Self efficacy: self efficacy and developmental antecedents, Neurobiology of self efficacy,
scales: measuring self efficacy
Optimism: neurobiology of optimism and pessimism, learning optimism (study of Scheier
and Craver), measuring learned optimism
Hope: characteristics and childhood antecedents, neurobiology of hope
Wisdom: implicit and explicit theories of wisdom, relation between wisdom and
Courage: theories, physical courage, moral courage, psychological courage, vital courage,
learning and measuring courage, fear and courage
3. Take a look at this Quote:
What do you understand by reading this?
If I have the belief that I can do it, I shall surely acquire the capacity to do it even if I may not
have it at the beginning.
4. Self- efficacy (a key component of social-
Basically Self-efficacy is a person’s belief in their ability to succeed in a particular
Psychologist Albert Bandura described these beliefs as determinants of how people think,
behave, and feel
According to Bandura, self-efficacy is part of the self-system comprised of a person’s
attitudes, abilities, and cognitive skills
This system plays a major role in how we perceive and respond to different situations.
Self-efficacy is an essential part of this self-system
5. Why has self-efficacy become such an
important topic among psychologists?
As Bandura and other researchers have demonstrated, self-efficacy can impact everything
from psychological states to behavior to motivation
Self-efficacy determines what goals we pursue, how we accomplish those goals, and how
we reflect upon our own performance
Our belief in our own ability to succeed plays a role in how we think, how we act, and how
we feel about our place in the world
7. Self efficacy and antecedents:
We begin to form our sense of self-efficacy in early childhood by dealing with various
experiences, tasks, and situations
However, the growth of self-efficacy does not end during youth but continues to evolve
throughout life as people acquire new skills, experiences, and understanding
Bandura identified four major sources of self-efficacy. The four ways that self-efficacy is
• mastery experiences,
• vicarious Experiences or social modeling,
• social persuasion,
• emotional and psychological states or psychological responses
8. 1. Mastery experiences:
The most effective way of developing a strong sense of efficacy is through mastery
experiences," Bandura explained. Performing a task successfully strengthens our sense of
self-efficacy. However, failing to adequately deal with a task or challenge can undermine
and weaken self-efficacy
Mastery experiences are the most influential source of efficacy information because they
provide the most authentic evidence of whether one can muster whatever it takes to
succeed. Success builds a robust belief in one's personal efficacy. Failures undermine it,
especially if failures occur before a sense of efficacy is firmly established" (Bandura, 1997)
9. 2. Vicarious Experiences or social modeling:
The second important source of self-efficacy is through the vicarious experiences provided
by social models
Bandura (1977) posits that "Seeing people similar to oneself succeed by sustained effort
raises observers' beliefs that they too possess the capabilities to master comparable
activities to succeed.“
Vicarious experiences involve observing other people successfully completing a task.
When one has positive role models in their life (especially those who display a healthy
level of self-efficacy) - one is more likely to absorb at least a few of those positive beliefs
about the self.
Social role models including older sibling, older friends, camp counselors, parents, aunts
and uncles, grandparents, teachers, coaches, and employers
10. 3. Social persuasion:
Self-efficacy is influence by encouragement and discouragement pertaining to an
individual’s performance or ability to perform (Redmond, 2010)
Receiving positive verbal feedback while undertaking a complex task persuades a person to
believe that they have the skills and capabilities to succeed
For example, if one were telling an elementary school child that they are capable of
achieving greatness and that they should set out to achieve anything their heart desires -
this would be how verbal persuasion looks in action
Verbal persuasion works on any age, but the earlier it is administered the more it is likely to
encourage building of self-efficacy
11. 4. Emotional and psychological states or
The emotional, physical, and psychological well-being of a person can influence how a
they feel about their personal abilities in a particular situation
For example, if you are struggling with depression or anxiety, one might find it harder to
have a healthy level of well-being. Is it impossible to build self-efficacy while suffering
from some of these struggles? Of course not, but boosting your self-efficacy is a much
easier task when one is feeling healthy and well (Bandura, 1982)
However, Bandura (1977) states, "it is not the sheer intensity of emotional and physical
reactions that is important but rather how they are perceived and interpreted. People who
have a high sense of efficacy are likely to view their state of affective arousal as an
energizing facilitator of performance, whereas those who are beset by self- doubts regard
their arousal as a debilitator."
