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PART 1 For Your Safety Protection & Knowledge.pptx

  1. 1. For Your Safety, Protection and Knowledge • PPE Coveralls; Aprons; Gloves; Hats; Boots; Goggles; Face Shields Respiratory Protection & Devices IPM Basics Application Equipment Pesticides & The Environment Bees and Other Pollinators Fish and Other Vertebrates
  2. 2. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE • Protective Clothing and Personal Protective Equipment • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • The type of protective clothing and equipment needed depends on the job being done and the type of chemical being used. READ THE LABEL on the pesticide container carefully and follow all directions concerning necessary protective clothing and equipment.
  3. 3. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE • Protective Clothing and Personal Protective Equipment • Applying and disposing of the pesticide. In some cases, special equipment may be required, such as a self-contained air system when using fumigants. In many cases, the handler is required to wear a chemical-resistant apron while mixing, loading, or disposing of a product, in addition to the required personal protective equipment (PPE) designated for the applicator.
  4. 4. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE • Recommended Clothing: • The minimum protective clothing recommended by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the National Agricultural Chemical Dealers Association (NACA), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when handling dilute (mixed) pesticides includes a long-sleeved shirt, long pants, underwear, chemically resistant gloves, socks, and shoes (boots). When handling concentrates, particularly pesticides with DANGER or WARNING labels, a face shield, goggles, or respirator (full face and eye protection), chemical resistant apron, and chemical resistant boots are necessary.
  5. 5. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE • Required PPE that must be worn during each stage of handling and using the pesticide (mixing, loading, applying, repairing, clean-up, disposal). • Read the label.
  6. 6. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE • Coveralls Cotton coveralls over regular work clothing are helpful protection when applying and/or handling pesticides. Sleeves should reach the wrist and the pant legs should reach the ankle. Coveralls should be closed (e.g. buttoned or zipped) in the front. They must be laundered after every wearing and should be replaced annually to prevent pesticide carry-over in the clothing from one season to the next. • When wearing gloves and boots with coveralls, the garments are to be worn outside (over) the gloves and boots. This prevents pesticides from getting into the gloves or boots. Disposable coveralls, such as regular Tyvek® or Polylaminated Tyvek® (polyethylene coated), are suitable for handling granular or powdered formulations and less toxic liquid pesticides.
  7. 7. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE They also can be worn over other work clothing, and offer protection similar to cotton coveralls, but are water resistant. Tyvek® coated with Saranex 23P® offers better protection for handling undiluted and highly toxic pesticides, but does not "breathe." In some weather conditions, they must be used with discretion to avoid heat exhaustion. Disposable coveralls are relatively inexpensive, so for many situations they are a good safety investment. Disposable coveralls are durable, but cannot be effectively decontaminated and should be disposed of in the same way as empty pesticide containers or hazardous waste.
  8. 8. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE worn outside (over) the gloves and the boots preventing pesticides from getting into the gloves and boots. Always follow label directions for laundering work clothing. If c•overalls are not warn, long-sleeved shirts and long pants made of a closely woven fabric are a must when handling pesticides. The sleeves should reach the wrist and the pant legs should reach the ankle. The shirt should be closed (e.g. buttoned or zipped) in the front. If a shirt is worn outside the pants, it should reach below the top of the pants. Both the shirt and pants should be cleaned daily and should not have any holes in them. Same as with coveralls, when wearing gloves and boots with long-sleeved shirts and long pants, the garments are to be This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-NC.
  9. 9. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE Ap•rons When handling pesticide concentrates a liquid proof chemical resistant apron should be worn. Aprons should cover the body from the chest to the boots. Read the label to see if a chemical resistant apron is required. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC.
  10. 10. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE Glo• ves have been shown to reduce pesticide contamination of skin if properly maintained and replaced frequently. Hands should always be protected when working with pesticides. A USDA study showed that applicators handling concentrated pesticides received 85 percent of their pesticide exposure on their hands. When handling concentrated or highly toxic pesticides, wear gloves made of neoprene, nitrile or butyl rubber. For most pesticides, nitrile gloves or natural rubber gloves provide the best protection. Always follow the label recommendation.
  11. 11. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE •The label may require a specific kind of glove to be worn. Gloves should not be lined with a fabric. The lining is hard to clean if a chemical gets on it. Do not wear cotton or leather gloves. •They absorb the pesticide, which provide a continuous source of exposure, and can be more hazardous than wearing no gloves at all.
