj;bjhif epYitapy;M’;fpnyaUf;Fk; Mw;fhl;L ethg;gpw;Fk; ,Ue;jJ/ fLikahd g”;rk; Vw;gl;ljpd; tpisthffl;Lg;gl;L fg;gk; fl;l kWj;j g[ypj;njth;. fl;lbghk;kd; fk;bgdpf;Fr; brYj;j ntz;oa epYitmth; f is vjph; f ; f t[ k ; Muk; g pj; j hh; / thpia brYj; j ,ayhky; my; y Yw; w hh; / Mdhy;M’; f pnyag; gilfSk; . ethg; g pd; uhkehjg [ u k ; Ml ; r pah ; epYit thpia cldoahfgilfSk; gypjnjtiuj; jhffpd/ ,Uthpd; [ ; ; brYjJkhW tughzoa fllbghkkDfFg; gy foj’fs; ; P ; ; ; ; ;gilfSk; g[ypj; njthplk; jpUbey;ntyp vGjpdhh;/ Mdhy; fl;lbghk;kd; mtuJ nfhhpf;iffisvd; D kplj; j py; njhy; t pa[ w ; w d/ ,e; j epuhfhpj;jhh;/btw; w pf; F g; g pd; . M’; f pnyah; ? ethg; gypjnjth; [ ;Tl;lzpia vjph;ff. ghisaf;fhuh;fs; midtiua[k; xd;W ; M’fpnya Mlrpah; fhypd; $hfrd; fllbghkkid ; ; ; ; ;jpul;l g[ypj;njth; Kad;whh;/ Mdhy; rptfphp. vl;lag[uk;. uhkehjg[uj;jpy; jk;ik te;J re;jpf;FkhW gzpj;jhh;/gh”;rhy’;Fwpr;rp Mfpa ghisaf;fhuh;fs; g[ypj;njtUf;F fllbghkkd; thpggzjJld; jpUfFwwhyjjpy; fkbgdp ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;Mjut[ mspf;ftpy;iy/ Ml; r pah; $hf; r id re; j pf; f tpUk; g panghJ $hf; r d; fl;lbghk;kidr; re;jpf;f kWj;Jtpl;lhh;/ fl;lbghk;kd;. cah; mjpfhuj;jpw;F vjpuhf nghuhoa tPuDf;F cjhuzkhf rptfphp. rhj; J }h; . mjd; g pd; jpUtpy; y pg[ j ; J }h; Mfpa g[ y pj; n jthpd; thH; f ; i f kw; W k; nghuhl; l k; mikfpwJ/ ,l’;fSf;F Ml;rpah; $hf;ridr; re;jpf;f 23 ehl;fs; gpd; bjhlh;eJ brd;whh;/ mjd;gpd;dh; uhkehjg[uj;jpy; Ml;rpaiu ; ; 1759 Mk; Mz;L ethg;gpd; gilfs; a{Rg;fhd; vd;w re;jpf;FkhW fl;lg;bghk;kDf;Ff; fl;lisaplg;gl;lJ/fhd;rhfpg; jiyikapy; bew;fl;Lk;brt;ty; gFjpiaj; 1798 Mk; MzL brglkgh; khjk; 19 Mk; ehs; fllbghkkd; ; ; ; ; ;jhf ; f pd/ me ; j hey ; Y }h ; vd ; D kplj ; j py ; g [ y pj ; n jth ; kw;Wk; mtuJ mikr;rh; rptRg;ukzpagps;is ,UtUk;njhw;fof;fg;gl;lhh;/ gida{h;. thRnjtey;Y}h; kw;Wk; uhkehjgujjpYss uhkyp’f tpyh!; vdw muzkidapy; [ ; ; ; ; ;bew;fl;Lk;brt;ty; Mfpa ghisa’;fis ethg;gpd; Ml; r pah; $hf; r idf; re; j pj; j dh; / $hf; r d; mth; f isgilfs; ifggwwpd/ caph; jggpjJ jiykiwthf thHej ; ; ; ; ; ; mtkjpj;jnjhL kl;Lkpy;yhky; mth;fis ifJ bra;at[k;g[ypj;njth;. fhd; rhfpg; ,we;jJk;. 1764 Mk; Mz;L Kwgllhh/ fllbghkkd; jd; rnfhjud; CikjJiuapd; ; ; ; ; ; ;bew;fl;Lk;brt;ty; gFjpia kPz;Lk; ifg;gw;wpdhh;/ 1767 cjtpa[ld; jg;gpr;brd;whh;/ Mdhy; mtuJ mikr;rh;Mk; Mz;L nfg;ld; nfk;bgy; vd;gtuhy; njhw;fof;fg; rptRg;gpukzpag;gps;is ifJ bra;ag;gl;lhh;/gl;l g[ypj;njthpd; filrp ehl;fisg; gw;wpj; bjspthfmwpaKoatpy;iy/ fl;lbghk;kd;. Ml;rpah; $hf;rdpd; elj;ijia tpthpj;J brd;idf; ft[d;rpYf;F xU fojk; vGjpdhh;/II.tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; : 1761 Mk; Mz;L nkYk; mth; jd;Dila mikr;rh; tpLjiy bra;ag;gltPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; gpwe;jhh;/ 1790 Mk; Mz;L ntz;Lk; vdt[k; tpUk;gpdhh;/ mg;nghija brd;id 17 18
  12. 12. MSeuhd vl;th;L fpist; fl;lbghk;kid mDg;gpdhh;/ neukpd;ikahy; fl;lbghk;kd; mijmogzpakhW fllisapllhh/ nkYk; vlthL fpist. [ ; ; ; ; ; ; epuhfhpj;jhh;/Ml;rpah; $hf;rdpd; jtwhd elj;ijf;fhf mtiug; gzpePf;fk; bra;J. rptRg;ukzpag; gps;isiaa[k; tpLjiy gh”;rhy’;Fwpr;rpapd; tPH;r;rp :: brg;lk;gh; khjk; 5bra;jhh;/ vdnt fl;lbghk;kd; ruzilaj; jPh;khdpj;jhh;/ Mk; ehs; nk$h; ghdh;nkd; jiyikapy; M’;;fpnyag;Mfnt vl;th;L fpist; xU tprhuizf; FGit epakpj;jhh;/ gilfs; gh”;rhy’; Fwpr;rp nfhl;ilia Kw;Wifapl;ld/1798 Mk; Mz;L ork;gh; 15 Mk; ehs; mf;FGtpd; Kd; ghdh;nkd; gh”;rhy’;Fwp”;rp nfhl;ilf;Fr; bry;Yk; vy;yhfl;lbghk;kd; M$uhdhh;/ tHpfisa[k; Jz;oj;jhh;/ nkYk; uhkyp’;fKjypahiu mDg;gp fl;lbghk;kid ruzila[khW ghdh;nkd;fl;lbghk;kDk; Tl;lzpa[k;: rptf’;if ghisaj;ij nfhhpdhh; / mijf; fl; l bghk; k d; kWj; J tpl; l hh; /rhh;e;j kUJghz;oah; jd; mz;il ghisaf;fhuh;fSld; uhkyp’;fKjypahh; nfhl;iliag;gw;wpa ufrpa’;fisr;,ize;J xU Tl;lzpia Vw;gLj;jpdhh;/ nrfhpj;jhh;/ mjd; mog;gilapy; ghdh;nkd; je;jpukhffl;lbghk;kDf;F ,e;jf; Tl;lzpapy; nru Mh;tk; nfhl;iliaj; jhf;f jpl;lkpl;lhh;/ fhsh;gl;o vd;w,Ue;jJ/ Mdhy; mg;nghija Ml;rpah; Y}c&p’;ld;. ,lj; j py; ele; j nkhjypy; rptRg; g pukzpag; g ps; i sfl;lbghk;kd; kUJ rnfhjuh;fisr; re;jpg;gij jil ifjhdhh;/ g[Jf;nfhl;il murh; fsg;g{h; fhl;oy; xspe;jpUe;jbra;jhh;/ ,j;jilia kPwp kUJ rnfhjuh;fSk;/ tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kidr; rpiwgpoj;J M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpaf;fl;lbghk;kDk; M’;fpnyaiu vjph;ggjw;F xU rjpj;jpl;lk; ; fk;bgdpaplk; xg;gilj;jhh;/jP l ; o dh; / fl; l bghk; k d; rptfphpg; ghisaj; i j jd;Tl;likg;gpy; nrh;jjpl Kad;whh;/ Mdhy; fpsh;rrpahsh;fs; ; ; fl ; l bghk ; k d ; J}f ; f pyplg ; g Ljy ; : gh”; r hy’;Tllikggpy; nru rptfphp ghisaffhuh; kWjJtpllhh/ ; ; ; ; ; ; Fwpr;rpapd; tPHrrpf;Fg; gpwF ghdh;nkd; rpiwf;ifjpfis ; ;vdnt. fl;lbghk;kd; rptfphp nehf;fp ghisaf;fhuh;fs; Kd; epWj;jp tprhuiz bra;J. kuzgilbaLj;Jr;brd;whh;/rptfphp ghisak; M’;fpnyah;fSf;F jz;lida[k; tH’;fpdhh;/ 1799 Mk; Mz;L mf;nlhgh; khjk;jpiw