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F.w Taylor's principles of scientific management.pptx

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F.w Taylor's principles of scientific management.pptx

  1. 1. F.W Taylor’s Scientific Management TEAM MEMBERS: PANDEESWARI.K(19IT1036) PRAVEEN.V(19IT2001)
  2. 2. 1 2 4 SMALL INTRODUCTION ABOUT TAYLOR FOUR TYPES OF SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT FEATURES OF SCIENTIIC MANAGEMENT 01 02 03 04 0a a 5a 07 8CCCCCCCFCK CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC CCCONCLUSRUO CONCLUSION 3 5
  3. 3. SMALL INTRODUCTION ABOUT F.W TAYLOR  F.W Taylor, an American laid the foundations of management as a science consisting of fundamental principles.  He was the first expert to suggest the use of scientific methods of measurement and study for solving managerial problems.  Taylor is known as the father of scientific management.  F.W Taylor was the first man in recorded history who deemed work deserving of systematic observation and study.  “Scientific management is the art of knowing exactly what you want your men to do and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way” says F.W Taylor
  4. 4. WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT?  According to Taylor, “Scientific Management is an art of knowing exactly what you want your men to do and seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way”.  In Taylors view, if a work is analysed scientifically it will be possible to find one best way to do it.  scientific management is a thoughtful, organized, dual approach towards the job of management against hit or miss or Rule of Thumb.  Scientific management implies working according to standardised techniques and tools and with the help of specialised personnel so as to improve the quantity as well as the quality of the product and the same time reducing the costs.  Scientific management is also known as Taylorism.  Scientific theory of management focuses on individual efficiency and productivity.  The objective of the scientific theory is to increase production within an organization by increasing the productivity of the individual.
  5. 5. SCIENCE NOT THE RULE OF THUMB 01 HARMONY NOT DISCORD 02 COOPERATION NOT INDIVIDUVALISM 03 DEVELOPMENT OF EVERY PERSON TO HIS GREATEST EFFICIENCY 04 FOUR PRINCIPLES OF F.W TAYLOR This rule tells about the mutual collaboration between workers and management This rule focuses on increasing the efficiency of an organization through scientific analysis of work This rule tells the importance of mutual relationship between workers and management This rule implies that the effectiveness of a company relies on the abilities and skills of its employees.
  6. 6. SCIENCE,NOT THE RULE OF THUMB  This rule focuses on increasing the efficiency of an organization through scientific analysis of work and not with the ‘Rule of Thumb’ method  Decisions should be made based on scientific analysis and not with ‘Rule of Thumb’ where the decision is taken according to the manager’s personal judgement  The work should be done by constantly experimenting new techniques not to get stuck in a set of routine with the old techniques of doing work  According to Taylor,even a small work like loading of iron pigs into boxcars should be scientifically done.  He also believed that the work done scientifically reduces wastage of time and resources and helps to achieve the target effectively and efficiently.
  7. 7. HARMONY NOT DISCORD  The workplace should be in a such way that labours and management should consider each other indispensable.  The perfect understanding between the employees and the management will help in achieving the desired goal efficiently.  There can be a significant improvement and growth in productivity if there exists a friendly relationship between the managers and the labours where the both value the efforts of each other.  According to Taylor,The harmonious relation can be achieved by ‘Mental Revolution’ where workers and managers will transform their thinking.  There should be complete openness between workers and management
  8. 8. COOPERATION NOT INDIVIDUALISM  It implies the mutual collaboration between workers and mamagement.  The manager and workers should jointly determine standards.  Cooperation,trust,team spirit can turn internal competition into healthy work environment.  Workers also should resist themselves from going on strikes and making unnecessary demands from management.  Proper coordination between workers and management will increase productivity.  Management should welcome the constructive ideas and suggestions of workers and rewards for good ideas which will give a path to cooperation
  9. 9. DEVELOPMENT OF EVERY PERSON TO HIS GREATEST EFFICIENCY  According to Taylor,every organization should follow scientific method of selection of workers and each worker should be scientifically selected.  The overall efficiency and productivity in an organization depend on how competent individual employees are.  Providing training to the workers was considered essential in order to learn the best method developed through the use of scientific approach.  Efficiency can be attained by selecting employees scientifically.  The jobs assigned to the employees should be according to their educational qualifications.  Once the job is assigned the missing skills should be identified.  After identifying the missing skill,proper training should be provided to improve the skill.
  10. 10. TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONAL FOREMANSHIP:  According to this technique, the work of supervision is divided into several specialized foremen.  Taylor believes that one foreman is not an expert in all aspects of work.  This technique will improve the quality of supervision and will also improve the quality of work and efficiency of workers. PLANNING INCHARGE: Route clerk: •This foreman lays down the sequence of operation in which work is to be carried out. • Workers are expected to do their work strictly according to the route sheet.
