2. Story of Chocolate
◦ Gulf of Mexico
◦ Mayan and Aztec
◦ Aztecs roasted and grinded beans and made into drink
◦ Served in religious ceremonies
◦ Valuable enough to serve as form of currency
◦ First solid eating chocolate introduced by English firm Fry & Sons in 1847.
◦ Swiss manufacturer Rudolph Lindt invented conche , a machine which ground cacao
beans, sugar and milk powder for hours and even days to develop finer coinsistency
◦ Swiss are worlds champion chocolate eaters.
3. From Bean to Bar
Ferment & dry
the mass of
grind the beans
4. ◦ The cacao tree named Theobroma cacao by Linnaeus.
◦ Theobroma- food of the gods.
◦ A 20 feet tree Produces fruits in the form of pods ranging 6-10 inches containing beans.
◦ Half of the worlds cacao production- West Africa(Ivory coast & Ghana), Indonesia, Brazil.
5. Varieties of Cacao tree
The Criollos The forasteros The Trinitarios
Mild beans with finest
Full flavoured bulk beans Intermediate flavours
Disease prone Hybrid of Criollos &
Low yield High Yield
Less than 5% world crop Most of the worlds crop
◦ Fermentation takes place where the cacao is grown- farms/plantations.
◦ It is the first and most important step which defines the quality of beans.
◦ It is a challenge for the manufacturer to find good-quality, fully fermented beans.
◦ Soon after the cacao pods are harvested, workers break them open and pile the
sugary pulp together.
◦ Microbes start growing on pulp.
◦ It lasts from 2-8 days.
◦ The workers turn the mass.
◦ The fermentation turns the astringent flavours of bean into desirable flavours.
◦ After the fermentation is complete, the farmers dry the beans under sun. drying the beans
requires care and attention. If not done properly , will spoil the flavour of chocolate.
◦ After drying up to 7% moisture, the beans are cleaned, bagged and shipped to manufactures.
◦ After selecting, sorting and blending the dried beans,the chocolate manufacturers roast them to
develop their flavour.
◦ Whole beans take 30-60 minutes at 120-160 degree celcius.(Maillard browning )
11. Grinding and Refining
◦ After roasting, the beans are cracked open and nibs are separated from shells.the nibs are
passed through rollers to obtain dark fluid called cocoa liquor. The treatment of cocoa liquor
varies from manufacturer to manufacturer.
◦ To make cocoa powder and cocoa butter the liquor is passed through fine filters that retains
cocoa particles while allowing the butter to flow.
◦ Pure cocoa liquor is concentrated chocolate which may be hardened and packed for use in
bakeries. It flavour is rough,bitter ,astringent and acidic.
◦ To mellow down the flavours few other ingredients such as sugar,milk solids, vanilla, etc are
◦ The cocoa liquor along with other ingredients is agitated(conching) in machines shaped as
◦ Conches rub and smear the mixture against the surface which raise the temperature of the mass
to 45-80 degree celcius.
◦ Depending upon manufacturer and machine the conching may last for 8 to 36 hours.
◦ A small amount of cocoa butter and lecithin is added towards the end.
Warming up and cooling down the chocolate in bakeries.
Provides gloss to the chocolate
The tempering process consists of three basic steps:
1. Heating the chocolate- to melt all the fat crystals.(50 degree c)
2. Cooling it down to form a new structure.(40 degree c)
3. Heating again to melt unstable crystals.
15. Types of chocolate.
◦ Dark chocolate
◦ Milk chocolate
◦ Couverture chocolate
◦ White chocolate- Chocolate less chocolate.
◦ 15-18 degree celcius with fluctuation.
◦ Stored chocolate develops white powdery layer known as fat bloom. The fat bloom is cocoa
butter that has melted out of unstable crystal, migrate to the surface.
◦ From French – to cover
◦ Dark or milk chocolate formulated to flow easily when melted thus making thin delicate
◦ This calls for adding more cocoa butter-More fat = 31-38%