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IoT and connected devices

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IoT and connected devices

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This is the presentation I use as a support for a nine-hour talk to future IoT project leaders. Several dimensions are addressed: functionalities, technologies (devices, embedded software, positioning, communications, etc.), project management, ecosystem structure, etc.

This is the presentation I use as a support for a nine-hour talk to future IoT project leaders. Several dimensions are addressed: functionalities, technologies (devices, embedded software, positioning, communications, etc.), project management, ecosystem structure, etc.

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IoT and connected devices

  1. 1. IoT and connected devices Pascal BODIN 07-Feb-2019 V20190207
  2. 2. 2/260 contents functional technical project management part 0 foreword part 1 introduction part 2 functional vs technical part 3 architecture part 4 devices part 5 positioning part 6 identification part 7 communications part 8 platforms part 9 central side part 10 big data part 11 other buzzwords part 12 security part 13 standardization part 14 project perspective part 15 case studies part 16 conclusion
  3. 3. 3/260 0. foreword
  4. 4. 4/260 the egocentric slide  Acklio - R&D engineer - embedded (Jul-2017 → today)  Systev – Independent contractor – connected devices (Sep-2016 → today)  Orange Labs – Senior Software Engineer (Jan-2015 → today)  before: – 2007 - 2011 - co-founder (home computing) – 2004 - 2014 - project manager, developer, expert - Orange Labs (M2M / IoT) – 1997 - 2001 - team manager - France Telecom R&D – 1990 - 2004 - co-founder (systems for mobile connected “objects”) – 1983 - 1993 - software engineer and project leader (McDonnell Douglas, DEC) (several periods with 2 simultaneous jobs...)  Telecom Bretagne (now IMT Atlantique) 1982
  5. 5. 5/260 and you?
  6. 6. 6/260 point of view  integrator's point of view: – structuring constraints: – to deliver on committed date and committed budget – to deliver a working system – to integrate / rely on legacy subsystems – to have the broad view – target is customer satisfaction – solving technical problems is only a means
  7. 7. 7/260 1. introduction
  8. 8. 8/260 in the '70s - '80s [Def01] [Def02]
  9. 9. 9/260 in the '70s - '80s  SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition)
  10. 10. 10/260 in the '90s
  11. 11. 11/260 in the '90s  M2M (Machine to Machine)  LBS (Location Based Services)
  12. 12. 12/260 in the '00s
  13. 13. 13/260 in the '00s  IoT (Internet of Things)
  14. 14. 14/260 in the '10s Smart Agriculture Smart HealthSmart Industry Smart Environment Smart City
  15. 15. 15/260 a definition  Internet of things: The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of devices, vehicles, and home appliances that contain electronics, software, actuators, and connectivity which allows these things to connect, interact and exchange data. [Wikipedia]  is it complete? [Def03]
  16. 16. 16/260 conclusion  no real definition - domain too vast  related systems have been in use long before IoT acronym and Smart * terms were invented  beware: words simplify reality  reality: – on one side: (large diversity of) user needs – on the other side: (lot of) technologies
  17. 17. 17/260 2. functional vs technical
  18. 18. 18/260 first use case  air pollution monitoring – which services? – which actors? – functions? – technical components?
  19. 19. 19/260 second use case  domestic waste collection – which services? – which actors? – functions? – technical components?
  20. 20. 20/260 analysis  usual functions - data-centric vision: – data generation – data collection – data storage – data processing – ...
  21. 21. 21/260 analysis  usual functions - business-process vision – tracking – alarm – remote control – mission dispatch – information publication – ...
  22. 22. 22/260 analysis  usual support functions: – device provisioning – device management – user management – backup / restore – ...
  23. 23. 23/260 supporting technical fields  Question: which technologies?
  24. 24. 24/260 supporting technical fields electronics software communications IoT
  25. 25. 25/260 supporting technical fields  devices – connected embedded electronic boards – gateways  interface to the physical world – sensors – actuators – I/O, bus  embedded software  secure element  network – wired – wireless – protocols  positioning
  26. 26. 26/260 supporting technical fields  identification  mobile application  server-side application – container, virtual machine – application server – web server – database management system – data analytics tools – geographical information system – thin client, thick client – graphical user interface  etc.
  27. 27. 27/260 a few words about hardware  1985 - Cray-2: the most powerful supercomputer in the world – 1,9 GFLOPS - US$32 million (current value)
  28. 28. 28/260 a few words about hardware  2017 - iPhone 8 Plus – 138 GFLOPS - US$950
  29. 29. 29/260 a few words about hardware  68HC11  1985 - Motorola --> Freescale --> NXP – 8-bit – 2 MHz – 512 B EEPROM, 512 RAM – 14 €
  30. 30. 30/260 a few words about hardware  LPC1115  2010 - NXP – 32-bit - ARM Cortex M0 – 50 MHz – 64 KB Flash, 8 KB RAM – 3,31 €
  31. 31. 31/260 a few words about technologies  impressive hardware evolution  => new software possibilities – neural networks, blockchain... – embedded RTOS, embedded software stack  => new communication possibilities – LPWAN – microsatellites  => new deployment possibilities – energy harvesting – batteries
  32. 32. 32/260 ecosystem  usually, value chain is depicted like this: Devices Connectivity Integration Applications Customers
  33. 33. 33/260 ecosystem  more realistic view: Software developer Middleware developer Software component developer Device manufacturer Location technology provider Wireless module manufacturer Network operator Integrator Installer Geocoded data provider Customer Service provider Embedded OS developer User Sensor / actuator manufacturer Embedded software developer Electronic board manufacturer Hosting
  34. 34. 34/260 project management  many different use cases  how to get to know real user needs?  many different technologies involved  a successful project: fulfils real user needs thanks to mastered integration of technologies  => often a challenge for IoT
  35. 35. 35/260 project management  global view is fundamental – true for any project – very important for an IoT project – 3 distinct technical fields
  36. 36. 36/260 project management  more about project management later
  37. 37. 37/260 3. architecture
  38. 38. 38/260 a possible architecture gateway central side connected device local wireless network long distance network
  39. 39. 39/260 another possible architecture central side connected device long distance network
  40. 40. 40/260 another possible architecture personal side connected device long distance network
  41. 41. 41/260 architecture?  defines: – functions – structure – behavior – deployment  different viewpoints: – enterprise viewpoint (business requirements) – information viewpoint (information semantics and processing) – computational viewpoint (functions, interfaces) – engineering viewpoint (distribution of processing) – technology viewpoint (technologies) [RM-ODP: Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing] [Arc01]
  42. 42. 42/260 computational viewpoint Central sideRemote side OS embedded device communication services - remote application software - remote OS PC / serverperipherals communication services - central software components - central component component component software components - remote component component component application software - central OS API communication services API OS API components APIscomponents APIs communication protocols components protocols application protocols Customer-dedicated integration Technical components Communication Execution platforms management security communication services API management security
  43. 43. 43/260 4. devices 4.1. device architecture 4.2. important microcontroller characteristics 4.3. interfacing with peripherals 4.4. storage 4.5. software development 4.6. summary
  44. 44. 44/260 communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage device architecture
  45. 45. 45/260 another example [Dev01] [Dev02] [Dev03] [Dev04] microcontr. board: $12.50 GSM/GPS module: $49.95 GSM antenna: $2.95 GPS antenna: $3.95 analog inputs digital I/O microcontroller + memory location + communication module
  46. 46. 46/260 4. devices 4.1. device architecture 4.2. important microcontroller characteristics 4.3. interfacing with peripherals 4.4. storage 4.5. software development 4.6. summary
  47. 47. 47/260 communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage device architecture
  48. 48. 48/260 important microcontroller characteristics  what is a microcontroller? – on same chip: CPU + (some) memory + clock generator + peripherals  architecture: – von Neumann, Harvard, modified Harvard – one core or multicore  memory types and sizes: – read-only memory (program): ROM/PROM/EPROM/EEPROM/Flash... – read/write memory (data): RAM/SRAM/DRAM/MRAM/FRAM... – data memory and program memory can be separated  memory width: – 4-bit, 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit – data memory width may be different from program memory width – etc.
