Solar energy is the most abundant source of energy in
Solar power is not only an answer to today’s energy
crisis but also an environmental friendly form of
Photovoltaic generation is an efficient approach for
using the solar energy.
Solar powered irrigation system can be a suitable
alternative for farmers in the present state of energy
The automatic irrigation system uses solar power which
drives water pumps to pump water from the bore well
to a tank and the outlet valve of the tank is
automatically regulated using controller and moisture
sensor to control the flow rate of water from the tank to
the irrigation field which optimizes the use of water.
6. Solar Panel:
These panels are designed with solar cells composed of
The main function of Solar panels is to convert solar
energy into DC electrical energy generally of 12V,
which is further used for the rest of the circuit. The
number of cells required and their size depends on the
rating of the load.
The collection of solar cells can produce maximum
electricity. But, the solar panel must place exactly at
right angles to the sun rays.
8. Submersible Pump:
This solar system contains a submersible pump, a water
tank, an irrigation pump, associated water pumps.
This system is designed with 450W of power, which is
capable of pumping 2000 liters of water within 60
This power capacity takes into account the height
difference between the water tank and the solar
9. Charge Controller:
A solar charge controller is very important device in
any solar- power system.
It is used to maintain proper charging voltages of the
The charge controller controls current and voltage from
the solar panel and charges the battery, and also stops
the charging of the battery from over and undercharging
The Battery is an electric device that is used to store
current which is produced from the solar panel and
supplied to the corresponding loads. The number of
batteries required depends on the load requirement.
The main function of the inverter is that it converts the
battery’s voltage to AC voltage in order to activate the
loads. Therefore, it helps us to run many electronic
devices, home appliances and computers.
There are numerous types of inverters available in the
The characteristics of typical inverters include high
switching frequency, high conversion frequency and
less harmonic content, and so on.
12. Soil Moisture Sensor:
Moisture sensor is main component
of this project which is used for the
measurement of moisture in soil.
They work on the principle of
change in resistance. Basically,
moisture sensor is a metallic strip.
Resistance of metallic strip changes
according to moisture level in soil. If
moisture is high, resistance will be
low and if moisture in soil is low,
resistance will be high. Because
moisture increases the conductivity
of metallic strip.
13. Solar Powered Auto Irrigation System:
The main goal of this project is to develop an irrigation
system in the field of agriculture by using Solar Energy.
The required components are 8051 series Microcontroller,
12V DC mini submersible pump, Op-Amp, LCD, Solar
Panel, MOSFET, Relay, Motor, Voltage Regulator, Diodes,
Capacitors, Resistors, LED, Crystal and Transistors.
It helps in energy saving.
There is no fuel cost – as it uses available free sunlight.
Highly sensitive, low cost and reliable circuit.
Works according to the soil condition.
Complete elimination of manpower.
The dependence on rain is reduced.
System can be swapped into manual mode whenever
It is convenient to all climatic conditions and all sorts of
This is applicable for only large farms due to high
initial implementation cost.
Have limited life after installation due to the
deterioration of plastic components in a hot, arid
climate when exposed to UV-light.
Bulky solar panels are required for the large power
Irrigation can be completed in fields, gardens, farms,
Agriculture livestock watering / crop irrigation, home
gardens and drip irrigation systems.
Domestic portable water for remote homes,
Pond water management and water transfer.
It is effective for diversities of crops.
By using the automatic irrigation system it optimizes
the usage of water by reducing wastage and reduce the
human intervention for farmers.
The excess energy produced using solar panels can also
be given to the grid with small modifications in the
system circuit which can be a source of the revenue of
the farmer, thus encouraging farming in India and same
time giving a solution for energy crisis.
Solar pumps also offer clean solutions with no danger
of borehole contamination.