brYj;Jk; ghisakhf ,Ue;jJ/ Mfnt M’;fpyf; 16 Mk; ehs; jpUbey;ntypf;F mUfpy; cs;s faj;jhWfpHf;fpe;jpaf; fk;bgdp fl;lbghk;kdpd; gilbaLg;ig nfhl;ilapy; gy ghisaf;fhuh;fspd; Kd;dpiyapy;jd; mjpfhuj;jpw;bfjpuhd xU rthyhff; fUjpj; jdJ tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; J}f;fpyplg;gl;lhh;/gilfis jpUbey; n typ kP J gilbaLf; F khWfl;lisapl;lJ/ III/kUJrnfhjuhfs; : 18 Mk; E}w;whz;od; gpw;gFjpapy; ; bjd;dpe;jpahtpy; M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf kUJ rnfhjuh;fs;M’;fpnyag;gilfspd; Kd;ndw;wk; : M’;fpnya fyfk; brajdh/ kUJ rnfhjuhfs; Kfifah gHepaggd; ; ; ; : ; ;jiyik MSeh; bty;y!;yp. 1799Mk; Mz;L nk khjk; kw;Wk; bghd;dhj;jhs; Mfpnahhpd; kfd;fs; Mth;/ K:j;jfl;lbghk;kDld; nghh; bjhLf;f nk$h; ghdh;nkd; rnfhjuh; bghpa kUJ vd;Wk; ,isath; rpd;dkUJjiyikapy; xU gilia mDg; g pdhh; / ghisa’; vd; W k; miHf; f g; g l; l dh; / mth; f Sk; g[ f H; bgw; wnfhl ; i lapy ; brg ; l k ; g h ; 4?Mk ; ehsd ; W jd ; i dr ; rpd;dkUJ ‘kUJ ghz;oad;’ vd;W miHf;fg;gl;lhh;/re; j pf; F khW fl; l bghk; k Df; F fojk; xd; i wa[ k ; rptf’;ifia Mz;L te;j Kj;J tLfehj njthplk; 19 20
  13. 13. rpddkUJ gzpahwwpdhh/ 1772 Mk; MzL MwfhL ethg; ; ; ; ; ; mjd; tpisthfj; jkpH; ehl;ilr; rhh;e;j gyrptf’ifia KwWifaplL ifggwwpdhh/ vdpDk; rpy ; ; ; ; ; ; ghisaf ; f huh ; f s ; M’ ; f pnyanuhL nghuhLtjw ; f hfkhj’fSfFg; gpwF rptf’if kUJ ; ; ; mzpjpuz;L te;jdh;/ M’;fpnyag; gilfisrnfhjuh;fshy; kPz;Lk; ifg;gw;wg; vjph;g;gjw;fhf rpd;d kUJ 20.000 tPuh;fisj; jpul;odhh;/gl;L bghpa kUJ rptf’;ifapd; nk 1801?y; M’;fpnyah;fs; fyff;fhuh;fis j”;rht{h. jpUr;rp ;kd;duhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ Mfpa ,l’;fspy; jhf;fpdh;/ M’;fpnyahpd; gphpj;jhSk; bfhs;if ghisaf;fhuh;fspd; gilfisg; gphpj;jJ/ fl;lbghk;kd; ,we;jgpwF fyff;fhuh;fs; fhisahh;nfhtpy; brd;wdh;/ mth;fs;mtuJ rnfhjuh; Cikj; J iu M’;fpyg;gilfshy; njhw;fof;fg;gl;ldh;/ Cikj;Jiugh”;rhy’; Fwpr;rpia tpl;L ntW gpogl; L rpur; n rjk; bra; a g; g l; l hh; / uhkehjg[ u k;,lj;jp;y; j”;rk; g[Fe;jhh;/ khtl ; l j ; j pYs ; s jpUg ; g j ; J }h ; nfhl ; i lapy ; kUJjd;Dila rnfhjudpd; kiwtpw;F rnfhjuh; f s; J}f; f pyplg; g l; l dh; / kUJ rnfhjuh; f s;fhuzkhd M’;fpnyaiug; gHpth’;f M’;fpnyaiu btw;wp bfhs;shtpl;lhYk; jkpHfj;jpy;Cikj;Jiu tpUk;gpdhh;/ ,e;jf; njrpa czht[ vdw tpijia KjdKjy; tpijjjthfs; ; ; ; ; ;fhyf;fl;lj;jpy;. kUJ rnfhjuh;fs; Mth;/ vdnt bjd; ,e;jpaf;fyfk; jkpHf tuyhw;wpy; rpd;d kUJ rpwg;gplk; bgWfpwJ/fl;lbghk;kdpd; rnfhjud;Cikj;Jiuf;Fg; ghJfhg;g[ mspj;J j’;fsJ Mjuita[k; 1801 Mk; Mz;L gpufldk; M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf vy;yheyfpdh/ ; ; ,e; j pah; f isa[ k ; xd; w pizj; j Kjy; gpufldkhFk; / rpd ; d kUJ ‘rptf’; i f rp’; f k;’ vd ; W miHf ; f g ; g l ; l hh ; / ntY}h ; f yfk ; kUJ rnfhjuh;fspd; ,r;bray; M’;fpnyaiu 1806 Mk; Mz;L Vw;gl;l ntY}h; fyfk; 1857 Mk;rwwkilarbrajJ/ M’fpnyahfs; rptf’ifiaj; jhffj; P ; ; ; ; ; ; ; MzL Vwgll ,ejpa rpgghaf; fyfjjpwF Kdndhoahf ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;jahuhapdh;/ kUJ rnfhjuh;fSk; M’;fpnyahpd; ,e;j jpfH;fpwJ/ ,J jkpHf tuyhw;wpy; xU Kf;fpakhdvjph; g ; i g re; j pf; f Maj; j epiyapy; ,Ue; j dh; / epfH;r;rpahf fUjg;gLfpwJ/ _u’;fg;gl;ldk; nghhpy;rptf’;ifapd; kPJ chpikapy;yhj nghJk; rptf’;ifiaf; jpg;g[Ry;jhd; bfhy;yg;gl;lJk;. mjidj; bjhlh;e;Jifg;gw;wp kUJ ghz;oad; Ml;rp elj;jp tUfpd;whh; vd;W Vw;gl;l epfH;r;rpfSk; ntY}h; rpg;gha;f; fyfk; Vw;gl;lf;M’;fpnyah; mth; kPJ Fw;wk; rhl;odh;/ M’;fpnyahpd; fhuz’; f shapd/ ,f; f yfk; Fwpg; g pl; l FWfpa,r;bray; rpd;d kUJit M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhfg; fhyj;jpw;Fs; xLf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lhYk; jkpHf kf;fspd;nghhplj; J}z;oaJ/ vdnt. rpd;dkUJ 1801 Mk; Mz;L kdjpy; xU bgUk; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ/$Pd; khjk; M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf mwpf;if xd;iwbtspapl;lhh;/ mt;twpf;ifapd; xU goiaj; jpUr;rpapy; 1799 Mk; Mz;L jpg;g[tpd; kiwtpw;Fg;gpwF.ethgpd; muz;kid thapypYk; kw;bwhd;iw _u’;fk; jpg;gtpd; g[jy;th;fSk;. g[jy;tpfSk; ntY}h; nfhl;ilapy; [nfhapy; Rtw;wpYk; xl;odh;/ ,t;thW kUJ rnfhjuh;fs; rpiw itf;fg;gl;ldh;/ ed;F gapw;rp bgw;w gy;ntWM’; f pnyaUf; F vjpuhf vjph; g ; g [ z h; t pid vy; y h ghisa’;fisr; rhh;e;j nghh; tPuh;fs; M’;fpyg; gilapy;,l’;fspYk; gug;gpdh;/ nrh;j;Jf; bfhs;sg;gl;ldh;/ ntY}h; nfhl;ilapy; ,Ue;j 21 22