  49. 49. 49/260 important microcontroller characteristics  processing power – depends on clock speed and architecture – options: floating point operations, digital signal processing, etc.  power consumption – various low-power modes  cost  supporting hardware tools – development board – programmer / debugger – open source schematic  supporting software tools – integrated development environment – open source code  support
  50. 50. 50/260 legacy microcontroller - example  Freescale 68HC11E1 – 8 bits – 3 MHz – RAM: 512 bytes - EEPROM: 512 bytes – 38 General Purpose I/O (GPIO) – 1 x Asynchronous Serial Communications Interface (SCI) – 1 x Synchronous Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) – 8 x 8-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) – 16-bit Timer System – address / data bus for external memory – bootstrap mode – price: ⋍ US$7 (10 000) [Mic01]
  51. 51. 51/260 recent microcontroller - example 1  Microchip PIC16F1705 – 8-bit data memory, 14-bit program memory – 32 MHz – RAM: 1 KB - Flash: 14 KB – 2 x Capture / Compare / Pulse Width Modulation – 1 x Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART) – 1 x SCI - 1 x Inter Integrated Circuit (I2C) – 8 x 10-bit ADC – timers: 4 x 8-bit, 1 x 16-bit – price: ⋍ US$0.88 (10 000) [Mic02]
  52. 52. 52/260 recent microcontroller - example 2  Microchip ATSAMD21J18 (ex-Atmel) – 32-bit - ARM Cortex-M0+ core – 48 MHz – RAM: 32 KB - Flash: 256 KB – 6 x serial comm. (UART / SPI / I2C) – 5 x counters / timers – 1 x real-time clock – 1 x 20 channel 12-bit ADC – USB – price: < US$1.87 (10 000)
  53. 53. 53/260 recent microcontroller - example 3  NXP LPC1837JET256 – 32 bits - ARM Cortex-M3 core – 3-stage pipeline, modified Harvard architecture – 180 MHz – RAM: 136 KB - Flash: 1024 KB – 6 x PWM – 4 x UART - 2 x I2C - 2 x SPI – 2 x CAN - 2 x USB - 1 x Ethernet – 8 x 10-bit ADC – 4 x 32-bit timers – price: ⋍ US$8 (10 000) [Mic03]
  54. 54. 54/260 4. devices 4.1. device architecture 4.2. important microcontroller characteristics 4.3. interfacing with peripherals 4.4. storage 4.5. software development 4.6. summary
  55. 55. 55/260 communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage device architecture
  56. 56. 56/260 interfacing with peripherals  sensors: pressure, temperature, light level, heat, magnetic field, airflow, tilt, acceleration, switch, push button, etc.  actuators: relay, motor, stepper motor, servomotor, etc.  other devices: printer, display, On-Board Diagnostics connector, RFId tag reader, etc.  interface can be wired or wireless.
  57. 57. 57/260 interfacing with peripherals - GPIO  general purpose digital input/output (GPIO): – read or set a voltage (high / low) [Per01]
  58. 58. 58/260 interfacing with peripherals - GPIO  an optocoupler may be required  software debounce may be required (a hardware debouncer is sometimes provided by the microcontroller)
  59. 59. 59/260 interfacing with peripherals - ADC / DAC  important parameters: resolution and sampling rate  analog to digital converter (ADC): – converts an analog voltage to a digital value – signal conditioning may be required – some microcontrollers provide integrated Op Amp (e.g. PIC16F527)  digital to analog converter (DAC): – converts a digital value to an analog voltage [Per02]
  60. 60. 60/260 interfacing with peripherals - serial interface  V.24 / RS-232 – minimum 3 wires: transmitted data, received data, signal ground – asynchronous communication (start bit, stop bit) – additional wires for control signals (request to send, ready for sending, data set ready, calling indicator, etc.) – voltage level: – V.28: – bit to 1: -15 V < voltage < -3 V – bit to 0: +3 V > voltage > +15 V – distance: < 15 m – connectors: DB-25, DB-9 – USA: RS-232 (TIA-232) [Per03]
  61. 61. 61/260 UART Address bus Control bus RX TTL TX TTL GND level shifter TX V.24 RX V.24 GND CPU microcontroller interfacing with peripherals - serial interface  bytes are serialized using an UART (Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter)  voltage levels are shifted from board voltage to V.28 for short distances, level shifting may be omitted
  62. 62. 62/260 interfacing with peripherals - serial interface  interface characteristics: – asynchronous => a byte starts with a start bit and ends with stop bit(s) – speed (b/s) – byte format (number of data bits, parity, number of stop bits)  a byte is framed. Similar to message framing described in communications section. mark or previous stop bit start bit data bits (5 to 8) + parity (E, O, M, S, N) stop bit(s)
  63. 63. 63/260 interfacing with peripherals - SPI  Serial Peripheral Interface – defined by Motorola (then Freescale, then NXP Semiconductors, now Qualcomm) (1985?) MOSI: Master Output, Slave Input SCLK: Serial Clock MISO: Master Input, Slave Output SS: Slave Select [Per04] [Per05]
  64. 64. 64/260 interfacing with peripherals - SPI  synchronous communication  full duplex, clock up to a few MHz  one master, one chip select per slave  4 wires  Applications: – short distance communication (in main board vicinity) – exemples: – sensors (temperature, pressure, etc.) – memory (EEPROM, etc.) – LCD – etc.
  65. 65. 65/260 interfacing with peripherals - I2 C  Inter-Integrated Circuit – defined by Philips (the NXP Semincoductors now Qualcomm) (1980's) [Per06] [Per07]
  66. 66. 66/260 interfacing with peripherals - I2 C  multi-master  clock up to a few MHz  2 wires  applications: – same than SPI
  67. 67. 67/260 interfacing with peripherals - CAN  Controller Area Network – defined by Bosch (1986) [Per08]
  68. 68. 68/260 interfacing with peripherals - CAN  mainly for vehicles  2-wire bus  multi-master, message broadcast system with asynchronous communication  bus access: CSMA/CD+AMP (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection with Arbitration on Message Priority)  maximum speed: 1 Mb/s  distance: up to several hundreds of meters (with “low” bit rate) [Ser03]
  69. 69. 69/260 interfacing with peripherals - Bluetooth  Bluetooth: – designed in 1994 by Ericsson – originally: to replace RS-232 cables – range: less than 100 m – Serial Port Profile (SPP). Many other profiles (audio, file, telephony, etc.)  Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE - 4.0): – designed for very low power operation – optimized for data transfer [Blu01]
  70. 70. 70/260 at a software point of view  writing low-level code to handle interfaces: – serial interface: not too complex – SPI, I2C: not too complex either – CAN, Bluetooth: use existing drivers!
  71. 71. 71/260 4. devices 4.1. device architecture 4.2. important microcontroller characteristics 4.3. interfacing with peripherals 4.4. storage 4.5. software development 4.6. summary
  72. 72. 72/260 communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage device architecture
  73. 73. 73/260 storage  when on-chip memory is not enough  additional memory: – important parameters: – bus type (serial, parallel) – max number of program / erase cycles (e.g. 3 000, 100 000) – write time (e.g. page erase - word / page write) – soldered IC: – EEPROM 512 Kb (<=> 64 KB) - 8 pins - SPI - ⋍ US$1.3 – 8 Gb (<=> 1 GB) - 48 pins - multiplexed A/D buses - ⋍ US$8.0 – memory card: – MMC, SD, miniSD, microSD, etc. – ex.: microSD 1 GB ⋍ US$27
  74. 74. 74/260 4. devices 4.1. device architecture 4.2. important microcontroller characteristics 4.3. interfacing with peripherals 4.4. storage 4.5. software development 4.6. summary
  75. 75. 75/260 development environment ● source code edition ● compilation / link ● simulation ● debugging ● load / run ● emulation ● debugging LPCXpresso VxWorks GNU toolchain TASKING ... PC running Linux, OSX, Windows microcontroller board Atmel Studio
  76. 76. 76/260 execution environment Morpheus3 VxWorks RTX OS RTOS specific runtime interrupt handlers + background task ... ... ... Esterel Lustre bare metal Ada
  77. 77. 77/260 bare metal  let's look more closely at a microcontroller architecture
  78. 78. 78/260 bare metal  some events generated by peripherals input level changed character sent character received counter limit reached end of conversion bit received frame received frame sent watchdog timeout
  79. 79. 79/260 bare metal  an event generates an interrupt  attach an interrupt handler to the interrupt you want to handle  example: analog to digital conversion time background task end of conversion interrupt handler background task interruption save context restore context start conversion
  80. 80. 80/260 bare metal  usual OS services not available: – process – thread – synchronized access to shared resources (memory, peripherals) – inter-thread communication – device drivers – file system – etc.
