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Production Part Approval Process for automotive supplier approval

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Ppap la

  1. 1. Production Part Approval ProcessPPAPISO TS 16949:2002 Lead Auditor Course
  2. 2. 2Course Objectives• By the end of the course the participantshould be able identify the following;– How to audit PPAP· When PPAP submission is required· The requirements for part approval· Submission levels and the retentionrequirements· Definition of requirements· Part Submission status
  3. 3. 3So what is PPAP?• PPAP– Production Part Approval Process“PPAP defines the requirements forproduction part approval, includingproduction and bulk materials”
  4. 4. 4Applicability• PPAP applies to all internal andexternal suppliers of;– bulk materials– production materials– production parts– service parts
  5. 5. 5Foreword to PPAP Third Edition• Inclusion of requirements for bulk material• Bulk material-specific appendix• Industry specific appendix• Tire industry specific appendix• Cpk/PpK = Initial process studies• Clarification
  6. 6. 6PPAP Third editionEffective dateFebruary 1, 2000
  7. 7. 7Production Part Approval ProcessPPAP is a mandatory requirement ofISO TS 16949:2002Element is Supplier PPAP requirements7.3.6.3
  8. 8. 8PPAP - When Submission is required• A full Production Part Approval is alwaysrequired before shipment of the firstproduction in the following situations;1. A new part or product - something not previouslysupplied before2. Correction of discrepancy on a previouslysubmitted product3. Engineering change on part or product4. Other
  9. 9. 9Definition of “Other”In any of these “other” situations thesupplier is required to notify thecustomer who may subsequentlyelect to require a submission forPPAP approval.Driven by design and/or process changes
  10. 10. 10Other instances when submission maybe required1. An alternate construction method or material isnow used2. When a tool is modified or completely replaced3. Refurbishment or re-arrangement of existingtooling• Refurbishment = the reconstruction or modification of atool or machine to to increase capacity or change itsexisting function• Re-arrangement = A deviation from the processdescribed in the process flow diagram
  11. 11. 114. Transfer of tooling and equipment to a differentplant/location5. Change of subcontractor for parts, non equivalentmaterials or services that affect fit, form, function,durability or performance requirements6. Tooling inactive for a twelve month period7. Product and process changes that affect fit, form,function, durability or performance requirements ofthe saleable productOther instances when submission maybe required
  12. 12. 128. Change in the test/inspection method - newtechnique9. For bulk materials only– New source of raw material with special characteristics fromnew or existing subcontractor– Change in product appearance attributes, where there is noappearance specification– Revised parameters in the same process– Change outside of the DFMEA of the approved productOther instances when submission maybe required
  13. 13. 13PPAP - When Submission is required• If there is any questionconcerning the need forProduction Part Approval -contact the customerandobtain any agreement inwriting
  14. 14. 14PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Design records of saleable product– These typically include the following;• CAD/CAM Math Data• Part Drawings• Specifications– For bulk materials design records may include;• raw materials list• formulations• processing parameters etc..
  15. 15. 15PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Engineering Change Documents– Any documents authorised by a customer’srepresentative that may affect the productbut has not yet been incorporated in thedesign record or drawing for that product
  16. 16. 16PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Customer Engineering Approval– Customer Engineering approval may berequired for a product or associateddocumentation relating to that product, ifthis is required it will be stated on thecustomer’s drawing or similar.
  17. 17. 17PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Design FMEA– If the supplier is design responsible aDesign FMEA must be developed– For bulk materials, a design matrix shall bedeveloped prior to developing the DesignFMEA
  18. 18. 18PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Process flow diagrams– A process flow diagram defines thesequence of operations utilised tomanufacture a product– Process flow diagrams are mandatory foreach product - Not Negotiable
  19. 19. 19PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Process FMEA– The process flow diagram should be thebasis of commencing a Process FMEA.– Generic FMEA’s are acceptable if there isevidence of review and approval that ispart specific.