  12. 12. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE • Gloves with a “wristband” should never be worn. Gloves can get contaminated on the inside, and the moist warm conditions there may foster pesticide absorption into the skin. • To avoid this problem, discard or clean gloves often. Before removing gloves, rinse them with water and detergent to prevent contaminating hands.
  13. 13. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE • Hat Wear something to protect the head. A wide-brimmed, waterproof hats will protect neck, eyes, mouth, and face. It should not have a cloth or leather sweatband, or other porous materials that may absorb pesticides; these sweatbands are hard to clean if chemicals get on them. Webbed, mesh, baseball caps, or similar headgear should not be used. One of the best hats is the plastic "hard hat" with a plastic sweatband.
  14. 14. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE •Boots As stated above in the gloves section, it is a good idea to wear unlined rubber or neoprene boots. •Leather and canvas shoes/boots absorb and hold pesticides which in turn provide a constant source of skin exposure. •Wash boots daily and dry thoroughly inside and outside to remove any pesticide residue. •Pants or overalls should be worn outside of boots to prevent pesticides from getting inside them.
  15. 15. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE Wear Goggles or a face shield when there is any chance of getting pesticides in the eyes, or anytime the label requires their use. These should completely cover your eyes. Exposure is likely when handling or applying mists, dusts, liquid concentrates, or pressurized equipment. Tight fitting goggles with anti-fog lenses and indirect venting are best. Goggles with cloth headbands should be cleaned frequently.
  16. 16. FOR YOUR SAFETY, PROTECTION & KNOWLEDGE • It is recommended that these headbands be replaced with ones made of nonabsorbent materials. Wash goggles or face shield with detergent and water at least once a day. Store in a plastic bag away from pesticides to avoid contamination. Glasses and sunglasses with or without side guards should never be used as eye protection against pesticides.
  17. 17. OSHA 1910.134(c) Respiratory protection program. • This paragraph requires the employer to develop and implement a written respiratory protection program with required worksite-specific procedures and elements for required respirator use. The program must be administered by a suitably trained program administrator. In addition, certain program elements may be required for voluntary use to prevent potential hazards associated with the use of the respirator.
  18. 18. Respiratory Protective Devices • Respirators provide protection against inhalation exposure. Pesticides can be inhaled either as mists, dusts, or vapors. The respiratory tract rapidly and completely absorbs pesticides, and should be protected. Wear an approved respiratory device when directed by the label. Follow the label instructions on respiratory protection. • An applicator needs a respirator if exposed to a pesticide for a long time, if the pesticide used is highly toxic, or if working in an enclosed area. OSHA requirements are constantly changing with respect to respirators used in general industries, which includes the occupation of pest control.
  19. 19. Respiratory Protective Devices • A pest control operator is advised to contact OSHA periodically to obtain the most recent requirements on respirators, or periodically consult and read the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Chapter 29 Part 1910.134. Depending on respirator usage and company policies on respirator usage, applicators may want to consult a physician before using a respirator. In some cases where respirator usage is mandatory, a medical evaluation may be necessary because some individuals may have physical problems that may be aggravated by restricted airflow associated with respirator usage. If respirator usage is required, the company will have a written Respirator Protection Program with required work site-specific procedures and elements.
  20. 20. Commonly Used Respirators • Dust and Mist Respirators Dust and mist respirators are physical filters which only protect against pesticide dusts and larger spray droplets. They are not effective against fumigants and the many pesticides which emit vapors. • Chemical Cartridge Respirator Chemical cartridge respirators are usually designed as a half-face mask which cover the nose and mouth but not the eyes; therefore, eye protection is required when using them. They have one or two cartridges attached to the face piece. In the cartridge, the inhaled air comes through both a filter pad and an absorbing material such as activated charcoal which removes most of the pesticide vapors, gases and particles.
  21. 21. Commonly Used Respirators Two commonly used types;  Disposable  Cartridge They should not be used with fumigant gases or in areas with deficient oxygen levels.
  22. 22. Chemical Canister Respirator (Gas Mask) • Gas masks are normally designed to cover the eyes, nose and mouth. The canister is either attached directly to the face piece or is worn on a belt and is connected to the face piece by a flexible hose. • These respirators are to be worn when applicators are exposed to a continuous concentration of a toxic pesticide.