  81. 81. 81/260 bare metal  it's less complex than it appears for small applications  very useful for some classes of requirements: – (very) small memory footprint – low power consumption – low cost  available tools: – some commercial or open source code is available (flash file system, TCP/IP stack, etc.) – macro definitions preventing use of assembly language – hardware debugger with trace capture
  82. 82. 82/260 bare metal  available tools (cont'd): – well known design patterns: – ring buffer – finite state machine (FSM) – etc.  Note: ring buffer and FSM can be used in OS context
  83. 83. 83/260 outPtr inPtr data bare metal  ring buffer (or circular buffer): – fixed-size memory array, used as an interface between a producer and a consumer – pointer outPtr points to first non empty element – pointer inPtr points to first empty element – to get next element: read outPtr, read data, increment outPtr – to put a new element: read inPtr, write data, increment inPtr – when at the end of the array, pointer is reset to start of array
  84. 84. 84/260 bare metal  ring buffer (cont'd): – a ring buffer is a FIFO (First In, First Out) – when put rate is greater than get rate, buffer gets full: – new data overwrites oldest one, or – put is not performed – beware: put and get operations must be atomic  examples of use: – receive buffer for a serial interface – message queue for communication between two different pieces of code
  85. 85. 85/260 state S1 state S2 event E1 (+ condition C1) actions A to perform bare metal  finite state machine: – an abstract machine that can be in one of a finite number of states – the machine is in only one state at a time (current state) – transition from one state to another one is triggered by an event (possibly guarded by a condition) – one possible way to graphically depict an FSM:
  86. 86. 86/260 RTOS  an RTOS (or an OS) provides many services: – tasks – task notifications – queues – semaphores – mutexes – timers – memory protection – etc.  easier to write feature-rich applications but: – experience is still required – debugging can be more complex (but easier as well!) – an RTOS must be configured for the hardware platform – larger footprint – etc.
  87. 87. 87/260
  88. 88. 88/260 beware!  this survey mixes OS and RTOS  survey sample may be biased: – according to Express Logic, there are 6.2 billion devices running ThreadX => the most deployed RTOS? – according to Wind River, there are 2 billion devices running VxWorks  IoT market is a subset of embedded market  what about « IoT RTOS »: Contiki, RIOT, Mbed OS...?
  89. 89. 89/260 4. devices 4.1. device architecture 4.2. important microcontroller characteristics 4.3. interfacing with peripherals 4.4. storage 4.5. software development 4.6. summary
  90. 90. 90/260 summary  complex technical subset of IoT: – analog electronics – digital electronics – bus – software  device software ≠ web server software!!!!  if you can reuse an existing design, do it!  more and more open source designs are available  location, communication: see next sections communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage
  91. 91. 91/260 5. positioning
  92. 92. 92/260 positioning - GNSS  GNSS: Global Navigation Satellite System  mostly for outdoor use  working principles: – constellation of satellites – every satellite sends messages: satellite position, message time – satellite time is very accurate (atomic clock) – listening to 3 satellites, the GNSS receiver estimates its location on earth (distance = difference of time x speed of light) – that's only an estimate (the receiver does not have an atomic clock) – using a 4th satellite, the receiver synchronizes its clock – => real location can be computed  satellite orbits: MEO (20 000 km), GEO (36 000 km)
  93. 93. 93/260 positioning - GNSS  speed of light (approx.): 3 x 108 m/s: 10 m <=> 33 ns  fix: position  accuracy: – depends on receiver quality, on satellites being used, etc. – documented as better than 8 m with 95% confidence level – usual accuracy: 20 m  Dilution of Precision (DOP – PDOP/HDOP/VDOP): – how satellite constellation geometry impacts error in computed location – good when < 6
  94. 94. 94/260 positioning - GPS  GPS: US system – 31 operational satellites – MEO orbit: 20 200 km  GLONASS: Russia (formerly USSR) system – 24 operational satellites – MEO: 19 100 km
  95. 95. 95/260 positioning - other GNSS  Galileo: Europe – target: 24 satellites + 6 spares – MEO: 23 200 km – accuracy: 8 m horiz. 9 m vert. 95% of time – 12 operational satellites, 4 testing, 2 not fully available – operational (15-Dec-2016)  BeiDou ( 北斗 ): China – target: 5 GEO satellites + 30 MEO satellites – currently: 19 satellites – operational over China  Japan (QZSS), India (NAVIC)
  96. 96. 96/260 positioning - GNSS accuracy  example of accuracy: – GPS receiver indoor, not far from a window => lower reception quality – one location every 2 s, for 15 minutes – several locations are more than 60 m far from the real location
  97. 97. 97/260 positioning - GNSS augmentation systems  To increase accuracy (and integrity): – differential GPS – a GPS receiver placed at a location known with very good accuracy is used to generate corrections send to other GPS receivers – another receiver is required – => ⋍ 3 – 5 m accuracy – SBAS (Satellite-Based Augmentation Systems) – additional satellites broadcast corrections – no other receiver required – => ⋍ 1 – 3 m accuracy – USA: WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) – Europe: EGNOS (European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service) – India: GAGAN (GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation – Japan: MSAS (Multi-functional Satellite Augmentation System)
  98. 98. 98/260 positioning - GNSS augmentation systems  A-GPS (Assisted GPS) – mainly for PLMN terminals (your mobile phone...) – almanac (coarse orbit and status information for all satellites) and ephemeris (precise orbit for one satellite) data are sent to the GPS receiver using the mobile network – this reduces TTFF (Time To First Fix) – data generated by mobile operators, or by OTT players (Google, etc.)  RTK (Real-Time Kinematic) – signal phase is used, to get an accuracy up to a few centimeters – fix computation can be quite long
  99. 99. 99/260 positioning - interface command + data interface communication module microcontroller + memoryinterfaces location module user interface communication network data storage
  100. 100. 100/260 positioning - interface  interface: – usually: serial (V.28 or board voltage) – usually: implements subset of NMEA 0183 standard – most manufacturers provide their own protocol: – SiRF (then CSR, now Samsung) – u-blox - SkyTraq – ST – Broadcom – etc. $GPGGA,123519,4807.038,N,01131.000,E,1,08,0.9,545.4,M,46.9,M,,*47 Where: GGA Global Positioning System Fix Data 123519 Fix taken at 12:35:19 UTC 4807.038,N Latitude 48 deg 07.038' N 01131.000,E Longitude 11 deg 31.000' E 1 Fix quality: 0 = invalid 1 = GPS fix (SPS) 2 = DGPS fix 3 = PPS fix 4 = Real Time Kinematic 5 = Float RTK 6 = estimated (dead reckoning) (2.3 feature) 7 = Manual input mode 8 = Simulation mode 08 Number of satellites being tracked 0.9 Horizontal dilution of position 545.4,M Altitude, Meters, above mean sea level 46.9,M Height of geoid (mean sea level) above WGS84 ellipsoid (empty field) time in seconds since last DGPS update
  101. 101. 101/260 positioning - interface  most receivers are multi-constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou)  important: antenna placement  may be important: tamper protection – antenna cable short circuit and antenna removal events
  102. 102. 102/260 positioning - network - misc.  network positioning: – trilateration (several time measures) – triangulation (several angle measures) – cell identification – “fingerprinting” – beacons  dead reckoning: first known position then inertial sensor fusion (accelerometer + magnetometer and filtering)  position may be available at – device side – network side
  103. 103. 103/260 positioning - indoor  all previous technologies may be used for indoor positioning, depending on constraints  but no easy-to-integrate, generic system exists today  domain still open to more innovation
  104. 104. 104/260 summary  GPS is not the only GNSS!  accuracy increases  time to first fix decreases  other systems: keep an eye on  how to integrate a GNSS receiver: check communications section
  105. 105. 105/260 6. identification
  106. 106. 106/260 identification  some systems have to identify / authenticate external objects: – truck trailers – shipping containers – bottles of perfumes – bottles of wine – etc.
  107. 107. 107/260 identification  RFID (Radio Frequency Identification): – tag / label with (almost) unique identity – passive (no battery) or active (battery) – read-only or read/write – reader: transmits – a passive tag uses incoming energy to transmit back its data – as usual, distance depends on power, antenna and frequency – from a few tens of centimeters up to a few meters (more is possible)  NFC (Near-Field Communication): – purposely short distances only (a few centimeters) – for secure applications (e.g., contactless payment)
  108. 108. 108/260 identification  questions: how to identify objects on a global basis, and let every organization exchange object data?  part of the answer: GS1 – international not-for-profit organization – delivers standards, services and solutions – standards: – barcodes – EPCglobal: tag data, tag protocols, reader protocols, ONS (Object Name Service), discovery services, etc. – etc.  a world in itself...