13. Neurobiology of self efficacy:
Self-efficacy is a subjective belief that depends on self-related past experience, and is a
strong predictor for individual future performance. To the aim of promoting one's future
performance, it is necessary to gain better knowledge of it's cognitive process and brain
Self-efficacy theory (SET) is a subset of Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory.
According to this approach, the two key determinants of behavior are perceived self-
efficacy and outcome expectancies. The latter construct refers to the perceived positive and
negative consequences of performing the behavior
The result shows that self-efficacy influenced cognitive perceptions and emotional
reactions. Specifically, self-efficacy was found to play a substantive role in shaping
individuals' attitudes via a cognitive route (perceived usefulness and ease-of-use) and an
affective one (pleasure, arousal and dominance)
14. How self efficacy can be measured?
The General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) was developed by Matthias Jerusalem and Ralf Schwarzer
– the scale is composed of only 8 items, rated on a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly
Lets have a look on the items of scale:
1. "I will be able to achieve most of the goals that I have set for myself”
2. “When facing difficult tasks, I am certain that I will accomplish them”
3. “In general, I think that I can obtain outcomes that are important to me”
4. “I believe I can succeed at most any endeavor to which I set my mind”
5. “I will be able to successfully overcome many challenges”
6. “I am confident that I can perform effectively on many different tasks”
7. “Compared to other people, I can do most tasks very well”
8. “Even when things are tough, I can perform quite well.”
This is typically assessed by addressing levels of confidence in performing tasks and
whether or not someone can do or accomplish a given task. This is a recommended,
validated, and reliable scale for measuring general self-efficacy
The scores are then calculated by taking the average of all 8 responses, (these will
respectively range from 1 to 5)
The way the test is supposed to work is so that the higher one’s score is, the greater the
level of self-efficacy in said individual
17. To conclude self efficacy:
We can say that there are some limitations to this phenomena as well like:
High self efficacy beliefs do not always guarantee positive outcome expectations
Self efficacy beliefs vary greatly between individuals which makes it very difficult for the
researcher to assess them
High efficacy can sometimes led to an individual applying less effort to a particular task
On the other hand or brighter side it helps in:
19. Optimism and pessimism
Optimist expect good things to happen, whereas pessimists instead predict unfavourable
Optimistic attitudes are linked to several benefits, including better coping skills, lower
stress levels, better physical health, and higher persistence when pursuing goals.1
If you always see the brighter side of things, you may experience more positive events in
your life than others, find yourself less stressed, and even enjoy more significant health
21. Signs of Optimism
• You feel that good things will happen in the future.
• You expect things to work out for the best.
• You feel like you will succeed in the face of life's challenges.
• You feel that the future looks bright.
• You think that even good things can come from adverse events.
• You see challenges or obstacles as opportunities to learn.
• You feel gratitude for the good things in your life.
• You are always looking for ways to make the most of opportunities.
• You have a positive attitude about yourself and others.
22. Neurobiology of optimism and pessimism
A review and synthesis of the literature on the neurophysiology subserving these two
worldviews suggests that optimism and pessimism are differentially associated with the
two cerebral hemispheres.
High self-esteem, a cheerful attitude that tends to look at the positive aspects of a given
situation, as well as an optimistic belief in a bright future are associated with physiological
activity in the left-hemisphere (LH).
In contrast, a gloomy viewpoint, an inclination to focus on the negative part and
exaggerate its significance, low self-esteem as well as a pessimistic view on what the future
holds are interlinked with neurophysiological processes in the right-hemisphere (RH).
23. Learning optimism (study of Scheier and
Optimism is a dispositional trait based on a model of behavioural self-regulation, focusing on positive
expectancies for future outcomes.