  20. 20. 20PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Dimensional results– Dimensional results must reference part drawingsand should include cross sections, tracings andsketches as applicable– The part number, change level, drawing date andsupplier’s name must be shown on allsupplementary documents– The supplier shall identify one of the measuredparts as a Master Sample
  21. 21. 21PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Material & Performance Test Results– Material Test results (chemical, physical,metallurgical) for all parts/materialsdenoted on the design record– Blanket statements of conformance areunacceptable– All tests on the design record must beconducted, not just those you agree with!
  22. 22. 22PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Material Test Results cont..– The Material test report must contain;• design record change level, date, specificationlevel• Date of testing• Material subcontractors name and suppliercode if required is they are a customerapproved subcontractor
  23. 23. 23PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Material & Performance Test Results– Performance Test results (functional,reliability, etc..) for all parts/materialsdenoted on the design record– Blanket statements of conformance areunacceptable– All tests on the design record must beconducted, not just those you agree with!
  24. 24. 24PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Performance Test Results– The Performance test report must contain;• design record change level, date, specificationlevel• Any authorised engineering change documentsnot yet incorporated in the design record• Date of testing
  25. 25. 25PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Initial Process Studies– Initial process capability results are required foreach special characteristic and must conform tocustomer requirements– Unless otherwise specified, default values are:• Index value > 1.67 = process meets customerrequirements• Between 1.33 & 1.67 = acceptable, but may requireimprovement,contactcustomer to review• Index value < 1.33 = process does not meet customerrequirements, contact customer toreview
  26. 26. 26PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Initial Process Studies cont..– If an X bar & R chart is used for the study aminimum of 25 subgroups are required containingat least 100 readings from consecutive parts.– If <100 parts are available contact customer todevelop a suitable plan.Initial Process Studies can onlybe conducted on stable & normalprocesses
  27. 27. 27PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Measurement System Analysis Studies– For each measurement device,Measurement System Studies must beconducted.– Measurement System Studies include;• Repeatability and Reproducibility Study• Bias study• Linearity study• Stability study
  28. 28. 28PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Qualified laboratory documentation– A qualified laboratory is one that complies to therequirements of 4.10.6 of QS 9000 rev 3– External laboratories must be accredited to ISOGuide 25 or equivalent– If an independent lab conducts the testing, the supplier shall submit thetests on the labs letterhead or the standard lab report format. The name ofthe lab that completed the tests, date(s) of test(s) and standards used shallbe indicated.Blanket statements of conformance arenot acceptable
  29. 29. 29PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Control Plan– The control plan must include reference to allspecial characteristics that are determined by thecustomer or supplier.– Approval of the control plan may be required bythe customer prior to submission of PPAPdocumentsCheck with the customer
  30. 30. 30PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Part Submission Warrant– A document that is used to indicate thereason for submission, the level ofsubmission and the submission results– This document is signed off by adesignated official within the company,typically the Quality Manager.
  31. 31. 31PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Appearance Approval Report– A report which identifies the disposition ofa product in terms of Appearanceevaluation and colour evaluation– This report must initially be approved bythe customer’s representative, typically thestyling department, and then sent inconjunction with the Part Submissionwarrant to the customer
  32. 32. 32PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Bulk material requirements checklist– The composition of the checklist must beagreed with the customer. All specifiedrequirements shall be completed unlessindicated “Not Required” on the checklist
  33. 33. 33PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Sample product {sample production parts}– Quantities as requested by the customer
  34. 34. 34PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Master Sample– A master sample is a part that has been alreadybeen verified (refer dimensional results). If thispart serves as the basis for an acceptance criteria,it should be identified as such and identifycustomer approval date together with a referenceto the design record
  35. 35. 35PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Master Sample cont..– A master sample is required for each position of amultiple cavity die, mold, tool, pattern orproduction process.– If the type of product makes storage difficult, thisrequirement can be waived by the customer, but,Obtain Customer Approval in Writing
  36. 36. 36PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Checking Aids– Examples of checking aids are; fixtures, mylars,fibreglass splashes, templates etc.. - somethingthat is used as a comparative reference– Checking aids must reflect the latest engineeringdesign level of the product– Measurement System studies must beconducted on these checking aids
  37. 37. 37PPAP - Definition of Requirements• Records of compliance with customerspecific requirements– Example• GM requires two(2) sample parts from level 2or 3 suppliers. All sample parts are to belabelled with part number, change level andsupplier name.• Ford requires all materials to comply with WSS-M99P9999-A1
  38. 38. 38PPAP - Submission Levels• Submission levels are rankedfrom1 to 5,the customer will identify thesubmission level.