  109. 109. 109/260 7. communications 7.1. introduction 7.2. framing 7.3. direction 7.4. wireless networks 7.5. wired networks 7.6. messaging protocols 7.7. IP or not IP?
  110. 110. 110/260 communications - introduction  central part of IoT systems  wireless or wired  a given system can use several network technologies – to increase connectivity reliability – to increase connectivity coverage – to provide specific properties (low power, QoS, etc.) – to support legacy equipments – to lower operating costs / capital costs – etc.
  111. 111. 111/260 communications - important characteristics  shared or not  geographic coverage + possibility to adapt it  latency  connectivity setup time  addressability  required power for transmission  terminal cost  communication cost  ease of integration  throughput  confidentiality  reliability  availability  etc.
  112. 112. 112/260 communications - important characteristics  data: byte stream or messages? – message: some data, adhering to a known format, exchanged between two or more communicating entities  voice?
  113. 113. 113/260 communications - byte stream  serial interface: bytes – start bit + data bits + stop bit – a byte can be seen as a n-bit message :-)  TCP: bytes – TCP is stream oriented (more later)  what can we do with a byte stream?
  114. 114. 114/260 communications - message  how to go from a stream oriented layer to a message oriented layer?
  115. 115. 115/260 7. communications 7.1. overview 7.2. framing 7.3. direction 7.4. wireless networks 7.5. wired networks 7.6. messaging protocols 7.7. IP or not IP?
  116. 116. 116/260 framing header payload check sequence  detailed frame structure depends on protocol  header may contain: – packet numbering – number of last good packet received – frame class – etc.  a check sequence may be present: – result of a mathematical operation performed on previous bytes – receiver performs the same operation and compares result  Questions: – how to know when a frame starts and when it stops? – how to ensure transparency for payload?
  117. 117. 117/260 framing - delimitation  several solutions for delimitation: – byte count – flag bytes – etc.  byte count:  flag bytes: header payload check sequence payload size header payload check sequence B E
  118. 118. 118/260 framing - delimitation  flag byte: how to allow E byte to be present in payload?  => transparency
  119. 119. 119/260 framing - transparency  use a predefined escape byte, ESC for instance  on transmission side: – when E is in payload, insert an ESC before it – when ESC is in payload, insert another ESC before it  on reception side: – when ESC is received, delete it and keep following byte  another solution: reduce payload byte set!  etc.
  120. 120. 120/260 7. communications 7.1. overview 7.2. framing 7.3. direction 7.4. wireless networks 7.5. wired networks 7.6. messaging protocols 7.7. IP or not IP?
  121. 121. 121/260 direction A B Simplex
  122. 122. 122/260 direction A B Half-duplex time
  123. 123. 123/260 direction A B Full-duplex
  124. 124. 124/260 7. communications 7.1. overview 7.2. framing 7.3. direction 7.4. wireless networks 7.5. wired networks 7.6. messaging protocols 7.7. IP or not IP?
  125. 125. 125/260 wireless - PMR  Professional Mobile Radio – not accessible to consumer – frequency + associated bandwidth allocated to a user for a given period – user: private or public organization (company, city, association, etc.) – cost: annual fee (“license fee”) per terminal. In France: – fee = I x bf x c x k4 + n x G – I: bandwidth, in MHz – bf: depends on frequency – c: depends on coverage – k4: constant – n: number of mobile users – G: constant
  126. 126. 126/260 wireless - PMR  Frequency (bands): – 40 MHz, 80 MHz, 150 MHz, 400 MHz, etc.  Technology: – analog – voice + data (modem) – 6,25 or 12,5 kHz channels – 1200 b/s – digital: – DMR (Digital Mobile Radio) – 2 slot TDMA over 12,5 kHz channels – 9000 kb/s for 2 slots – dPMR – FDMA over 6,25 kHz channels – 4800 b/s – TETRA (TErrestrial Trunk RAdio) – 4 slot TDMA over 25 kHz channels – 7200 b/s per slot – for shared networks – TETRAPOL – FDMA – for shared networks – TEDS, GSM-R  Coverage: – from ⋍ 30 km (mono-site) up to wide area coverage (multi-sites / trunk) TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access
  127. 127. 127/260 wireless - PMR - data  data communication: – usually, using a dedicated connector on transceiver – analog: – let's forget about it... – digital: – DMR: status messages (≤ 128 bytes) - short messages (≤ 36 bytes) – packet data – dPMR: short messages (≤ 100 bytes) - packet data – TETRA: short messages (≤140 bytes) - packet data
  128. 128. 128/260 wireless - PMR  in 2016: – around 25.000 PMR networks in France  users: – taxis, public transports, ambulances, airports, highways, security, industry, constructions, etc. – public organizations: cities, hospitals, etc. [Com06]
  129. 129. 129/260 wireless - unlicensed  France regulation: – AFP = Appareils de Faible Puissance et de Faible Portée – freely accessible – 6.8 MHz, 13.6 MHz, 27.0 MHz, 40.7 MHz, 433.0 MHz, 434.0 MHz, 863-868... MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5.7-5.9 GHz, 24... GHz, 61 GHz, 122-123 GHz, 244-246 GHz – ERP: depends on frequency - from 1 mW to 500 mW – some restrictions on duty cycle, on channel spacing, etc. – some other frequencies, for specific equipments – usual range: up to a few kilometers, unobstructed LoS – throughput: from several 100s of b/s to several 1000s of b/s ERP: Effective Radiated Power LoS: Line of Sight
  130. 130. 130/260 wireless - unlicensed long range  for a given radiated power and a given bit error rate, range can be increased either by: – using lower bit rate with traditional modulation technologies. But this narrows spectrum => precise frequency reference is required to decode received modulation.  or by – using spread spectrum modulation. But processing is complex.  Examples: – SIGFOX (choice 1) - technology + network operator – range: documented as up to 40 km LoS – LoRa (Semtech) (choice 2) - technology (chipsets) – range: documented as up to 15 km LoS
  131. 131. 131/260 wireless - zoom on LoRa / LoRaWAN  modulation: CSS (Chirp Spread Spectrum)  robust against interference and fading  multiple signals can be sent on same RF channels, with different spreading factors (SF)  error correction in physical layer  LoRaWAN: – provides Adaptative Data Rate (SF management) => battery life, network capacity – interoperability device / network – security – etc.
  132. 132. 132/260 wireless - zoom on LoRa / LoRaWAN [Com07]
  133. 133. 133/260 wireless - zoom on LoRa / LoRaWAN [Com07]
  134. 134. 134/260 wireless - zoom on LoRa / LoRaWAN [Com07]
  135. 135. 135/260 wireless - PLMN  Public Land Mobile Network  two main families of standards / technologies: – 3GPP: 3rd Generation Partnership Project – GSM, GPRS, EDGE, HSDPA, HSUPA, MBMS, LTE, LTE Advanced... – 3GPP2: 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 – CDMA2000, UMB, LTE...  shared between anybody who subscribes  broad coverage, but target is population, not territory
  136. 136. 136/260 wireless - 3GPP  data services: – CSD (Circuit Switched Data): obsolete – SMS (Short Message Service) – 140 to 160 characters / bytes – USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) – specific services – packet data - IP compatible – throughputs (beware: uplink ≪ downlink): – 2.5G: 8 to 40 kb/s (GPRS) – EDGE = GPRS x 3 – 3G: 2 Mb/s non-moving, 384 kb/s moving – 3.5G: 14.4 Mb/s (HSDPA) – 4G: 100 Mb/s and more (LTE)... GPRS: General Packet Radio Service EDGE: Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution HSDPA: High-Speed Downlink Packet Access LTE: Long Term Evolution
  137. 137. 137/260 wireless - 3GPP IoT-oriented  three LPWA technologies in Release 13: – NB-IoT (Narrow-Band IoT) – EC-GSM-IoT (Extended Coverage GSM for the IoT) – LTE-M (LTE for Machines) LPWA : Low Power Wide Area
  138. 138. 138/260 wireless - NB-IoT  power consumption decreased => battery life > 10 years (!)  spectrum efficiency improved  extended coverage (rural and deep indoors)  low device complexity => low cost
  139. 139. 139/260 wireless - EC-GSM-IoT  based on eGPRS (EDGE for GPRS)  software upgrade of existing GSM networks  battery life > 10 years (!)