Pessimism, on the other hand, is the negative expectancy for future outcomes.
According to Scheier and Carver, individuals can either be optimists or pessimists in terms of how
they view life and pursue goals. Having an optimistic outlook is associated with various positive
outcomes, including enhanced mental/physical health, survival, mortality, and well-being.
24. Measured learned optimism
Optimism can be measured through Garcıa’s Interactive Optimism Scale. IOS-G (Garcıa-
Cadena et al., 2016) is a self report scale composed of four positively keyed items and four
negatively keyed items.
The items are rated along a four-point Likert-type scale (from 1¼of course not to 4¼yes of
course). A score of 4 was assigned to the label yes of course in the case of positively keyed
items, whereas a score of 1 was assigned to the same label in the case of negatively keyed
The sum of the eight items yields a total score such that a higher score means greater level of
optimism. IOS-G showed a medium positive correlation with LOT-R and, therefore,
convergent validity is considered as established (Garcıa-Cadena et al., 2016).
26. Definition of hope
A Feeling of trust and grounds for believing that something good will happen.
A Feeling of desire for something and confidence in the possibility of its fulfilment.
I Hope they get the punishment they deserve.
27. Characteristics of hope
There are 4 Characteristics of Hope:
Hope looks to the future.
Hope is built on faith.
Hope is connected to waiting.
Hope comes from God.
28. Childhood antecedent of hope
No hereditary component.
Components in place by age 2.
Childhood traumas lesson hope.
Inherent part of parenting ; strong attachment is crucial for high hope.
29. Childhood antecedent of hope
Learning Component from early childhood experiences with parental figure
(secure attachment) .
Childhood Antecedent of Learned Optimism
Adaptive excusing modeled by parents
30. Neurobiology of hope
Hope, which involves belief and expectation, causes the brain to release
neurochemicals called endorphins and enkephalins which actually mimic the
effects of morphine.
The result is that the brain can overcome hurdles and move to a place of recovery.
32. Definition of Wisdom
The ability to use your knowledge and experience to make good decisions and judgments
Wisdom is composed of knowledge, experience, and good judgement
you may be very knowledgeable about how to raise a baby after reading countless books,
attending classes, and talking to wise friends and family members.
33. Implicit Theories of Wisdom
There are three Implicit theories of Wisdom.
39. Robert Sternberg Yale
Balance Theory of Wisdom
wisdom = forming a judgment amongst competing influences & no clear resolution
42. Fear and courage
How are courage and fear related?
Fear is a common and natural feeling. Courage is derived from being able to overcome
those feelings. Courageous people feel fear, but they are able to manage and overcome
their fear so that it does not stop them from moving through it.
Courage is not the absence of fear, Courage is acting in spit of fear
43. Physical courage
Physical courage is the type most people think of first, the one that allows us to risk
discomfort, injury, pain or even death—running into burning buildings as a firefighter,
facing an enemy on the battlefield, undergoing chemotherapy, climbing a mountain,
protecting a child from a dangerous animal.
44. Moral courage
Moral courage means courage to speak the truth and to face dangers without caring what
the results may be. It means readiness to face the greatest troubles for the sake of truth and
Moral courage shows how strong the person’s character is
45. Psychological courage
Psychological courage is the strength to confront and work through these problems. Such
courage involves facing our deep-seated fear of psychological instability. I conclude that
the development of psychological courage is essential to the well-being of many people.
Psychological courage as the courage to face addictions, phobias, and obsessions, and to
avoid self deception and admit mistakes
46. Vital courage
Vital courage is the perseverance demonstrated through a disability or illness in face of an
uncertain outcome. An example of vital courage is that shown by the person persevering
with treatment for cancer when the outcome may be uncertain
47. Learning and measuring courage
It means you take the risk to raise your hand and ask questions, to share your thinking with
others, to take critique from peers. It means having the courage to choose difficult
problems and risk mistakes.
How do you measure courage?
Using the theoretical base of fear and the definition identified for courage, a courage score
was calculated by multiplying the rating of the participant's willingness to act in the
situation by the participant's fear rating