  11. 11. TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Production Incharge: Speed boss: •He is responsible for ensuring the work is done well on time. •To get the work completed in time, he examines that all the workers are performing their job at the required speed. Gang boss: • He is responsible for arranging and keeping tools, machines and materials ready for operation. Repair boss: •He is responsible to ensure the proper working condition of the machine and tools. Inspector: • He is responsible for the quality of work. He brings a quality consciousness to the mind of workers.
  12. 12. TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT STANDARDIZATION AND SIMPLIFICATION  Standardization means fixing standards for everything.  To attain standard production, the standard of performance is established for the workers.  Standard of work means standard set for material, machine method, and condition of work.  Simplification refers to eliminating unnecessary varieties, sizes, and grades of the product.  It results in saving the cost of labour, cost of machines, and tools. It also brings economy in turnover and operation.  It facilitates better control of activities.
  13. 13. TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT WORK STUDY:  Work-study means systematic and critical assessment of all the operational functions in the organization.  The main objective of the work-study is to improve efficiency by making optimum utilization of resources.  Taylor believes that efficiency can be increased endlessly. He advised work-study to improve efficiency. He has divided his work-study into four parts: Method Study:  It is a concern with finding ‘one best way’ of doing a job.  The main aim of this technique is to improve work methods to minimize the cost of products and maximize the satisfaction of customers.  The search for the best method starts from the procurement of raw materials and continues till the final product is delivered to the customer.  For example, raw materials should be stored near the place of production to avoid unnecessary wastage of time and money in transporting goods to the place of
  14. 14. TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Fatigue Study:  It refers to determining the amount and frequency of rest intervals required in completing a work.  Fatigue means tiredness from physical and mental work.  Taylor suggested that a person gets tired when he works continuously without a break. So, he must be provided with a rest interval to regain his lost stamina.  Fatigue study also helps in maintaining the operational efficiency of the worker.  The amount and frequency of rest intervals should be decided through a fatigue study and not randomly. The fatigue study is conducted by observing workers while performing the job.  It is also helpful to find out, how long a person can work without having any adverse effect on his health.
  15. 15. TECHNIQUES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT DIFFERENTIAL PRICE WAGE SYSTEM:  This is a system in which efficient and inefficient workers are paid at different rates.  According to Taylor, financial incentives act as a motivator.  So, Taylor developed the concept of a differential piece wage system. In this technique, incentives are directly linked with productivity.  Under this technique, first of all, a standard task is established, and then two rates are fixed.  Higher rates for those workers who produce more than the standard, and a low rate for those workers who do not produce above or equal to the standard. MENTAL REVOLUTION:  It means a total change in the attitude of workers and management towards one another from competition to cooperation.  Both should realize that they require one another, and both of them should aim to increase their profit.  Mental revolution requires that management should create suitable working conditions, and they should do their work with full devotion.
  16. 16. FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Systematic Approach:  Scientific management is a systematic approach to management and its use ensures that all activities are completed in a systematic and scientific manner. Brings Complete Mental Change:  Scientific management brings about a complete mental change both in the owners as well as the employees of the organisation.  Both the parties start aiming for more and better production targets rather than merely chasing higher profits.  They are able to comprehend that increased and better production will automatically result in higher profits which will benefit both the parties. Discards Traditional Management:  The approach of scientific management completely discards traditional management.  It calls for the discarding of old techniques and adoption of new and modern techniques, with the aim of improving the efficiency of employees.
  17. 17. CONCLUSION  Thus, the works of Taylor and those following the scientific management school led the standardisation of work and put the concepts of productivity and efficiency into practice.  Labour productivity, no doubt, increased but scientific management also helped to create boredom, dissatisfaction and alienation of the workers.  The development of the scientific management led by Frederick Taylor earlier last century has a clear and direct influence on the development of both operations management and operations research.  Moreover, that influence is not static, but rather a dynamic influence.  Cleary, the scientific management is not considered a collection of techniques, “but rather an approach to management founded on a commitment to science and friendly cooperation” (Nyland, 1996, P.985).  Furthermore Taylor argues that if these two elements, the commitment to science and the friendly cooperation are not adhered to by any organization, then he says that those organizations must not be recognized as being managed scientifically.
  18. 18. THANK YOU!

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