  140. 140. 140/260 wireless - LTE-M  simplified term for LTE-MTC CatM1  lower device complexity - cost reduced to 25% of current eGPRS modules  extended coverage  battery life > 10 years (!)
  141. 141. 141/260 interfacing with 3GPP module  AT commands, defined in 3GPP TS 27.007 (and TS 07.07)  commands: [Com02]
  142. 142. 142/260 interfacing with 3GPP module  responses:
  143. 143. 143/260 wireless - 3GPP - IP connectivity  APN (Access Point Name): – name of gateway between 3GPP network and the Internet - real name: GGSN – defined by the operator – defines following gateway characteristics: – static or dynamic IP address – public or private IP address – allowed protocols (TCP, UDP, etc.) – allowed ports
  144. 144. 144/260 wireless - 3GPP - IP connectivity with IP stack in µc board mobile network the Internet GGSN (APN) 1 - attach 2 – define and activate context + start comm. => comm. module known to network => IP address assigned to comm. module 3 – start a PPP session => IP address assigned to remote device communication module microcontroller board AT commands GGSN: GPRS Gateway Support Node[Com03] [Com04]
  145. 145. 145/260 wireless - 3GPP - IP connectivity  1/ attach: AT+CGATT=1 OK  2/ define PDP context 3: AT+CGDCONT=3,"IP","orange.m2m.spec" OK  activate PDP context 3: AT+CGACT=1,3 OK  establish communication using PDP context 3: ATD*99***3# CONNECT  3/ start a PPP session
  146. 146. 146/260 wireless - 3GPP - IP connectivity with IP stack in µc board - router mobile network the Internet GGSN 1 - register 2 – define and activate context + start comm. => comm. module known to network => IP address assigned to comm. module AT commands 3 – define NAT / PAT rule => comm. module performs NAT / PAT communication module microcontroller board
  147. 147. 147/260 wireless - 3GPP - IP connectivity without IP stack in µc board mobile network the Internet GGSN (APN) 1 - attach 2 – define and activate context + start comm. => comm. module known to network => IP address assigned to comm. module 3 – send / receive data communication module microcontroller board AT commands
  148. 148. 148/260 wireless - 3GPP - programmable comm. module mobile network the Internet GGSN (APN) 1 - attach 2 – define and activate context + start comm. => comm. module known to network => IP address assigned to comm. module 3 – send / receive data communication module + application API
  149. 149. 149/260 wireless - satellites  geostationary orbits – characteristics: – 36.000 km above the Earth – satellite seen from Earth as stationary – coverage restricted to desired zone – minimum end-to-end latency: 2 x 36.000 km / 300.000 km/s => 240 ms – Inmarsat: – BGAN M2M: IP at up to 448 kb/s – latency from 800 ms – global coverage except polar regions – IsatM2M: messages of 25 (up) / 100 (down) bytes – latency 30 to 60 s – global coverage except polar regions – IsatData Pro: messages of 6.4 (up) / 10 (down) kB – latency 15 to 60 s – global coverage except polar regions – Thuraya BGAN: Broadband Global Area Network
  150. 150. 150/260 wireless - satellites  low earth orbit (LEO) – characteristics: – satellites constantly in motion around the Earth – altitude: 170 – 2000 km => period: 90 – 130 min. – low power – higher latency ! – Orbcomm: – messages of 6 to 30 bytes – average latency: 6 min. – global coverage – Globalstar – Iridium – Argos
  151. 151. 151/260 wireless - (nano)satellites  low earth orbit (LEO) – Astrocast – Fleet – HeliosWire ( + blockchain) – Hiberband – Kepler – Myriota – Swarm Technologies
  152. 152. 152/260 wireless - short distance  Wi-Fi – wireless local area network (WLAN) technology based on IEEE802.11 standards – Wi-Fi Alliance owns the brand (not an abbreviation...) – range: usually up to 100 m outdoors  Bluetooth – originally designed to replace serial cables – personal area network (PAN) – managed by the Bluetooth Special Interest Group – range: less than 100 m – many profiles – Bluetooth Low Energy (part of V4.0) – Bluetooth Mesh
  153. 153. 153/260 wireless - short distance  ZigBee – managed by ZigBee Alliance – low-power – range: up to 100 m – mesh network => long distance by retransmitting data  Z-Wave – managed by Z-Wave Alliance - for home automation – low-power – range: around 30 m – mesh network
  154. 154. 154/260 wireless - comparison - 1/2 Techno Shared Range Latency Setup time PMR no from 30 km up to wide area depends on architecture 0 unlicensed yes up to 10 (40) km depends on architecture 0 2.5G/3G yes wide area from 100 ms up to 1 s from 2 s to 5 s 4G yes wide area 50 ms 1 s satellites geo yes global 800 ms to 60 s depends satellites LEO yes global min depends Wi-Fi yes local ms s
  155. 155. 155/260 wireless - comparison - 2/2 Techno Addressability TX power Equipment cost Comm. cost PMR full W 100s € 0 € unlicensed full mW 10s € 0 € 2.5G/3G restricted W 100s € flat rate 4G restricted W 100s € --> 10s € flat rate satellites geo restriced W 1000s € high satellites LEO restricted W 100s € high Wi-Fi full mW 10s € 0 €
  156. 156. 156/260 wireless - 3 dimensions  3 dimensions, for wireless networks: – technology – regulations – operator  example 1: – 4G is a technology mainly used for public cellular networks – operators (Orange, Verizon, etc.) have to buy licenses – 4G can be used on private networks as well  example 2: – Sigfox is an operator using its proprietary technology on license-free bands – the technology could be used on licensed bands as well  example 3: – LoRa is a technology used on license-free bands – there are several operators (Orange, Bouygues Telecom, etc.) – the technology can be used by consumers as well – the technology can be used on licensed bands as well
  157. 157. 157/260 7. communications 7.1. overview 7.2. framing 7.3. direction 7.4. wireless networks 7.5. wired networks 7.6. messaging protocols 7.7. IP or not IP?
  158. 158. 158/260 wired  leased lines – permanent connection between two locations – analog or digital – symmetric throughput (unlike ADSL) – example for France: – Orange Transfix: up to 2048 Kb/s – for IoT / M2M: more or less obsolete  Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) – requires a modem (modulator – demodulator) – up to 56 Kb/s – cost proportional to duration (depends on package) – long setup time (up to 20 or 30 s) – for IoT / M2M: not so used  Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) – pseudo permanent connection
  159. 159. 159/260 wired  Local Area Network (LAN) – Ethernet  field buses: – PROFIBUS – DeviceNet – INTERBUS – FOUNDATION – Modbus – Sercos – PROFINET – Powerlink – EtherCAT – etc.
  160. 160. 160/260 7. communications 7.1. overview 7.2. framing 7.3. direction 7.4. wireless networks 7.5. wired networks 7.6. messaging protocols 7.7. IP or not IP?
  161. 161. 161/260 messaging protocols  just a few words about TCP: – TCP is a stream-oriented protocol: – “Hello world” can be received as “Hell” and then “o world” – “Hello” and then “ world” can be received as “Hello world” – => framing is required – simple, for TCP, thanks to TCP characteristics: – ordered data transfer – error-free data transfer
  162. 162. 162/260 messaging protocols  data serialization - endianness independency: – ASN.1: defined 30 years ago by CCITT (now ITU-T) – not so used in M2M/IoT... – Google re-invented a solution in 2008: Protocol Buffers – not so used either in M2M/IoT... (but framing not provided...) – CBOR (Concise Binary Object Representation): IETF - 2013 – advantages: – reliable solutions – data endianness independency – transparent serialization/deserialization – forward compatibility – drawbacks: – some complexity – Protocol Buffers needs framing – libraries in various languages to encode / decode frames – not so difficult to define your own mechanism
  163. 163. 163/260 messaging protocols  applying web technologies to IoT / M2M communications is often not the right choice: – HTTP: request / response (=> polling), ASCII, complex parsing – XML: verbose – JSON: still too verbose  one benefit: – go through firewalls and proxies  but should IoT / M2M communications be transported along with web communications?
