Dynamics of transportation Ecosystem

28 Dec 2021

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Dynamics of transportation Ecosystem

  1. Dynamics Of Transportation Ecosystem TRANSPORTATION POLICES OF AIR GROUP – 14 Moulika D.M Sri Shivaraam K Pathlavath Venkatesh Sujeet behera Anish Anand
  2. Contents  History  Need of Transportation policy  Policies for Civil Aviation  Policies for air cargo  Noise pollution control policy for air transport
  3. History  After WWII, commercial aviation grew rapidly , using mostly ex-military pilots to transport people and cargo.  Factories that had produced bombers were quickly adapted to the production of passenger aircraft like the Douglas DC-4.  This growth was accelerated by the establishment of military airports throughout the world, either for combat use or training.  These could easily be turned to civil aviation use.  The first commercial jet airliner to fly was the British de Haviland Comet.  The first commercial aviation flight in India took place on 18 February 1911.
  4. Why do we need transportation policies The purpose of transportation policy is to provide direction for determining the amount of national resources that will be dedicated to transportation and for determining the quality of service that is essential for economic activity and national defense. National policy provides guidelines to the many agencies that exercise transportation decision – marketing powers and to Congress, the president, and the courts that make and interpret the laws affecting transportation. Thus, transportation policy provides the framework for the allocation of resources to the transportation modes. Transportation is fundamental to the economic activity of a country.
  5. Policies of Civil Aviation Aircraft act (1934) Aircraft Act, 1934 and Aircraft Rules, 1937 were enacted to regulate the civil aviation industry in India. Stipulating the parameters for determining airworthiness, maintenance of aircraft, general conditions for flying and safety, registration of aircraft and the conduct of investigations in case of any discrepancy. This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA
  6. Tokyo convention (1975) This Act to gives effect to the Convention on offences and certain other acts committed on board aircraft. The purpose of the Tokyo Convention is to protect the safety of the aircraft and the persons or property there on and to maintain good order and discipline on board. The Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft. The Tokyo Convention was initially completed on September 14 of 1963, and it entered into force on December 4, 1969, has the full name 'The Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft
  7. Foreign aircraft (2002) This Act implement Agreements entered into by India with other countries in pursuance of the Convention on International Civil Aviation opened for signatures at Chicago on the 7th December 1944. Where, in pursuance of the Convention or Agreement with any other country or countries, it is necessary to grant exemption from levy of taxes and duties on fuel and lubricants filled into receptacles forming part of any aircraft of any other country or countries under any law of a State or Union territory in India. The Central Government may, notify in the Official Gazette, make such provisions as may be necessary for giving effect to the said Convention or Agreement and there upon the said provision shall apply accordingly and, not with standing anything contrary contained in any other law, shall in such application have the force of law in India.
  8. Airport authority act (2003) An Act to provide for the constitution of the Airports Authority of India and the transfer and vesting of the undertakings of the International Airports Authority of India and the National Airports Authority to and in the Airports Authority of India so constituted for the better administration and cohesive
  9. The airport's economic regulatory act (2008) Airports Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA) is a regulatory agency under the Government of India to regulate tariff and other expenditures & fees for major airports. It is a statutory body constituted under the Airports Economic Regulatory Authority of India Act
  10. The carriage by air act (2009) The Convention relating to the rights and liabilities of carriers, passengers, consignors, consignees and other persons shall, subject to the provisions of this Act, have the force of law in India concerning any carriage by air to which those rules apply, irrespective of the nationality of the aircraft performing the Carriage.
  11. Rajiv Gandhi national aviation act (2013)  To facilitate and promote aviation studies, teaching, training, research and extension work with focus on emerging areas of studies such as aviation management, aviation regulation and policy, aviation history, aviation science and engineering, aviation law, aviation safety and security, aviation search and rescue, transportation of dangerous goods, environmental studies and other related medicine, fields, and also to achieve excellence in these and connected fields in emerging areas and such areas as may emerge in future.  To promote advanced knowledge by providing institutional and research facilities in such branches of learning as it may deem fit and to make provisions for integrated courses in management, science and other key and frontier areas of technology and allied disciplines in the educational programs of the University.  To create an ambience for learning and scholarship in aviation technology.  To take appropriate measures for ensuring and regulating the quality of aviation education programs in India offered by recognized institutions.
  12.  To develop academic standards of an international level and undertake other measures as it maybe deemed fit, to facilitate the development for skilled aviation manpower including the licensed category of aviation personnel.  To develop various programmers for airlines, airports, aviation authorities and staff ranging from airline management and marketing, airport management, regulations and aviation law, aviation safety and security or any other programme and train manpower in aviation field;  To take appropriate measures for promoting innovations in the teaching- learning process, undertake interdisciplinary studies and research.