  14. 14. gil tPuh;fs;. M’;fpnyah;fs; bfhz;L te;j cil fpHpf;fg;gl;lJ/ ntY}h; nfhl;ilapy; jpg;g[ Ry;jhdpd;khw;wj;ij vjph;j;J nghhpLtJ vd;W Kot[ bra;jdh;/ bfho gwf;ftplg;gl;lJ/giltPuh;fs; jiy Koia kHpf;fntz;Lk; vd;Wk;. kpft[k; ,f;fl;lhd ,e;j NH;epiyapy; Mw;fhl;oy;kPiria vLf;fntz;Lk; vd;Wk; fl;lhag;gLj;jg;gl;ldh;/ j’;fpapUe;j fh;dy; fpy!;gp ntY}Uf;F tpiue;J te;Jb e w ; w p i a my ’; f hpf; F k; kj rpd; d ’; f s; j il fyff;fhuh;fisj; jhf;fpdhh;/ Vuhskhd ,e;jpa tPuh;fs;bra;ag;gl;ld/ nkYk; rpYitg; bghwpf;fg;gl;l g[jpa bfhd;W Ftpf;fg;gl;ldh;/ fyfk; KGtJkhfjiyg;ghifia mzpa tw;gWj;jg;gl;ldh;/ ,e;J kw;Wk; [ mlf;fg;gl;lJ/ gpd;g[ ntY}hpy; mikjp jpUk;gpaJ/,!yhkpa tuhfs; ,ij vjphjjdh/ rpYit milahsk; ; P ; ; ; ;j’;fis kjk; khw;Wk; Kaw;rp vd;W ,e;J tPuh;fs; njhy;tpf;fhd fhuz’;fs; :re;njfg;gl;ldh;/ vdnt giltPuh;fs; M’;fpnyaUf;F 1/ cjtpiaa[k;. xj;JiHg;iga[k; nfhhp bjd;dpe;vjpuhf jiyg;ghifiaj; J}f;fp vwpe;jdh;/ mjdhy; jpahtpy; ,Ue;j gy kd;dh;fSf;F fyff;fhuh;fs;M’;fpnyah;fshy; giltPuh;fs; jz;of;fg;gl;ldh;/ foj’;fs; mDg;gpdhh;fs;/ Mdhy; cjtp fpl;Lk; Kd;dnu g[ul;rp btoj;jJtpl;lJ ,e;jpa tPuh;fs; M’;fpnyaiug; gHpth’;f jf;f 2/ g [ u l ; r pahsh ; f is tHp elj ; j pr ; bry ; y j ; jf ; fjUzj;ij vjph;nehf;fp fhj;jpUe;jdh;/ nkYk; ikNh;g; jiyikapy;iy/gilfs; ntY}h; rpgghafSfF Mjut[ mspjjdh/ vdnt. ; ; ; ; ;1805?1806 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf ntY}hpy; 3/ M’ ; f pnyaUf ; F vjpuhf bray ; g l jpg ; g [ t pd ;fyfk; btoj;jJ/ ike;jh;fsplKk; cwtpdh;fsplKk; nghjpa mst[ jpwik ,y;iy/fyfj;jpd; nghf;F: 4/ M’;fpnyahpd; gphpj;jhSk; bfhs;if ,e;jpah;fspd;jpg;g[ Ry;jhdpd; cw xw;Wikiaf; Fiyj;jJ/tpdh;fs; 1806 Mk;Mz;L $Piy 10 Mk; fw;wy; tpist[fs; 1/ bjd ; ,e ; j paf ; fyfj ; j pw ; f hdf ; fhuz’ ; f isg ; g [ h pe ; Jehs; ntY}h; nfhl; bfhz;ldh;/iliaf; ifg;gw;wj; 2/ g[ypj;njth;. tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; kw;Wk; kUJjpl;lkpl;ldh;/ rnfhjuh;fspd; njr gf;jpiag; g[hpe;J bfhz;ldh;/Mdhy; 1806 Mk; 3/ ntY}h;; fyfk; gw;wp g[hpe;J bfhz;ldh;/Mz;L $Piy 9 Mk;ehs; es; s putpy; . Rakjpg ; g P LntY}h; nfhl; i l I. rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf :apy; ,Ue;j tPuh;fs; ntY}h; nfhl;il 1/ jkpH;ehl;oy; ghisaf;fhuh; Kiw njhd;wpaJj’;fSila Kfhik (m) nrhHh;fs; fhyj;jpy;tpl;L btspte;jdh;/ mth;fs; M’;fpnyaiu vjph;ghuhjtifapy; jhf;fp Jg;ghf;fpr; NLk; elj;jpdh;/ nfhl;ilapd; (M) ghz;oah;fs; fhyj;jpy;fjt[ f s; milf; f g; g l; l d/ nfhl; i lapy; gwe; j (,) gy;yth;fs; fhyj;jpy;/M’;fpnyahpd; bfho. fPnH ,wf;fg;gl;L. Rf;F E}whf (<) tpraefu nguurh; fhyj;jpy; 23 24
  15. 15. 2/ jkpHfj;jpy; M’;fpnyaiu Kjd; Kjypy; vjph;j;jth; III/ bghUj;Jf : (m) g[ypj;njth; (M) tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; m/ M (,) Cikj;Jiu (<) kUJ rnfhjuh;fs;/ 1/ _u’;fg;gl;odk; Mw;fhL ethg;3/ kUJ rnfhjuh;fs; Ml;rp g[hpe;j ghisak; cld;gof;if 2/ KfkJ myp 1792 (m) gh”;rhy’; Fwpr;rp (M) rptf’;if 3/ M’;fpnyah; fllbghkkdpd; rnfhjuh; ; ; (,) bew;fl;Lk;brt;ty; (<) rptfphp 4/ Cikj;Jiu 18064/ ntY}h;fyfk; eilbgw;w Mz;L 5/ ntY}h;fyfk; gphpj;jhSk; bfhs;if/ (m) 1799 (M) 1801 (,) 1806 (<) 1857 IV/ RUf;fkhd tpilasp :II. nfhol;l ,l’;fis epug;g[f : 1/ fl;lbghk;kd; kw;Wk; uhkehjg[uk; Ml;rpah; ,UtUf;Fkpilapy; ele;j re;jpg;ig Fwpg;gplt[k;/1/ ghisaf;fhuh;fs; __________ my;yJ __________ 2/ fl;lbghk;kd; vt;thW J}f;fpyplg;gl;lhh;> f;F brhe;jf;fhuh;fs;/ 3/ kUJ rnfhjuh;fspd; bgw;nwhh; ahh;>2/ M’; f pnyah; f s; ___________ cld; g of; i fapd; go 4/ Cikj;Jiu ? rpW Fwpg;g[ tiuf/ ghisaf;fhuh;fs; kPJ thptNypf;Fk; chpik bgw;wdh;/ 5/ ntY}h; fyfk; njhy;tp mile;jjw;fhd fhuz’;fs; ahit>3/ g[ypj;njth; ___________ vd;w ghisaj;ijr; rhh;e;jth;/4/ bew;fl;Lk;brt;ty; ethg;gpd; gilfshy; ___________ V/ tphpthd tpilasp : Mz;oy; jhf;fg;gl;lJ/ 1/ ghisaf;fhuh; g[ul;rpf;fhd fhuz’;fs; ahit>5/ tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; ____________ Mk; Mz;L 2/ g[ypj;njth; vt;thW M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf fpsh;r;rp gpwe;jhh;/ bra;jhh;> 3/ ghisaf;fhuh; Tl;likg;gpy; tPu ghz;oadpd; g’;F6/ tPughz;oa fl;lbghk;kd; jpUbey;ntypf;F mUfpy; ahJ> cs;s __________ nfhl;ilapy; J}f;fpyplg;gl;lhh;/ 4/ M’;fpnyaUf;F vjpuhf kUJ rnfhjuh;fs; bray;gl;l7/ rpd;d kUJ __________ vd;W miHf;fg;gl;lhh;/ tpjj;jpid tpsf;Ff/8/ rpd;d kUJtpd; gpufldk; ,e;jpah;fs; ________ f;F 5/ ntY}h; fyfj;jpd; nghf;if tpsf;Ff/ vjpuhf ,iztjw;fhd Kjy; gpufldkhFk;/ bra ; K iwg ; gapw ; r p9/ 1806 Mk; Mz;L Vw;gl;l ntY}h;fyfk; 1857 Mk; Mz;L jkpH;ehl;ilr; rhh;e;j g[fH;bgw;w ghisaf;fhuh;fspd; Vw;gl;l __________ f;F Kd;ndhoahf jpfH;e;jJ/ gl’;fis nrfhpf;ft[k;/ 25 26
  16. 16. ghlk; 3 epythpj;jpl;lk; : M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpa fk;bgdp. ek; ehl;od; eph;thfg; bghWg;ig Vw;Wf;bfhz;l fhy fl;lj;jpy; gytpjkhd epythp tNypfFk; Kiwfs; mkypy; ,Uejd/ ; ; M’ ; f pnyah ; Mjpf ; f j ; j pd ; f P H ; jkpHfj ; j pd ; jd;Dila tUthia mjpfg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf fk;bgdp bghUshjhu epiy epythp Kiwia tphpt[ g Lj; j paJ/ ,e; j Kiwapy; fk;bgdp gytpjkhd epythp jpl;l’;fis ghprPypj;J fw ; w y ; nehf ; f ’ ; f s ; mkygLjjpaJ/ ; ; 1/ jkpH ; e hl ; o d ; bghUshjhuepiy. epythpj ; jpl ; l ’ ; f s ; . tptrhak; kw;Wk; ePh;g;ghrdk; Fwpj;J mwpe;J epiyahd epythpj;jpl;lk; : M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpa bfhs;Sjy;/ fk; b gdp 1792 Mk; Mz; L tUtha; j ; Jiwapd; 2/ ifj; b jhHpy; f s; eyptile; j jw; f hd fhuz’; f isg; g[hpe;J bfhs;Sjy;/ bray;ghLfis kWrPuikg;g[ bra;jJ/ 1799 Mk; Mz;L j”rht{Uk. 1801 Mk; MzL fhehlfg; gFjpak; fkbgdp ; ; ; ; [ ; bghUshjhu epiy Ml;rpapd; fPH; te;jJ/ M’;fpy MSeh; vl;th;L fpist; ehL KGtJk; xnu khjphpahd thptNypf;Fk; Kiwia j k pH; e hl ; o d; b ghU s h j h u k; t ptrh aj ; i j eilKiwf;F bfhz;L tu ntz;Lbkd;w nehf;fj;njhLmog;gilahff; bfhz;lJ/ kpfg; gH’;fhyj;jpypUe;nj. fhud;thypR gpug[tpd; epiyahd epythpj;jpl;lj;ijbghJ kf;fSk;. murh;fSk;. ePh;g;ghrd’;fs; mikg;gjpy; typa[Wj;jp eilKiwg;gLj;jpdhh;/ ,e;j Kiwapy; thpMh;tj;ijr; brYj;jpdhh;fs;/ gUtkiH jtWjy; kw;Wk; tNiy eph;zapf;Fk; bghUl;L midj;J epyg;gFjpfSk;kiHf;fhyj;jpy; Vw;gLk; bts;sk;. g[ay; Mfpaitfs;cHth;fis kpft[k; ghjpj;jd/ xU’;fpizf;fg;gl;ld/ mt;thW ,izf;fg;gl;l epy’;fs; kpl; l h vd miHf; f g; g l; l d/ me; j kpl; l hf; f s; epythp. murh’;fj;jpd; Kf;fpa tUthahf ,Ue;jJ/ kpllhjhuhfsplk; FjjiffF tplggllJ/ 1802 Mk; MzL ; ; ; ; ; ; ;mYkpdpa ghj; j pu’; f s; . fhyzpfs; . njhypdhyhd ghuhk~hypy; ,e;j epiyahd epythpj;jpl;lk; bfhz;LbghUl;fs; nghd;wtw;iw cw;gj;jp bra;a[k; tug;gl;lJ/ ghisa’;fs; $kPd;fshf khw;wg;gl;ld/bjhHpw;rhiyfSk; fhzg;gl;ld/ M’;fpy fpHf;fpe;jpaf; fk;bgdp thptNypg;gjpy; Fj;jif Kiwiag; gpd;gw;wpaJ/ br’;fy;gl;L. nryk;. jpz;Lf;fy;. ,e;jpa bjhHpw;r’;fr;; rl;lk; (1926). Ru’;fr; rl;lk; uhkehjg[uk; kw;Wk; jpUbey;ntyp Mfpa ,l’;fspy; ,e;j(1935). bjhHpyhsh;fs; ec&;l <L rl;lk; (1923) Kjypa epythpj;jpl;lk; njhy;tpa[w;wJ/rll’fs; bjhHpyhshfspd; eyd; fUjp gpwggpffgglld/ ; ; ; ; ; ; ;,e;j fhyfl;lj;jpy; gy jkpHh;fs; j’;fs; Kd;ndw;wk; fpuhk epyj;jhitj; jpl;lk; :fpHf;fpe;jpaf; fk;bgdpapd; P ;fUjp. ,y’if. knyah. rp’fgg{h. ghkh. bjd; Mggphpffh ; ; ; ; ; ; ; vjph;g;ghh;g;g[fis epiyahd epythpj;jpl;lk; g{h;j;jpKjypa may; ehLfSf;Fr; brd;whh;fs;/ jkpHh;fs; ,y’;ifnjapiyj; njhl; l ’; f spYk; . knyahtpd; ug; g h; bra;atpy;iy/ vdnt 1804 Mk; Mz;L Kjy; 1814 Mk;njhl;l’;fspYk;. bjd; Mg;gphpf;fhtpd; Ru’;f’;fspYk; MzL tiuapyhd fhyjjpy; fpuhk epyjjhit Kiwia ; ; ; P ;ntiy bra;jhh;fs;/ Mdhy; me;j ehLfs; Rje;jpuk; mile;j fpHf; f pe; j paf; fk; b gdp mky; g Lj; j paJ/ ,e; j KiwgpwF. m’; F thH; e ; j jkpHh; f s; gy Jd; g ’; f Sf;F jpUbey;ntyp. jpUr;rpuhg;gs;sp. nfhak;g[j;J}h;. bjd;Mshdhhfs/ ; ; Mw;fhL kw;Wk; tl Mw;fhL Mfpa khtl;l’;fspy; 27 28
  17. 17. eilKiwg; gLj; jg; gl; l J/ ,e; j Kiwapd; K: yk; 3/ epahakhd thp kjpg;gPL bra;ag;gl;lJ/fk;bgdpahdJ tpis epyg;gug;g[fis epyr;Rthd; 4/ jhpR epy’;fs; murh’;fj;jpd; fl;Lg;ghl;od; fPH;jhuh;fsplk; tptrhak; bra;a[k; bghUl;L xg;gilj;jJ/ bfhz;L tug;gl;ld/,e; j epy’; f s; nkYk; gphpf; f g; g l; L cHth; f splk; 5/ cHth;fSf;F. thp tNypf;Fk; mjpfhhpfs; gw;wpFjjiffF tplgglld/ epiyahd epythp jplljjpwFk. ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; KiwaPL bra;a[k; chpik mspf;fg;gl;lJ/fpuhk epyj;jPh;it Kiwf;Fk; mjpf ntWghL ,y;yhjfhuzj;jpdhy; fpHf;fpe;jpa fk;bgdp. brd;id ft[d;rpiy 6/ thpr; R ik mjpfhpf; F k; nghJ murh’; f j; j plk;uaj;Jthhp Kiwia mky;gLj;JkhW gzpj;jJ/ KiwaPL bra;a cHth;fSf;F chpik tH’fggllJ/ ; ; ;uaj;Jthhpj; jpl;lk; : f h u d ;thypR gpug[ thp tNy; Kiwia uaj;Jthhpj; jpl;lj;jpd; epiwfs; :rP h ; j pUj; j k; bra; a [ k ; bghUl; L 1/ cHth;fs; murh’;fj;jplk; neuoahf thpmbyf;rhz;lh; hPl; kw;Wk; jhk!; brYjjpdhhfs/ ; ; ;kd; n wh Mfpa ,Utiua[ k ;epakdk; bra;jhh;/ gytpjkhd 2/ cHth;fs; thp brYj;Jk; bjhif eph;zapf;fg;gl;lJ/epythpf; b fhs; i ffis ed; F 3/ thp tNy; K: y k; murh’; f j; j pw; F epiyahdMuha;e;j jhk!; kd;nwh (1820?27) tUkhdk; fpilj;jJ/brd;id khfhzj;jpy; uaj;Jthhp 4/ jhpR epy’;fs; cHth;fsplk; jpzpf;fg;gltpy;iy/Kiwia mwpKfg; gLj;jpdhh;/gpd;dh; nryk;. j”;rht{h;. kyghh; uaj;Jthhpj; jpl;lj;jpd; Fiwfs; :kw;Wk; uhayrPkh Mfpa 1/ gy ,l’;fspy; epythp kpf mjpfkhfgFjpfspYk; uaj;Jthhp Kiw tpjpffgglljhy; cHthfs; mdwhl brytfSfnf ; ; ; ; ; [ ;mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ/ kd;nwh jhk!; kd;nwh my;yYw;whh;fs;/tpd; Tw;Wg;go murh’;fj;jpw;Fk; cHth;fSf;Fk; ,ilnacs;s neuo bjhlh;ng uaj;Jthhp vd;gjhFk;/ cHth;fs; 2/ epythpj; jpl;l’;fis murh’;fk; cHth;fsplk;murh’;fj;jpw;F neuoahf thp brYj;jntz;Lk; vd;gnj neuoahf mky;gLj;jpaJ/ epyj;ij msg;gjpYk;,jd; Fwpf;nfhshFk;/ vdnt ,k;Kiw uaj;Jthhp vd;W thpia eph;zapg;gjpYk; murh’;fk; epyg;gpug[ffis ;miHf;fg;gLfpwJ/ fyejhnyhrpfftpyiy/ ; ; ; 1857 Mk; Mz;ow;Fs; jkpHfj;jpd; bgUk; gFjpuaj;Jthhpj; jpl;lj;jpd; Kf;fpa mk;r’;fs; : uaj;Jthhp Kiwapd; fPH; bfhz;L tug;gl;lJ/ 1/ thp tNy; bra;ag;gLk; epy’;fs; milahsk; kfythhp Kiw : 1833 Mk; Mz;L kfy;thhp Kiw ; fhzgglld/ ; ; tpyypak; bgzo’; gpugtpdhy; eilKiwggLjjggllJ/ ; ; [ ; ; ; ; 2/ epyj; j pd; kP J cHth; f Sf; F cs; s chpik ,e;j Kiwapy; cHth;fSk;. epy chpikahsh;fSk; ephzapffggllJ/ ; ; ; ; murh’fjjplk; xU Fwpggpll fhyjjpwF xggejk; braJ ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; 29 30