  164. 164. 164/260 messaging protocols - MQTT  MQTT acronym comes from Message Queue (not present in MQTT!) and Telemetry Transport (but MQTT is not restricted to telemetry)  maintained by OASIS Consortium (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards)  mixes messaging with publish / subscribe (one to many - application decoupling)  based on TCP/IP (MQTT-SN for non TCP/IP networks)  small transport overhead  abnormal disconnection notification  free open source implementations: – Eclipse Mosquitto (server) – Eclipse Paho (clients in various languages)
  165. 165. 165/260 messaging protocols - CoAP  Constrained Application Protocol  maintained by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) - RFC7252  request / response – designed to easily interface with HTTP  based on UDP or equivalent  low transport overhead  low parsing complexity  resource discovery (a client queries a server)  several free open source implementations of CoAP (client, server)
  166. 166. 166/260 messaging protocols - other  many other protocols: – Open Wireless Telematics Protocol (designed by Mobile Devices) – Cloud Connector (designed by Digi) – etc.  not so difficult (for really experienced developer) to define one's own protocol
  167. 167. 167/260 device management protocols  OMA DM: specified by Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)  OMA DM supports: – device provisioning (device initialization and configuration) – software updates (application and system software) – fault management (reporting faults, querying status)  for M2M: OMA Lightweight M2M (LWM2M) – based on CoAP – open source implementation: Eclipse Wakaama project
  168. 168. 168/260 7. communications 7.1. overview 7.2. framing 7.3. direction 7.4. wireless networks 7.5. wired networks 7.6. messaging protocols 7.7. IP or not IP?
  169. 169. 169/260 LPWAN limitations  LPWAN:  drastic bandwidth limitation  => do not rely on TCP/IP protocols  => not well integrated in the Internet  one proposed solution: SCHC
  170. 170. 170/260 SCHC  for LPWAN: nature of data flows is highly predictable  communication contexts are stored on both sides  => high level of compression is possible  Static Context Header Compression  compression  fragmentation
  171. 171. 171/260 SCHC [Com05]
  172. 172. 172/260 SCHC  => an LPWAN device becomes an IP device
  173. 173. 173/260 summary  many different technologies  understanding real user needs is important, to choose right network technology/technologies  perhaps the most important part of a system, as it transfers data from on side to the other one  perhaps the most difficult part of a system, at a technical point of view
  174. 174. 174/260 8. platforms 8.1. architecture and services 8.2. RESTful API
  175. 175. 175/260 platforms  beware: the word « platform » may have different meanings – software development framework – software application providing communication (and possibly management and storage) services – a hosted application providing above services – hardware system – hardware system and associated software stack – etc.  in what follows: hosted application, that makes easier to integrate devices into applications
  176. 176. 176/260 platforms central side connected device long distance network
  177. 177. 177/260 platforms Central sideRemote side OS embedded device communication services - remote application software - remote OS PC / serverperipherals communication services - central software components - central component component component software components - remote component component component application software - central OS API communication services API OS API components APIscomponents APIs communication protocols components protocols application protocols Customer-dedicated integration Technical components Communication Execution platforms management security communication services API management security
  178. 178. 178/260 platforms  functions usually provided by a platform (as seen by a user): – device provisioning – device management – device authentication – support of some communication protocols – user authentication – data persistence (raw data or decoded data?) – device groups – user groups – easy way to add new communication protocols – etc.  two logical interfaces: one for devices, one for applications
  179. 179. 179/260 platforms connected device central side platform platform code solving customer problem code solving customer problem customer pays for this, not for the platform relative sizes of software code, for a complex system
  180. 180. 180/260 platforms  perceived value is often not in the platform  a platform may prevent from using some devices (which do not implement a supported protocol)  a platform usually creates a protocol break  when updating the platform, ALL users are impacted  developing a communication layer + minimum device management is not complex for an experienced team  => think twice before deciding on using a platform  anyway, using a platform may be very nice, for some (simple) applications, to demonstrate a new service, or for very large sets of devices
  181. 181. 181/260 many platforms ? Afero deviceWISE Microtronics end-to-end platform Sine-Wave AggreGate dweet.io Mobius SIMPro AirVantage Electric Imp MODE SmartThings Ark Enterprise2Cloud mozaiq Solair ARTIK Cloud EVRYTHNG Murano TempoIQ AT&T's M2X Exosite myDevices The ThingBox AWS IoT FlowCloud Nabto thethings.iO Axeda IoT Platform Gaonic Neo ThingFabric AXON GoFactory Net4Things ThingPlug Ayla IoT Cloud Fabric Golgi Netatmo Connect ThingSpeak Beebotte IFTTT netObjex Thingsquare Berg iMotion NetPro ThingWorx Blynk Impact n.io UnificationEngine Bosch IoT Suite Initial State Octoblu Verizon's M2M platform Busit IoTAcceleration Platform OpenMTC Vortex Canopy Itron OpenSensorCloud Waygum Carriots Hologram Cellular Platform OpenSensors waylay CloudConnect Home2Cloud Open.Sen.se WyzBee Combicloud IBM IoT Cloud Parse Xively Concirrus IoTfy People Power - now FabrUX Yaler Connext DDS IoT lab Plat-One Zatar Coversant IoT Cloud IoT-X PubNub Dashboard of Things iQmenic REDtone IOT Canopy dataplicity Kii resin.io DeviceHive Datavenue Lelylan restack FI-WARE Deutsche Telekom's M2M Device Cloud Loop RuBAN Home*Star / IOTDB Device Connection Platform Lumata Samsung SAMIIO IoTivity DeviceCloud M2M Intelligence SAP HANA Kaa DeviceHub MachineShop SensorLogic macchina.io DevicePilot mbed Device Server SkyNet Nimbits Node-RED OpenIoT OpenRemotecheck http://www.monblocnotes.com/node/1979 opensource
  182. 182. 182/260 platforms - example - Sierra Wireless  connectivity management – SIM inventory – usage tracking – etc.  application enablement – RESTful API – data storage – rules engine – device protocol support – etc.  device management – device monitoring – command transmission – OTA firmware update – configuration deployment – etc.[Pla02]
  183. 183. 183/260 platforms - how to use one  usual steps, to use a platform for a new development: – register – check list of supported devices, and select one, possibly a simulated one – download client source code or library – build an « Hello World » client (send/receive data) – test it – check send/receive data using available web application – download central application source code or library – build an « Hello World » application (send/receive data) – test it – test the whole system
  184. 184. 184/260 8. platforms 8.1. architecture and services 8.2. RESTful API
  185. 185. 185/260 overview  REST: representational state transfer  invented in 2000 - an architecture, not a protocol – client-server – stateless – cacheable – layered system – uniform interface – [code on demand]  for web services: RESTful APIs – base URL – HTTP method (GET, HEAD, PUT, POST, DELETE, TRACE, CONNECT) – data elements - JSON
  186. 186. 186/260 example - when you visit google.com from France client server GET / HTTP/1.1 User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:10.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/10.0 Host: google.com Accept: */* open TCP socket with address google.com HTTP/1.1 302 Found Cache-Control: private Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Location: https://www.google.fr/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=J8-MWPedMPL-8AePwISQDA Content-Length: 259 Date: Sat, 28 Jan 2017 17:04:39 GMT Alt-Svc: quic=":443"; ma=2592000; v="35,34" <HTML><HEAD><meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html;charset=utf-8"> <TITLE>302 Moved</TITLE></HEAD><BODY> <H1>302 Moved</H1> The document has moved <A HREF="https://www.google.fr/?gfe_rd=cr&amp;ei=J8-MWPedMPL-8AePwISQDA">here</A>. </BODY></HTML>
  187. 187. 187/260 example - AirVantage API client server GET /api/v1/users/current?access_token={token} HTTP/1.1 .... { uid: "81210eca05484d34a29bc6c34dc31bf7", email: "dsciamma@sierrawireless.com", name: "David Sciamma", company: { uid: "97ba9e22078548a2847912a87152e3f4", name: "Sierra Wireless" }, profile: { uid: "df1c0f7d5f8c4db2b45978f98e1093ad", name: "Manager" } }
  188. 188. 188/260 example - AirVantage API  after authentication: – get received data – send command to a device – get monitoring data – etc.
  189. 189. 189/260 9. central side
  190. 190. 190/260 computational viewpoint  device interface – via a platform – with a communication server  database  geographic information system (GIS) functions  data filtering and processing  user interface(s)  etc.
  191. 191. 191/260 platform central side connected device long distance network
  192. 192. 192/260 communication server  communication server: – provides an interface to communicate with devices – may handle several different network technologies – switching to another network technology or supporting a new one should be easy and rapid – other usual requirements: – security concerns: authentication, integrity, privacy, (non-repudiation) – reliability – scalability – etc.