  13. Anti-hijacking act (2016) The Anti-Hijacking Act, 2016 is an Act of the Parliament of India intended to enforce the Hague Hijacking Convention and the 2010 Beijing Protocol Supplementary to the Convention. The Act repeals and replaces The Anti-Hijacking Act, 1982. The new Act broadens the definition of hijacking to include any attempt to seize or gain control of an aircraft using "any technological means", which accounts for the possibility that the hijackers may not be physically present on board the aircraft.
  14. Carriage by air (2016) The Montreal Convention establishes airline liability in the case of death, injury or delay to passengers or in cases of delay, damage or loss of baggage and cargo. The Convention also provides for reviewing the limits of liability of the air carriers every five years. The Bill seeks to amend the Act to adhere to the revised limits of liability.
  15. Aircraft amendment act (2020) The Aircraft (Amendment) Bill, 2020 was introduced in Lok Sabha by the Minister of State for Civil Aviation, Mr Hardeep Singh Puri, on February 4, 2020. The Bill seeks to amend the Aircraft Act, 1934. The Act regulates the manufacture, possession, use, operation, sale, import and export of civil aircraft, and licensing of aerodromes. (i) registration of aircraft (ii) regulating air transport services (iii) prohibition of flight over any specified area. The Bill adds the regulation of air navigation services to this list. It also allows the center to empower the Director-General of BCAS or any authorized officer to issue directions and make rules on certain matters. (i) conditions under which an aircraft may be flown (ii) inspection of aircraft (iii) measures to safeguard civil aviation against acts of un lawfulinterference
  16. UTM (2021) The notification intends to regulate and control the commercial exploitation of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in Indian airspace, and registration of all UASs has been made a mandatory requirement on the Directorate General of Civil Aviation’s (DGCA) “Digital-Sky” platform. The entire airspace is delineated into green, red and yellow zones and no prior permissions are required for the operation of a UAS in the green zone. The UAS Traffic Management (UTM) aspects were specified in Part IX of the notification and aimed at facilitating automated permissions for operating the UAS and stipulated that a detailed policy framework would be issued within sixty days.
  17. Aero sports (2021) Aero sports create significant opportunities for the growth of tourism, employment generation and interest in aviation activities. A growth-oriented NASP may help attract investments in the latest aero sports technology, infrastructure and best practices. Aero sports are a part of most adventure sports, which has gained popularity in India. It is the best adventure sport which should try to experience the thrill in air and breath -taking views of the country side.
  18. Drone rules (2021) The Rules aim to create a 'digital sky platform' which is a business-friendly single-window online system, with minimum human interference, where most of the permissions will be self- generated. The Rules have reduced the red-tape involved in the process of seeking compliance:  The number of forms has been reduced from 25 to 5.  The types of fees have been reduced from 72 to 4.  The Quantum of the fee has been reduced to nominal levels and delinked with the of the drone.  An easier process is specified for the transfer and deregistration of drones through the digital sky platform.  Nano and model drones (made for research or recreation purposes) are exempt from type certification. Coverage of drones under Drone Rules, 2021 has been increased from 300 kg to 500 This will cover drone taxis also. Type Certificate is required only when a drone is to be operated in India. Importing and manufacturing drones purely for exports are exempt from type certification and unique identification numbers. Drone corridors will be developed for cargo deliveries.
  19. Air Cargo Air cargo is any property carried or to be carried in an aircraft. Air cargo comprises air freight, air express and airmail. There are two types of air cargo – general and special cargo. General cargo includes high-value goods, such as electronics, jewellery and pharmaceuticals. Air shipping is more expensive than shipping by sea, but due to the high margins and the fact that many electronic goods are fragile, air freight is the most appropriate form of transport. Special cargo requires special conditions for transporting goods, such as temperature control, certain air conditions or protected casing ( e.g. if the goods are hazardous or livestock).
  20. Policies for Cargo National air cargo policy (2019) National Air Cargo Policy Outline 2019 released at the Global Aviation Summit at Mumbai on 15.01.2019 It outlines a globally unique, holistic approach to achieve fundamental re-engineering in the air cargo ecosystem in order to upscale the Indian air cargo network. It provide cargo transportation by air to the masses at an affordable cost and correct every village to the national and global value focus areas are as follows Regulatory Policies in Support of Air Cargo Growth. It clarifies the Air Cargo Market Strategy , Development Strategy, Security Strategy ,Safety Strategy. Cargo Community infrastructure, Technology, Innovation and Sustainability.
  21. Noise Pollution Control Policies for Air Transport Balanced Approach to Aircraft Noise Management  adopted by the ICAO Assembly in its 33rd Session (2001) and reaffirmed in all the subsequent Assembly Sessions  ICAO encourages States to apply land-use planning and management policies to limit the encroachment of incompatible development into noise-sensitive areas