  18. 18. bfhzldh/ uajJthhp KiwapYk. kfy; thhp KiwapYk. ; ; ; ; ; khfhzj;jpy; bghJg;gzpj;Jiwia mikj;jhh;/ nkYk;cHth;fspd; epiyapy; vt;tpjkhd khw;wKk; 1883 Mk; Mz;L Vhp g[Jg;gpf;Fk; jpl;lk; (Tank Restorationfhzggltpyiy/ ; ;tptrhak; tptrhak; ekJ bghUshjhuj;jpd; KJbfYk;g[MFk;/ 95 tpGf;fhL jkpHf kf;fs; tptrhaj;ij jkJthH; f ; i fapd; Mjhukhff; bfhz; o Ue; j dh; / 18 Mk;E}w;whz;od; kj;jpapy; kf;fs; bjhif Fiwe;Jk;. tpisepy’fs; kpFeJk; fhzggllJ/ vdnt cHthfs; kpFej ; ; ; ; ; ;epyg;gug;gpy; tptrhak; nkw;bfhz;ldh;/ mjpf mstpy;czt[g; gaph;fisna gaph; bra;J te;jdh;/ nkYk; mth;fs;gaph; bra;j KiwfSk;. gad;gLj;jpa bjhHpy;El;gKk;kpfg;gHikahdjhft[k;. kpf gpw;nghf;fhdjhft[k; fhzg;gl;lJ/ tptrhaj;Jiwapy; ,ae;jpu’;fs; gad;gLj;jg; fy;yizgltpy;iy/ tptrha rKjhak; epykhdpa Kiwiagpdgwwpna fhzggllJ/ cHthfs; murUfF thp brYjjp ; ; ; ; ; ; ; Scheme) V h p f s p d ; e p i y i a M u h a ; t j w ; f h fte;jdh;/ M’;fpnyah;fs; gzg;gaph;fshd gUj;jp. rzy;. Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ/ 200 Vf;fh; epyg;gug;gpw;Fk; mjpfkhfmt[hp. fhfpjk;. fUk;g[. g[ifapiy kw;Wk; vz;bza; ePh;ghrd trjp jUk; Vhpfs; bghJg;gzpj;Jiwapd; fPGk;tpj; J f; f s; gaph; bra; t ij Cf; F tpj; j dh; / mjdhy; 200 Vf;fh; epyg;gug;gpw;F Fiwthf ePh;ghrd trjp jUk;gzg;gaph;fs; tpahghu nehf;Fld; mjpf mst[ cw;gj;jp Vhpfs; tUtha;j;Jiwapd; fPGk; bfhz;L tug;gl;ld/bra;ag;gl;ld/ vdnt tptrhak; th;jjfka khf;fg;gl;lJ/ ; Vhpfis gGJ ghhfftk. guhkhpfftk; mej JiwfSfF ; ; [ ; ; [ ; ;tptrhaj; J iwapy; . njapiy. fhg; g p kw; W k; ug; g h; mjpf mstpy; gzk; mspf; f g; g l; l J/ nkYk;njhl;l’;fspd; K:yk; th;j;jf tsh;r;rp Vw;gl;lJ/ jpUf;nfhapY}h; (1895). nrj;jpah njhg;g[ (1895). ghyhh; (1896) bghpahh; (1897) Mfpa mizfs; fllgglld/ 1934 MzL ; ; ; ;e P h ; g ; g hrdk ; fl; l g; g l; l nkl; ^ h; miz Rje; j puj; j pw; F Kd; g [ fl;lg;gl;l kpfg;bghpaj; jpl;lkhFk;/ ePh;g;ghrdKiw ,e;jpahtpy; gH’;fhyj;jpypUe;njfhzg; g LfpwJ/ fy; y iz gz; i lf; f hy miz bjhHpw; r hiyg; b ghUl; f s; tUiftotikg;gpd; mjpraf;fjf;f mk;rkhFk;/ ,J ,uz;lhk;E}w;whz;oy; thH;e;j fhpfhy; nrhHdhy; fl;lg;gl;ljhf 1857 Mk; Mz; L nghuhl; l j; j pw; F g; g pwFek;gg;gLfpwJ/ 1839 Mk; Mz;oy; fhtphpapy; fl;lg;gl;l ,e;jpahtpypUe;j midj;J M’;fpy gFjpfSk; M’;fpynkyiz M’; f pnyah; fhyj; j pd; Kjy; kpfg; b ghpa Koahl;rpapd; fPHf; bfhz;L tug;gl;lJ/ uhzp tpf;nlhhpah ;jpl;lkhFk;/ Vwf;Fiwa mnj Mz;oy; fPH; miza[k; mth;fs; murpahf mjpfhug;g{h;tkhf mwptpf;fg;gl;lhh;/fl;lg;gl;lJ/ ly;b~srp gpug[. 1852 Mk; Mz;L brd;id 31 32
  19. 19. M’;fpy tzpfh;fSf;F ,J xU tug;gpurhjkhf mike;jJ/ KygbghUlfshd gUjjp. rzy. mthp kwWk; njapiy : ; ; ; ; [ ;Kg;gJ nfho kf;fisf; bfhz;l mg;nghija ,e;jpah. Mfpatw;wpid kpFjpahf cw;gj;jp bra;ak; ehlhf khwpaJ/ [M’;fpy tpahghhpfspd; re;ijahf khwpaJ/ M’;fpnyah; ,ae; j pu’; f spd; cjtpahy; cw; g j; j p bra; a g; g l; lMl;rpf;fhyj;jpy;. ,’;fpyhe;J bjhHpw;rhiyapy; cw;gj;jp bghUl; f spd; tuthy; iftpidj; bjhHpw; T l’; f s;bra;ag;gl;l bghUs;fs; jkpH;ehl;ow;F vLj;J tug;gl;ld/ eyptile;jd/ ,ae;jpu’;fspdhy; cw;gj;jpr; bra;ag;gl;lmt[hp. njapiy kw;Wk; fhg;gp nghd;w njhl;lg;gaph;fs; bghUs; f s; re; i japy; Ftpf; f g; g l; l jhy; fpuhk,e;jpahtpy; Kjd; Kjyhf mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;ld/ iftpid”h;fspd; jpwikapdhy; cw;gj;jpr; bra;ag;gl;l fiyg ; b ghUl ; f spd ; njit Fiwe ; j J/ gy fpuhk braw;if ,iHapdhy; bra;ag;gl;l Milfs; iftpid”h;fs; j’;fSila ghuk;ghpakpf;f bjhHpy;fis,e;jpahtpw;F bfhz;Ltug;gl;ld/ mitfs; jtph;j;Jtpl;L efu’;fSf;F Fobgah;e;jdh;/ghuk;ghpakpf;f fjh; MilfSf;F khw;whf mike;jd/nkYk; ,e;jpah;fs; M’;fpnyag;bghUl;fis M’;fpnyah;fshy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l uapy;th’;fntz;Lk; vd tw;gWj;jg; gl;lhh;fs;/ uapy; tz;oapd; [ tz;ofspd; tuthy; iftpidg;bghUl;fspd; cw;gj;jp,af;F bghwpfSk; (vd;$pd;) kw;Wk; ePuhtp ,ae;jpu’;fSk; eyptilaj; bjhl’;fpaJ/ uapy; tz;ofspd; cjtpahy;jkpH; ehl;ow;F bfhz;Ltug;gl;ld/ fk;gpapy;yh je;jp.bjhiyngrp kw; W k; jghy; Kiwa[ k ; mwpKfg; M’;fpnyah;fshy; cw;gj;jp bra;ag;gl;l bghUl;fs; ehLgLj;jg;gl;lJ/ ,Ug;g[g;ghij epWtdj;jpy; xU bgUk; KGtJk; tpw;gid bra;ag;gl;ld/ cs;ehl;oy; cw;gj;jpg [ u l ; r p Vw ; g l ; l J/ 1856 Mk ; Mz ; L brd ; i df ; F k ; bra ; a g ; g l ; l bghUl ; f s ; M’ ; f py murh’ ; f j ; j pdhy ;muf;nfhzj;jpw;Fk; ,ilna ,Ug;g[g;ghij Mjhpf;fg;gltpy;iy/ iftpidg;bghUl;fspd; Kf;fpamikf;fg;gl;lJ/ uhag[uj;jpy; M’;fpnyah;fs; 1856y; Kjy; thofifahshfshftk. Mjuthshfshftk; ,Uej Rnjr ; ; [ ; ; [ ;,uapy;nt epiyaj;ij mikj;jdh;/ uhnk!;tuj;jpw;Fk;. kd;dh;fs; j’;fsJ bry;thf;if ,He;j fhuzj;jpdhy;kz ; l gj ; j pw ; F k ; ,ilna ghk ; g d ; ghyk ; xd ; W k ; jkpHehloy; ifjbjhHpy; tshrrp eyptwj; bjhl’fpaJ/ ; ; ; ; ; [ ;fl;lg;gl;lJ/ xyp gug;g[k; bjhHpy;Jiw tp”;”hdj;ij kl;ghz;l’;fs;. fz;zhog;bghUl;fs;. fhfpjg;bghUl;fs;. ;M’;fpnyah;fs; ,e;jpahtpw;F bfhz;L te;jhh;fs;/ mijj; gUj;jp Milfs;. gidg;bghUl;fs; kw;Wk; fapw;why;bjhlh;e;J ,e;jpa thbdhyp epiyak; 1936 Mk; Mz;L bra;ag;gl;l bghUl;fspd; cw;gj;jpf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk;Muk; g pf; f g; g l; l J/ M’; f py muRf; F tUkhdk; mspf;fg;gltpy;iy/ ifj;bjhHpy;fs; eypt[wwjhy; ntiy ;njhl;lg;gaph;fs;. fdpk bghUl;fs;. t’;fp kw;Wk; Ma[s; apy;yhj; jpz;lhl;lk; Vw;gl;lJ/ M’;fpy Ml;rp bjhl’;fpafhggL. fggy; nghfFtujJ kwWk; rzy; Miyfs; Kyk; ; P ; ; ; ; : miu E}w;whz;ow;Fs;. g[fGk; bgUika[k; tha;ej ,e;jpaf;;fpiljjJ/ 19 Mk; E}wwhzod; gpwgFjpapy; ,ejpahtpy; ; ; ; ; ; ifj;bjhHpy;fs; gog;goahf eyptile;jd/gy bjhHpw;rhiyfs; mikf;fg;gl;ld/ Mdhy; mtw;wpd;tsh;r;rp Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhf ,y;iy/ fw; w y; tpist[ f s; 1/ jkpH;ehl;oy; fhzg;gLk; tptrhak; kw;Wk; ePh; ghrdifj; b jhHpy; eyptiljy; Kiwfis mwpe;J bfhz;ldh;/ 2/ iftpidg ; b ghUl ; f s ; eyptile ; j jw ; f hd fhuz’ ; f is iftpidg; bghUl;fspd; Vw;Wkjpahsh; vd;w mwpe;J bfhz;ldh;/epiyapypUe;j ,e;jpahthdJ Fiwe;j tpiy 33 34
  20. 20. Rakjpg ; g P L 3/ Vhp g[Jg;gpf;Fk; jpl;lk; tpy;ypak; bgz;o’;I/ rhpahd tpiliaj; njh;e;bjLj;J vGJf : 4/ ,e;jpad; ,uapy;nt knyah 1/ ,e;jpa bjhHpw;r’;fr; rl;lk; gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;l Mz;L 5/ g[ifapiy ly;b~srp (m) 1927 (M) 1926 (,) 1934 (<) 1935 2/ epiyahd epythpj; jpl;lj;ij Vw;gLj;jpath; IV/ RUf;fkhd tpilasp : (m) fhud; thyP!; (M) bty;y!;yp 1/ fpuhk epyj;jPh;itj;jpl;lk; vd;why;vd;d> (,) tpy;ypak; bgz;o’; (<) ly;b~s!p 2/ epiyahd epythpj;jpl;lk; gw;wp rpW Fwpg;g[ jUf/ 3/ nkl^h; miz fl;lg;gl;l Mz;L ; (m) 1875 (M) 1895 (,) 1897 (<) 1934 3/ M’;fpnyah;fshy; Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl;lg; gzg;gaph;fs; ahit> 4/ ,e;jpa bghUshjhuj;jpd; KJbfYk;g[ (m) bjhHpw;rhiy (M) tptrhak; 4/ Rje ; j puj ; j pw ; F Kd ; g [ ,e ; j pahtpy ; fl ; l g ; g l ; l mizf;fl;Lfs; VnjDk; K:d;wpidf; Fwpg;gpLf/ (,) tpahghuk; (<) nghf;Ftuj;J 5/ ,e;jpa ifj;bjhHpy;fs; eyptile;jjw;fhdf; fhuz’;fs; ahit>II/ nfhol;l ,l’;fis epug;g[f : 1/ M’;fpnyna fth;dh; vl;th;L fpist; xnu khjphpahd V/ tphpthd tpilasp : __________ Kiwia eilKiwg;gLj;j tpUk;gpdhh;/ 1/ uaj;Jthhp Kiwapd; mk;r’;fs; mjd; epiwfs; kw;Wk; 2/ ___________ v d ; g t h ; uaj;Jthhp Kiwia mwpKfg;gLj;jpdhh;/ Fiwfis Muhat[k;/ 3/ cHth; f Sf; F thptNypf; F k; ____________ gw; w p 2/ M’;fpnyah; Ml;rpapy; ePh;g;ghrdj;Jiwapy; Vw;gl;l KiwaPL bra;a[k; chpik mspf;fg;gl;lJ/ Kd;ndw;w’;fis tpthpf;ft[k;/ 4/ 1857 Mk; Mz; o w; F s; jkpHfj; j pd; bgUk; g Fjp 3/ M’;fpnyah;fshy; jkpH;ehl;ow;F bfhz;L tug;gl;l _____________ Kiwapd; fPH; bfhz;L tug;gl;lJ/ Miyg;bghUs;fs; gw;wp vGJf/ 5/ fy;yiz ,uz;lhk; E}w;whz;oy; thH;e;j ____________ vd;gtuhy; fl;lg;gl;lJ/ bra ; K iwg ; gapw ; r pIII/ bghUj;Jf : g{kgfhUfFr; brdW m’Fss iftpidgbghUsfis ; [ ; ; ; ; ; ; m M ghh;j;J bjhpe;J bfhs;st[k;/ 1/ ug;gh; njhl;lk; njhl;lg;gaph; 2/ kfy;thhp jpl;lk; 1883 35 36
  21. 21. ghlk; 4 Rth’; vd;Dk; rPdg;gazp eurpk;kth;k gy;yth; fhyj;jpy; fh”;rpg[uj;jpw;F tUif g[hpe;jhh;/ ehse;jh gy;fiyf;fHfj;jpd; ntejuhf ,Uej jhkghyh; fh”rpgujij nrhejth; Mthh/ ; ; ; ; [ ; ; ; ; tpLjiyf ; F Kd ; jkpHfj ; j py ; fy ; t p irt kw;Wk; itzt kl’;fs; fy;tpia Mjhpj;jd/ tsh; r ; r p tpfhu’;fs;. rkzg;gs;spfs; g[j;j kw;Wk; rkz kjj; jj;Jt’;fisg; gug;gpd/ vz;zhapuk;. jpUgtzp kw;Wk; fw; w y; nehf; f ’; f s; Fd;wj;J}h; Mfpa ,l’;fs; gpw;fhyr; nrhHh;fs; fhyj;jpy; 1/ jkpH; e hl; o y; Rje; j puj; j pw; F Kd; g [ fy; t papy; Vw; g l; l fhzg;gl;l fy;tpf;Tl’;fs; MFk;/ tsh;r;rp gw;wp mwpjy;/ 2/ fpwpj; J t FUkhh; f spd; fy; t pj; bjhz; o id g[ h pe; J bghpa g [ u hzj ; i j vGjpa nrf ; f pHhh ; brd ; i dia mLj ; j bfhs;Sjy;/ Fd; w j; J }iur; rhh; e ; j th; / 3/ nkiyehl ; L fy ; t papd ; tpist [ f is g [ h pe ; J bfhs;Sjy;/ fy;tp epiya’;fs; ghz;oah;fs; fhyj;jpy; rhiyfs; vd;wiHf;fg;gl;ld/ ghz;oah;fs; jpUtde;jg[uj;jpw;F mUfpYs;s fhe;jS:hr; rhiy kw;Wk; ghh;jpgnrfug[uk; Mfpa ; gz; i lf; f hyj; j py; fy; t p ,l’;fspy; fy;tp epiya’;fis mikj;jdh;/ j”;rht{iu ‘,sikapy; fy;’ vd;gJ gz;ilf; fhyj;jpy; Mz;l kuhj;jpa kd;dd; ,uz;lhk; rungh$p vd;gth;tH’;fpa KJbkhHp/ gy jkpH;g;g[yth;fs; fy;tpapd; 1824 Mk; Mz;L ru!;tjp kfhy; vd;Dk; E}yfj;ijKdndwwjjpwfhf ghLglLsshhfs/ r’f fhyjjpy; thHej ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; j”;rht{hpy; epWtpdhh;/ ,t;thwhf tp$a efu murh;fs;.murh;fSk;. jsgjpfSk; Tl gy ghly;fis ehaf;fh;fs; kw;Wk; kuhj;jpa kd;dh;fs; fy;tp tsh;r;rpf;F,aw;wpa[s;shh;fs;/ bgz;fs; gy;ntW fiyfshd ,ay;. bgUk;g’;F Mw;wpapUf;fpwhh;fs;/ jkpH;ehl;oy; mnugpa,ir. ehlfk; nghd; w j; Jiwfspy; nkk; g hLw; W kwWk; ghurfffytp kjuhrhffspd; Kykhf mspffggllJ/ ; P ; ; ; : ; ; ;,Uejhhfs; vd r’f ,yffpa’fs; TWfpdwd/ bgzghw; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; fpwpj; J tf; FUkhh; f spd; fy; t pj; b jhz; Lgythfshd Xsitahh. fhfifg; ghodpahh. Kljjhkf; [ ; ; ; ; ;fz;zpahh; nghd;w g[yth;fs; r’;f fhyj;jpy; thH;eJs;sdh;/ ; 15 kw;Wk; 16 Mk; E}w;whz;oy; Vw;gl;l kWkyh;r;rpnkYk; r’;f fhy kd;dh;fs; fy;tpia Cf;Ftpj;jdh;/ ,e;jf; kw;Wk; fpwp!;Jt rka rPh;jpUj;jj;jpw;F gpwF Inuhg;gpafhy fl;l’;fspy; fpuhk’;fspy; Muk;gg; gs;spf;Tl’;fs; ehl ; i lr ; rhh ; e ; j nghh ; r ; R f ; f P r pah ; f s ; / lr ; R f ; f huh ; f s ; .kuj;jpd; epHypy; my;yJ nfhapy;fspy; braw;gl;ld/ M’;fpnyah;fs; kw;Wk; gpbu”;Rf;fhuh;fs; ,e;jpahtpw;Fnky;epiyf; fy;tpf;Tl’;fSk; fhzg;gl;ld/ mit te;jdh;/ mth;fs; fpwpj;Jt rkaj;ij gug;gj;kl’;fs;. gs;spfs; my;yJ tpfhu’;fs; vd bjhl’;fpdhh;fs;/ nkYk; jkpH;ehl;od; gy gFjpfspy;miHf;fg;gl;ld/ fpwpj;Jt FUkhh;fs; gy gs;spfis (Missionary Schools) epWtpdhh;fs;/ gyythfs; fhyjjpy. fytpj; Jiwapy; Kdndwwk; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;fhzg; g l; l J/ ,e; J . g[ j ; j kw; W k; rkzh; f Sf; f hd fpwpj ; J t FUkhh ; f spd ; tsh ; r ; r p : gjpdhwhk;fy; t pf; T l’; f s; fh”; r pg[ u k; nghd; w ,l’; f spy; E}w;whz;oy; Kjd; Kjypy; nghh;rRf;frpah;fs; jkpH;ehl;oy; ; P rkaj; bjhzoid Mukgpjjdh/ mthfs; VRr’fk; vdw ; ; ; ; ; ; ;mikf;fg;gl;ld/ fh”;rpg[uk; rk!;fpUj bkhHpapd; rpwe;j mikg ; i g Vw ; g Lj ; j pdh ; / mr ; r ’ ; f ghjphpkhh ; f Ss ;,yf;fpaf; Tlkhf jpfH;e;jJ/ ,’;Fs;s ifyhrehjh; mUl;je;ij bgh;zhd;l!; (Father Fernandas) vd; g th;nfhapy; bghJ Mtzf; fhggfkhftk; tps’fpaJ/ ath’; ; [ ; [ Kf;fpakhthh;/ 37 38
  22. 22. ,th; 1567?y; g[ d ; d f; f hay; vd; D kplj; j py; xU ,f;ndrpa!; ynahyh vd;w rka gug;g[f;FGnjthyaj;ija[k. gs;spiaa[k; epWtpdhh;/ ,e;j VRr’;fk; ; brd;idapy; ynahyh fy;Y}hpia epWtpaJ/ jhk;guj;jpy;brd;id. ehfg;gl;odk;. jpUr;rp kw;Wk; jpz;Lf;fy; Mfpa brd;idf; fpwpj;Jtf; fy;Y}hp. ehfh;nfhtpypy; !;fhl;,l’ ; f spy ; mjpf mstpy ; gs ; s pf ; Tl’ ; f isa [ k ; fpwpj;Jtf; fy;Y}hp. kJiuapy; mbkhpf;fd; fy;Y}hp.fy;Y}hpfisa[k; mikj;jJ/ jpUr;rpapy; g[dpj n$h!g; fy;Y}hp. ghisa’;nfhl;ilapy; g[dpj nrtpah; fy;Y}hp kw;Wk; brd;idapy; bgz;fs; kJiu rkag;gug;g[f;FG (Madura Mission) fy;tp fpwpj; J tf; fy; Y }hp nghd; w it fy; t p tsh; r ; r pf; f hftsh;r;rpf;F Mw;wpa nrit Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;/ rpwe;j Vw;gLj;jg;gl;ld/ br’;fy;gl;L kw;Wk; brd;id Mfpamwpthw;wy; bfhz;l uhgh;l;?o?nehgpyp vd;w ghjphpahh; ,l’fspy; gy fyY}hpfSk. gsspfSk; epWtgglld/ ; ; ; ; ; ;1605 Mk; Mz;L jkpH;ehl;ow;F te;jhh;/ 1606 Mk; Mz;L gpuhl!;lz;l; FUkhh;fs; brd;id. j”;rht{h;. flY}h;.KjJfpUc&zggehaffh; fhyjjpy; kJiufF tUif ghpejhh/ ; ; ; ; ; ; [ ; ; jpUr;rp. ghisa’;nfhl;il kw;Wk; ehfh;nfhtpy; Mfpamth; jkJ rka gug;g[g; gzpfis bjd; jkpH;ehl;oy; ,l’;fspy; fy;Y}hpfisa[k; gs;spfisa[k; mikj;jdh;/Fwpg; g hf kJiuapy; Muk; g pj; j hh; / mth; Xh; ,e; J ngry; rkagug;g[f; FG (Basel Mission) gapw;rp bgw;wrkaj;Jwtpiag; nghy jd;id khw;wpf;bfhz;L ,e;Jf; mehijfSf;F ntiy tha;g;gspj;jJ/ ViH kf;fSf;Ffyhr;rhuj;ijg; gpd;gw;wp. fpwpj;Jt rkaf; bfhs;iffis Xh; ekgpfif xspia bfhLjjJ/ yzld; rkaguggfFG ; ; ; ; ; [ ;kf;fsplk; gug;gpdhh;/ kJiu rka gug;g[f;FGtpd; ehfh;nfhtpy;. bea;a{h; kw;Wk; ghisa’; nfhl;il Mfpakw;bwhU jdpj;jd;ik tha;e;j rpwg;g[f;Fhpa mUl;je;ij ,l’;fspy; jd; ftdj;ijr; brYj;jpaJ/ ,e;j mikg;g[$hd; o?gphpl;nlh Mthh;/ mth; fpwpj;Jt rkaj;ijg; fy;tp tsh;r;rpapy; mjpf ftdk; brYj;jpaJ/gug;g[tjw;fhf uhkehjg[uk; kw;Wk; g[Jf;nfh l;ilf;F jkpH;ehl;oy; fpwpj;Jt r’;f’;fs; nkiy ehl;Lf;fy;tpbrdwhh/ tukhKdpth; vdW bgUikald; mwpaggLk; ; ; P ; [ ; Kiwia Kjd;Kjypy; mwpKfg;gLj;jpd/ fpwpj;Jtfhd;!;ld;ild; n$hrg; bg!;fp ,e;jf;FGtpy; 1711 Mk; FUkhh;fshy; jpwf;fg;gl;l gs;spfs; rhjp kj ngjkpd;wpMz;L Kjy; 1742 Mk; Mz;L tiu gzpahw;wpdhh;/ nkYk; midjJ ,d khzthfSfFk; gapwrpaspjjJ/ ,tthwhf ; ; ; ; ; ;,th; jkpHpy; ,yf;fz E}y;fisa[k; mfuhjpfisa[k; jkpH ; e hl ; o ypUe ; j fpwpj ; J t FUkhh ; f s ; fy ; t papd ;vGjpa[s;shh;/ Kd;ndw;wj;jpy; Kjd;ikahd g’;F tfpj;jhh;fs;/ mbkhpf;f ahH;g;ghz rka gug;g[f;FG vd; w M’ ; f pnyah ; tUiff ; F gpwF jkpHff ; f y ; t pmikg;g[ 1834 Mk; Mz;L epWtg;gl;lJ/ ,e;j mikg;g[kJiu. jpzLffy; kwWk; uhkehjguk; Mfpa ,l’fspy; ; ; ; [ ; ; M’fpy fpHffpejpaf; fkbgdp nghjpa bghUshjhu ; ; ; ;gy gs;spf;Tl’;fis epWtpaJ/ Mw;fhL rka gug;gfFG [ ; trjpapy;yhj fhuzj;jhy; fy;tp tsh;r;rpapy; ftdk;1853 Mk; Mz; L mbkhpf; f hit nrh; e ; j !; f l; l h; brYj;jhJ fhyk; jhH;j;jpaJ/ 1813 Mk; Mz;L gl;lar;rnfhjuh;fshy; (Scudder Brothers) Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ/ mth;fs; rl;lj;jpd; go ,e;j epiyapy; khw;wKk;. fy;tp tsh;rrpapy; ;kUj;Jtkidfisa[k;. jh;k!;jhgd’;fisa[k; kw;Wk; xU g [ j pa bjhlf ; f Kk ; Vw ; g l ; l J/ ,e ; j gl ; l ar ;gs;spfisa[k; epWtp moj;jl;L kf;fspilna gpurpj;jpg; rl;lj;jpd;go nkiy ehl;Lf; fy;tp tsh;r;rpf;fhf M’;fpybgw;whh;fs;/ Mw;fhL khtl;lj;jpy; ChP!; (Voorhees) ghuhSkd;wk; Mz;L xd;Wf;F xU yl;rk; U:gha; epjpiafy;Y}hpiaa[k; kw;Wk; gy gs;spfisa[k; epWtpdhh;fs;/ xJf;fpaJ/ ,ijj; bjhlh;e;J gs;spf;Tl g[j;jf r’;fk; 39 40