  193. 193. 193/260 communication server  example: – for PMR or unlicensed radio antennas transceivers + modems communication server [Cen01]
  194. 194. 194/260 communication server  example: – for 3GPP communication server Internet
  195. 195. 195/260 communication server  3GPP example (cont'd): – uplink (from devices to server): – server IP address must be reachable => public or VPN – downlink: – device IP address characteristics depend on APN – static or dynamic? – public or private? – several solutions depending on user need and required genericity: – device initiates and maintains a TCP session – server sends an SMS to device, requesting its connection – devices connects periodically – private APN => VPN – etc.
  196. 196. 196/260 databases  3 main technologies: – relational database – object database – NoSQL database  another dimension to be considered sometimes: – spatial database (but GIS function can be provided as a service)  a question may arise: – do application data have to be separated from “technical” data? – there is no one right answer  another question: – should all device generated data be mirrored in the central database? – again: there is no one right answer
  197. 197. 197/260 Geographic Information Systems  some applications need – to perform spatial operations and / or – to display spatial information  at a technical point of view, two different elements: – functions: – spatial queries against spatial database – spatial libraries – data: – digital maps – georeferenced data  at an architectural point of view: – web GIS – rich client
  198. 198. 198/260 Geographic Information Systems  all-in-one (functions + data) web GIS: – Google Maps JavaScript API – Bing Maps APIs – etc.  functions only web GIS: – MapServer (Open Source) – GeoServer (Open Source) – etc.  functions only rich client GIS: – GRASS GIS (Open Source) – QGIS (Open Source) – uDig (Open Source) – etc.
  199. 199. 199/260 Geographic Information Systems  data: – OpenStreetMap (Open Source)
  200. 200. 200/260 Geographic Information Systems  many providers of commercial products: – rich client / desktop GIS – web GIS – data (vector, bitmap, additional layers)  GIS is a complex matter: – do not try to reinvent the wheel – take some time to get some experience
  201. 201. 201/260 User Interface  as for GIS: web or rich client  web: – ⊕ good for large number of distributed users – ⊕ can be good for supporting multi-device / multi-OS – ⊕ good for software updates – ⊖ usually bad for user-perceived response time – ⊖ usually bad for « real-time » or complex user interfaces – ⊖ usually bad for license cost – etc.  rich client: – almost the other way round...  mixing the two of them can be a good solution
  202. 202. 202/260 10. big data
  203. 203. 203/260 big data  data sets too large / too complex to be processed with traditional tools  we are not talking about Terabyte (1012 bytes)  we are talking about Petabyte (1015 bytes), Exabyte (1018 bytes), etc.  Volume, Velocity, Variety  some tools: – Hadoop (distributed processing - MapReduce, YARN, HDFS) – Spark (analytics over Hadoop file system) – Cassandra (distributed NoSQL) – ElasticSearch (analytics) – many, many, many more tools – check http://bigdata.andreamostosi.name/
  204. 204. 204/260 where is big data?  Q: why big data is not addressed in the central side section?
  205. 205. 205/260 where is big data?  A: – currently, big data technologies are used at central side – remember: an IoT system is a whole – more power processing available on the edge and in devices – => big data processing could be distributed over devices soon
  206. 206. 206/260 an example cellular network 400 MB / vehicle / month
  207. 207. 207/260 an example  for electric vehicle prototypes: data about battery, electric engine, location, speed, etc.  for 100 vehicles during one year: – 400 MB x 100 x 12 = 480 GB - this is not big data!  for 1 million vehicles during one year: – 400 MB x 1 000 000 x 12 = 4.8 x 1015 B (4.8 Petabytes) - this is big data  but...
  208. 208. 208/260 an example  but – current mobile data plans are currently too expansive for such volumes – mobile network coverage is currently not full => buffering is required => memory cost – there is enough processing power AND energy in a vehicle => processing can be performed on the fly, so that only main results are sent to the central side
  209. 209. 209/260 more generally  there is no one fits all architecture
  210. 210. 210/260 11. other buzzwords
  211. 211. 211/260 two recent buzzwords  blockchain  AI
  212. 212. 212/260 12. security
  213. 213. 213/260 information security  we talk about information security only  three objectives, according to the CIA triad: – confidentiality – integrity – availability
  214. 214. 214/260 checklist  business processes: – who is in charge? – how to address security?  device hardware and physical security: – secure boot process – no active debug interface – physical protection against tampering – etc.  device application: – signed software – signed remote software updates – unused ports are disabled – good practice coding standard – well define source code management – safe failures – etc. [Sec01]
  215. 215. 215/260 checklist  device operating system: – most current patches – plan for remote update – non-essential services are remoed – etc.  device wired and wireless interfaces: – unauthorized connections are prevented – IP packets forwarding between interfaces is disabled – unused ports are closed – if existing, default connection password is unique to each device – connections are secured (TLS...) – etc. [Sec01]
  216. 216. 216/260 checklist  authentication and authorization: – code and data are binded to a specific devie hardware – a password can’t be null or blank – protection against repeated login attempts – stored passwords are encrypted – etc.  encryption and key management for hardware: – true random number generator – tamper proof location for sensitive data – etc.  web user interface: – strong user authentication – automatic session timeout – input validation – etc. [Sec01]
  217. 217. 217/260 checklist  mobile application: – minimum required amount of personal information is stored – personal user data is encrypted – stored passwords are encrypted – etc.  privacy: – only authorised personnel have access to personal data of users – personal data is anonymized – data retention policy – product owner is informed about data collection – etc.  cloud and network elements: – latest security patches – webserver identification switched off – etc. [Sec01]
  218. 218. 218/260 checklist  secure supply chain and production: – test and calibration software erased before dispatch – duplicate serial numbers are detected – securely controlled area may be required – etc. [Sec01]
  219. 219. 219/260 summary  security is a world by itself  it applies to all subcomponents  a broad view is required  rely on real experience [Sec01]
  220. 220. 220/260 13. standardization
  221. 221. 221/260 standardization  some “old” standards: – V.24, V.28, etc. – MODBUS, Fieldbus, etc. – SPI, I2C, etc.  but that's really far from being enough  let's dream: – any remote side should be able to communicate with any central side – any central side should be able to communicate with any central side – any side receiving a new type of data should be able to know whether it has to process this data, and/or what it means (semantics, ontology)
  222. 222. 222/260 standardization  in Europe: ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute)  most of ETSI M2M standardization work has been transferred to oneM2M in 2012  oneM2M is a global partnership project (China, Japan, Europe, North America, etc.)  OMA (Open Mobile Alliance) is member of oneM2M  goal: develop technical specifications which address the need for a common M2M Service Layer that can be readily embedded within various hardware and software
  223. 223. 223/260 standardization  AE: Application Entity - CSE: Common Services Entity - NSE: Network Services Entity [Sta01]]
  224. 224. 224/260 ITU-T - technical overview [Sta02]]
  225. 225. 225/260 ITU-T - types of devices and relationship with physical things
  226. 226. 226/260 standardization  many other standardization organizations: – Open Connectivity Foundation – Thread Group – Hypercat Consortium – Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) – Global Standards Initiative on Internet of Things (IoT-GSI) – ITU Joint Coordination Activity on IoT (JCA-IoT) – TIA TR-50 – Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) – OMG Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS) – IEEE IoT Architecture Working Group
  227. 227. 227/260 standardization  many other standardization organizations (cont'd): – Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – IPSO Alliance – W3C Web of Things Community Group – W3C Semantic Sensor Network Incubator Group – ZigBee Alliance – ULE Alliance – Z-Wave Alliance – etc. (see http://www.monblocnotes.com/node/2034)
  228. 228. 228/260 standardization  Q: so many standards... What to do with them?  A: what you want  more seriously: – for an integrator: – try to use standardized interfaces and products – stay informed
  229. 229. 229/260 14. project perspective
  230. 230. 230/260 gathering user requirements requirements analysis prototyping product development tests installation - user approval usual projet phases (simplified)