  39. 39. 39PPAP - Submission Levels• Level 3is the default value if a customerhas not yet defined asubmission level for yourcompany
  40. 40. 40PPAP - Submission LevelsForbulk materialsuppliers thedefault value islevel 1
  41. 41. 41PPAP - Submission LevelsNOTE:• Different customersmayassign different submission levels
  42. 42. 42PPAP - Submission Levels• The submission levels are:Level 1 Warrant only and Appearance ApprovalReport if requiredLevel 2 Warrant with product samples and limitedsupporting dataLevel 3 Warrant with product samples andcomplete supporting dataLevel 4 Warrant and other requirements as definedby the customerLevel 5 Warrant with product samples andcomplete supporting data reviewed on-site
  43. 43. 43Submission Levels and Retention RequirementsRequirement Level 1Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 51 Design records of saleable product R S S * R:for proprietary components/details R R S * R: for all other components/details R S R * R2 Engineering change docs. If any R S S * R3 Cust Engineering approval, if rqd R R S * R4 Design FMEA R R S * R5 Process flow diagram R R S * R6 Process FMEA R R S * R7 Dimensional results R S S * R8 Matl, performance test results R S S * R9 Initial process study R R S * R10 Measurement Systems Analysis R R S * R11 Qualified lab. Documentation R S S * R12 Control Plan R R S * R13 Part Submission Warrant (PSW) S S S S R14 Appearance Approval Report (AAR) S S S * R15 Bulk Matls. Reqmnts. Checklist R R R * R16 Sample product R S S * R17 Master Sample R R R * R18 Checking aids R R R * R19 Records of Customer compliance R R S * RS = Submit to customer & retain copyR = Retain on site and make readily available to customer* = Retain on site and submit to customer upon request
  44. 44. 44PPAP - Part Submission Status• Suppliers will be notified by thecustomeras to the dispositionof the submission
  45. 45. 45PPAP - Part Submission StatusProduct isNOTto be shipped unlesscustomer approval is received.Verbal approval is unacceptable
  46. 46. 46PPAP - Part Submission Status• Full Approval– This indicates that the part meets all of thecustomer requirements. The supplier maythen proceed to supply product asrequired.
  47. 47. 47PPAP - Part Submission Status• Interim Approval– This indicates that shipment of material mayproceed for a specified period of time or piecequantity.– Interim approval is granted when a product doesnot meet all customer requirements but thesupplier has• Clearly defined the root cause and• has provided an interim action plan that is approved bythe customer. Re-submission is required
  48. 48. 48PPAP - Part Submission Status• Rejected– This indicates that the product and/orassociated documentation does not meetcustomer requirements and thereforeproduction quantities are not permitted tobe shipped until all issues are resolved.
  49. 49. 49Record Retention• PPAP records shall be retained for;– length of time part is active, including servicerequirements– plus one year
  50. 50. 50Auditing PPAP1. Is the organisation using PPAP rev 3?2. How does the organisation identify which level they are?3. Is this level consistent with the PPAP they are supplying totheir customer(s)4. Review several PPAPs to ensure all of the applicable 19requirements are covered5. Review lab documentation and ensure the scope ofaccreditation of the lab is consistent with thetesting/inspection they are doing for the organisation.6. How does the organisation define compliance with customerrequirements
  51. 51. 51Auditing PPAP7. Verify that the date of the PSW is before the initialdelivery date to the customer for productionvolumes8. Verify the contents of the PSW, ensure correctlevel, part number, change level etc..9. How does the organisation deploy PPAP with itssuppliers?10. Take a sample of part numbers, obtain the BOMand verify that all suppliers have submitted PPAP