  23. 23. (School Book Society) 1819 Mk; Mz;L bjhl’;fg;llJ/ 1820 ; fy; t papypUe; J fy; Y }hpf; fy; t p tiu midj; JMk; Mz;L jhk!;kd;nwh vd;gth; brd;id khfhzj;jpd; goepiyfisa[k; ,izg;gnj ,jd; Fwpf;nfhshFk;/MSeuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;/ mth; fy;tp jpl;l’;fSf;fhfr; nkiy ehl;Lf;fy;tpiag; gug;g[tjw;F ,j;jpl;lk; mjpfbrytplg; gLk; bjhif vd; W k; mHptpy; yhjJ vd tha;g;gspj;jJ/ ,e;jg; g[jpa Kiwapy; khtl;l kw;Wk;thjpl;lhh;/ mijj;bjhlh;e;J 1822 Mk; Mz;L fy;tpf;FG tl;lmstpyhd gs;spfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpj;jJ/(Education Commission) xd;W mikf;fg;gl;lJ/ bghJf;fy;tp ,e;jg; gs;spfspy; jha;bkhHpapy; fy;tp nghjpf;fg;gl;lJ/thhpak; (Board of Public Instruction) xd;W mikf;fg;gl;L. M’;fpyk; xU ghlkhf fw;gpf;fg;gl;lJ/ tl;lhubkhHpg;xtbthU khtlljjpYk; muRg; gsspfs; epWtgglld/ ; ; ; ; ; ;nkYk; tl;l’;fspYk; gs;spfs; jpwg;gjw;F gs;spfs; jpwf;fg;gl;ld/Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl;ld/ kd;nwhtpd; Kaw;rpapdhy; brd;id rhh;y!; cl;mwpf;if fy;tp tsh;r;rpapd; ‘kfhrhrdk;’ vd;Wkhfhzj;jpy; Vwj;jhH 70 gs;spfs; epWtg;gl;ld/ miHf; f g; g l; l J/ 1823 Mk; Mz;L bghJf;fy;tp ,af;Fdufk; mikf;fg;gl;lJ/ gj;bjhd;gjhk; E}w;whz;od; kj;jpapy; fy;tp rPuhf V/n$/mh;g[j;ehl; vd;gth; mjd; Kjy; ,af;Feuhf epakpf;fg; tsuj;bjhl’;fpaJ/ nky;epiyf;fy;tp epiyahd totp gl ; l hh ; / idg; bgw;wJ/ 1835 Mk; Mz;o ypUe;J bray;gl;lfPH; nehf;fpg; gut[k; jpl;lk; (Filtration theory) : 1830Mk; Mz;L. M’;fpyf; fpHf;fpe;jpaf; fk;bgdp fPH;nehf;fpgut[k; jpl;lj;ij mwpKfg;gLj;jpaJ/ mjd;go fy;tpnky;kl;l gphpitr; rhh;e;j kf;fSf;F kl;Lk; Kjypy;mspf;fg;gl;lJ/ mth;fs; jhk; bgw;w mf;fy;tp mwpitbghJkf;fSf;F mspf;fntz;Lk;/ nky;kl;lkf;fsplkpUe;J fy;tpahdJ bghJkf;fis brd;wilahjfhuzj;jpdhy; ,k;Kiw njhy;tpapy; Kotile;jJ/ brd; i d kUj; J tf; f y; Y }hp (1835). brd; i dkhepyg;gs;sp (1836) brd;idf; fpwpj;;Jtg;gs;sp (1840).brd;id gr;irag;gd; gs;sp (1841) Mfpa gs;spfs; khepy fy;Y}hpbry; t e; j h; f s; kw; W k; cah; F oapdhpd; njitiaepiwntw;wpaJ/ efug;gs;spfisj; jtpu kw;w gs;spfs; kUj;Jtg; gs;sp 1851 Mk; Mz;L kUj;Jtf; fy;Y}hpahfg[wf;fzpf;fg;gl;ld/ tsh;e;jJ/ brd;id apy; bjhl’;fg;gl;l epy msitg;gs;sp 1857 Mk; Mz;L bghwpapay; fy;Y}hp ahfrhh;y!; cl; mwpf;if (Charles Wood’s Despatch) : M’;fpyf; tsh;ejJ/ khepyg;gs;sp khepyf; fy;Y}hpahf cUg; bgw;wJ/ ;fpHffpejpaf; fkbgdp jdJ jtWfis czheJ/ 1854 Mk; ; ; ; ; ; mJ epyggpugffSk. murFkhuhfSk; gofFk; fyY}hpahf ; [ ; ; ; ; ;Mz;L rhh;y!; cl; mwpf;ifapd; K:yk; fy;tpapy; rpy fhzg;gl;lJ/ 1857 Mk; Mz;Lr; rl;lj;jpd;go brd;idg;rPh;jpUj;j’;fisf; bfhz;L te;jJ/ fPH;nehf;fp gut[k; gy;fiyf; fHfk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ/ 1859 Mk; Mz;ow;Fs;jplljjpwF khwwhf rhhy!; cl; jpllk; mikejJ/ Mukgf; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; 41 42
  24. 24. mJ KGtsh;r;rp bgw;w gy;fiyf;fHfkhf tsh;e;jJ/ khzth; f Sf; F k; . Mrphpah; f Sf; F k; tpLjp trjpfs;gj; b jhd; g jhk; E}w; w hz; o d; gpw; g Fjpapy; brd; i d. Vw; g Lj; j g; g l; l d/ mjpf mstpy; g[ j ; j f’; f isa[ k ; .nfhak; g [ j ; J }h; . nryk; . jpUr; r p. kJiu kw; W k; gj;jphpf;iffisa[k; bfhz;l bghpa E}yfk; xd;Wk; ,’;Fghisa’; n fhl; i l Mfpa ,l’; f spy; fy; Y }hpfs; epWtg; gl;lJ/ ,Ugjhk; E}w;whz;oy; jkpH;ehL fy;tpepWtg;gl;ld/ tsh;rrpapy; ey;y Kd;ndw;wj;ijf; fz;lJ/ gs;spfs; kw;Wk; ; fy;Y}hpfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpj;jJ/~z; l h; FG (Hunter Commission ) 1882 Mk; Mz; Lmikf;fg;gl;l ~z;lh;FG fy;tp tsh;r;rpapy; xU 1935 Mk; Mz;L ,e;jpa murpay;Mait nkwbfhzlJ/ mjd; Kyk. Mukg epiyffytp ; ; ; : ; ; ; ; mikg ; g [ r ; r l ; l g ; g o fy ; t p khepy murh’ ; f j ; j plk ;mjpf mstpy; gwffzpffgglLtpllij fzLgpojjJ/ [ ; ; ; ; ; ; ; xg; g ilf; f g; g l; l J/ 1944?y; rh; $hd; rhh; $ z; l ; o d;,e;jpahtpy; kw;w gFjpfisg; nghy jkpH;ehl;od; Mnyhridg; go. 6 taJ Kjy; 14 taJ tiu cs;sfpuhkggFjpfspy; fytp gwffzpffgglljhy; Mukgffytp ; ; [ ; ; ; ; ; ; ; khzth;fSf;F ,ytrf; fl;lhaf;fy;tp tH’;fg;gl;lJ/kpFe;j ghjpg;g[f;Fs;shdJ/ Mfnt ~z;lh; FG fy;tpg; ,t;thwhf jkpH;ehl;oy; fy;tp gog;goahfbghWg;ig efuhl;rp kw;Wk; khtl;l ika’;fsplk; Kd;ndw;wkilaj; Jt’;fpaJ/gphpj;Jf;bfhLf;f rpghhpR bra;jJ/ nkiyehl;Lf;fy;tpapdhy; Vw;gl;l ed;ikfs; : 1890 Mk; Mz;L brd;id MSeh; fd;dpkhuhgpug[. fd;dpkhuh bghJ E}yfj; i j cUthf; f pdhh; / 1/ nkiyehl; L f; fy; t p kf; f spd; Kw; n ghf; F rpe; j idia tsh; j ; J rKjha kW kyh; r ; r pf; F tpj; j pl; l J/ ,Ugjhk; E}w; w hz; o d; rpwe; j jkpH;g;g[ytd; ghujp jd;Dila Kw;nghf;fhdf; fUj;Jf;fis btspapl;lhh;/ vy;nyhUf;Fk; fy;tp kw;Wk; rKjha ePjp fpilf;f ntz;Lk; vd;gJ ghujpahhpd; nehf;fkhFk;/ 2/ nkiyehl;Lf;fy;tp kf;fspilna njrpa tpHpggzhrrpia tshjjJ/ ; [ ; ; ; ; 3/ ntw;Wikapy; xw;Wik vd;w nfhl;ghL tsujbjhl’fpaJ/ gyntW gFjpapypUeJ kffs; ; ; ; ; ; xUtnuhL xUth; xU’;fpize;J bray;gl;ljhy; mz;zhkiy gy;fiyf;fHfk; njrpa ,affk; tsuj; bjhl’fpaJ/ ,J murpay; ; ; 1891 Mk; Mz;L brd;idapy; rl;lf; fy;Y}hp xw;Wikf;F tHp tFj;jJ/mikf;fg; gl;lJ/ 1929 Mk; Mz;L mz;zhkiyg; 4/ M’;fpnyah;fshy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;l ,f;fy;tpgy;fiyf;fHfk; uh$h rh; mz;zhkiy brl;oahuhy;epWtg; gl;lJ/ ,g;gy;fiyf; fHfj;jpy; MH;fly; caphpay; KiwahdJ bjhHpy;fy;tpf;Fk;. bgz;fy;tpf;Fk;Jiw (Marine Biology) cl;gl gy Jiwfs; bjhl’;fg; gl;ld/ njitahd Kf;fpaj;Jtk; mspj;jJ/ 43 44

×