  231. 231. 231/260 gathering user requirements requirements analysis prototyping product development tests installation - user approval technology hands-on proof of concepts tooling important phases
  232. 232. 232/260 agility We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value:  Individuals and interactions over processes and tools  Working software over comprehensive documentation  Customer collaboration over contract negotiation  Responding to change over following a plan That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. [Pro08]
  233. 233. 233/260 agility real needs technology iterations delivery • handling of: • requirements uncertainty • technology uncertainty
  234. 234. 234/260 agility  beware: electronics project lifecycle is not software project lifecycle  => prototypes  => field user test  => OTA update  => expandable hardware  => more powerful hardware [Pro08]
  235. 235. 235/260 15. case studies
  236. 236. 236/260 example - user needs - 1/4 A
  237. 237. 237/260 example - user needs - 1/4 B  project: RFP for a waste collection management system  time spent talking with the customer led project team to understand that there was no need for real-time data transmission  proposal: truck data downloaded by wire at the end of the day – => lower operating cost than competitors' proposals – contract signed, while the provider had no experience about waste collection management system  understand customer needs better than himself
  238. 238. 238/260 example - user needs - 2/4 A
  239. 239. 239/260 example - user needs - 2/4 B  project: RFP for a taxi dispatch system  taxi drivers had no experience of a dispatch system  neither the provider  agreement about « agility »: – minimum viable product delivered as soon as possible – feedback from drivers and dispatch people – => modification of some delivered functions – => decision about new ones to be added – => new version – several successive versions  be agile
  240. 240. 240/260 example - user needs - 3/4 A
  241. 241. 241/260 example - user needs - 3/4 B  project: RFP for a bus schedule checking system  « big brother » feeling: bus drivers could decide to go on strike – => first delivered functions were providing immediate value to bus drivers (free voice calls, attack alarm) – => no more problem with trade unions  rapidly deliver value to the users
  242. 242. 242/260 example - user needs - 4/4 A
  243. 243. 243/260 example - user needs - 4/4 B  project: for a customer, develop a system allowing to check inner workings of several car prototypes  provider's Business Unit asked their R&D to develop the system. They decided on a monthly 40 MB data package (usual data packages: 10 MB).  R&D work was done by beginners in the domain. They implemented a thin client architecture, and were very proud of it (M2M 2.0!) But monthly data volume was more than 400 MB! And data was lost for every lengthy loss of connectivity.  keep broad view in mind  don't think you are clever than other people when you enter a new domain
  244. 244. 244/260 example - technology - 1/4 A
  245. 245. 245/260 example - technology - 1/4 B  GPRS was documented as THE solution for packet data over GSM networks  one undocumented trap: – connectivity reset by the operator on a periodic basis  not a big deal for developers used to wireless technology  but a problem for many developers used to LAN  never assume things work as documented
  246. 246. 246/260 example - technology - 2/4 A
  247. 247. 247/260 example - technology - 2/4 B  for a taxi dispatch system: – the provider ordered an onboard device from a very well known company (new product) – two design flaws appeared after first tests (HW + SW)  no time for correction: a software workaround had to be implemented  never assume things work as documented (bis)  plan for contingencies
  248. 248. 248/260 example - technology - 3/4 A
  249. 249. 249/260 example - technology - 3/4 B  for corrected version of previous device, manufacturer introduced new functions required by other customers – => design too complex – => cost too high  it was decided to perform design in-house.  costly effort: – => skills ramp-up – => development of an SDK + testing tools  but return on investment: – control over roadmap – cost reduction by using device for all projects (some components not assembled, depending on project) – etc.  control core technology
  250. 250. 250/260 example - technology - 4/4 A
  251. 251. 251/260 example - technology - 4/4 B  request to an electronic design company: design a low power consumption device, sending some sensor data to a central application, on a periodic basis.  they designed a board with: – a low power microcontroller – a low power communication module  but, to upload the few KB of data on a periodic basis, they used FTP (instead of byte streaming over TCP for instance) – => longer connections – => data overhead – => more power used!  keep the broad view in mind
  252. 252. 252/260 example - legal aspects - A
  253. 253. 253/260 example - legal aspects - B  project: first french « Pay As You Drive » service, for a car insurance company  the system was designed and developed  then, authorization was requested from CNIL (French Personal Data Protection Agency) – answer was: « no »  system had to be re-designed  think about legal aspects before it's too late
  254. 254. 254/260 16. conclusion
  255. 255. 255/260 conclusion  developing IoT systems can be challenging because: – large diversity of user needs – sometimes difficult to get real user needs – different software development paradigms – integration of technologies from different fields
  256. 256. 256/260 conclusion  perhaps more than in other domains: – spend time with users – get (really) experienced with involved technologies – get the overall view – be agile – design/use hardware that allows for agility (easy (remote) update)  but, in any case, you'll have fun!
  257. 257. 257/260 thanks! systev.com @PascalBod06 fr.linkedin.com/in/pascalbodin/ pascal.bodin@systev.com
  258. 258. 258/260 credits and references [Def01] https://material.io/icons/ [Def02] https://openclipart.org/detail/237859/factory [Def03] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things [Fct01] http://www.libelium.com/resources/top_50_iot_sensor_applications_ranking/ [Fct02] https://www.aylanetworks.com/iot-use-cases/connected-home [Pr101] http://homelive.orange.fr/accueil/ [Pr102] http://www.samsung.com/fr/consumer/mobile-devices/smartphones [Pr103] https://openclipart.org/detail/155101/server [Pr201] https://www.u-blox.com/en/product/neo-m8-series [Pr202] http://www.ti.com/product/CC3200MOD/description [Pr203] https://www.sierrawireless.com/products-and-solutions/embedded-solutions/automotive-modules/ [Pr204] https://developer.mbed.org/platforms/FRDM-K64F/ [Pr205] https://openclipart.org/detail/210237/misc-depression-button [Pr206] https://www.u-blox.com/en/product/c027 [Pr207] https://www.iridium.com/products/details/iridiumedge [Arc01] http://www.rm-odp.net/ [Arc01] https://openclipart.org/detail/232991/sedan [Arc02] https://openclipart.org/detail/177832/radiator [Arc03] https://openclipart.org/detail/24535/street-lamp [Arc04] https://openclipart.org/detail/202078/printer-inkjet
  259. 259. 259/260 credits and references [Dev01] https://www.adafruit.com/products/2590 [Dev02] https://www.adafruit.com/products/2542 [Dev03] https://www.adafruit.com/products/2461 [Dev04] https://www.adafruit.com/products/1991 [Dev05 https://shop.sodaq.com/en/explorer.html [Per01] https://wiki.openwrt.org/doc/hardware/port.gpio [Per02] http://maxembedded.com/2011/06/the-adc-of-the-avr/ [Per03] [Per04] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_Peripheral_Interface_Bus [Per05] https://learn.sparkfun.com/tutorials/serial-peripheral-interface-spi [Per06] http://www.engineersgarage.com/contribution/i2cinter-integrated-circuittwitwo-wire-interface [Per07] http://maxembedded.com/2014/02/inter-integrated-circuits-i2c-basics/ [Per08] https://autoelectricalsystems.wordpress.com/2015/11/10/basics-of-controller-area-network-can-bus-part-1/ [Com01] http://www.microchip.com/wwwproducts/en/RN2483 [Com02] https://portal.3gpp.org/desktopmodules/Specifications/SpecificationDetails.aspx?specificationId=1515 [Com03] http://www.wikiwand.com/it/Gateway_GPRS_Support_Node [Com04] http://www.robotshop.com/eu/fr/plateforme-developpement-beaglebone-black-beagleboard.html [Com05] https://www.ackl.io/schc/ [Com06] http://planstrategique.anfr.fr/?p=1247 [Com07] https://www.lora-alliance.org/technology http://eu.mouser.com/Connectors/D-Sub-Connectors/D-Sub-Standard-Connectors/_/N-9gybx? No=50&P=1ytmhdqZ1yzv7x2Z1z0z812
  260. 260. 260/260 credits and references [Pla01] http://www.aeris.com/technology/aercloud/ [Pla02] [Cen01] https://openclipart.org/detail/17312/antenna-square [Sec01] https://iotsecurityfoundation.org/ [Sta01] http://onem2m.org/images/files/deliverables/Release2/TS-0001-%20Functional_Architecture-V2_10_0.pdf [Sta02] http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Y.2060-201206-I [Pro01] https://openclipart.org/detail/259142/garbage-truck [Pro02] https://openclipart.org/detail/204589/old-british-taxi [Pro03] https://openclipart.org/detail/144367/chiva [Pro04] https://openclipart.org/detail/139267/eco-car [Pro05] https://dir.indiamart.com/impcat/gprs-modem.html [Pro06] https://openclipart.org/detail/116599/solar-panel [Pro07] https://openclipart.org/detail/181618/crashed-car https://www.sierrawireless.com/products-and-solutions/sims-connectivity-and-cloud-services/iot-cloud- platform/

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