  23. 23. Chemical Canister Respirator (Gas Mask) • Normally, the canister has longer lasting absorbent material and filters compared to a cartridge respirator. Gas masks usually protect the face better than cartridge types, but neither kind provides protection when the oxygen supply is low. Gas masks should not be used where oxygen deficiency or high gas concentrations may occur, such as in a structure undergoing a fumigation.
  24. 24. Supplied Air Respirators and Positive-pressure Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) •Supplied Air Respirators and Positive-pressure •Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) Supplied Air Respirators and SCBA (not SCUBA) respirators, such as those manufactured by Survivair, Ranger, Scott, or MSA, are used primarily used in fumigation or where the oxygen supply is low. • Both of these respirator types have full face masks and do not require additional eye protection.
  25. 25. Selection of Respirators • Specific types of cartridges and canisters protect against specific chemical gases and vapors. Be sure to choose one to protect against the pesticide being used. Use only those approved by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), or the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA). • An example or an organic vapor respirator for pesticide use would be a “NIOSH-MSHA Approval No. TC-23C-860 issued to 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota, USA.” All respirators, even dust masks, have these approvals. Read the pesticide label and the respirator for appropriate NIOSH-MSHA approval before using a pesticide which requires the use of a respirator.
  26. 26. Selection of Respirators • A respirator or mask should be fitted properly to the face. Long sideburns, beard, or glasses may prevent a good seal. Adjust headbands tightly enough to obtain a good seal. Before using, read the manufacturer's instructions on the use and care of the respirator and its parts. • The manufacturer's instructions will suggest procedures to test for a proper seal. This may be similar to the following inhalation/exhalation test.
  27. 27. Inhalation Test • Place the palm of the hands over the cartridge assemblies or inhalation points and inhale. If no air enters and the facepiece collapses slightly, the respirator is properly fitted and the exhalation valve is closing property. • Exhalation Test: Place the palm of the hand or thumb over the exhalation valve guard and press lightly. Exhale to cause a slight pressure inside the face-piece. If no air escapes, the face-piece is properly fitted and the inhalation valves are closing correctly. If air escapes, readjust the headbands.
  28. 28. Respirator Maintenance • During heavy spraying, the filters in chemical cartridge respirators should be changed at least two times a day - more often if breathing becomes difficult. Cartridges should be changed after eight hours use, or when the manufacturer recommends replacement. If the applicator detects pesticide odor or feels nose or throat irritation, the applicator should leave the work area immediately and change the canister or cartridge.
  29. 29. Respirator Maintenance Filters and cartridges should be removed after each use. Remember, once cartridges have been removed from their original wrapping they lose their absorptive capacity rapidly. If disposable respirators are used, follow directions on the package Filters/cartridges on disposable respirators are not replaceable. Use a new respirator as needed or recommended by the manufacturer.
  30. 30. Respirator Maintenance • The face piece on all types of respirators (including disposable respirators) should be washed with soap and water, rinsed, dried with a clean cloth, and stored in a clean, dry place away from pesticides after every use. A tightly closed plastic bag works well for storage. The useful life of a cartridge or canister depends on the amount of absorbent material, the concentration of contaminants in the air, the breathing rate of the wearer, and the temperature and humidity.
  31. 31. Respirator Maintenance As a general rule, a canister, cartridge, or disposable respirator should never be reused even if used for just a few minutes. These filters are easily replaced, but lungs are not. Remember— a disposable respirator or cartridges should be changed: When the manufacturer recommends; If breathing is troublesome; If pesticide odors can be smelled; If the last time it was used is unknown.
  32. 32. Storage of respirators • Shall be in a compartment away from pesticide materials • Shall be in a protective container, such as a sealable plastic bag or box. This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC.
  33. 33. Definitions • Respirator: A device designed to protect the wearer from inhalation of hazardous atmospheres. • Air purifying respirator: A respirator that removes contaminants from the inhaled air stream. There are two major sub-categories of air purifying respirator systems: Mechanical filter type, used to remove particulates (dusts, mists, fogs, smokes and fumes) and chemical cartridge type (absorption or adsorption or modification of gasses or vapors). Some respirators combine both types of systems.
  34. 34. Definitions • IDLH: Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health. Conditions that can pose an immediate threat to life or health OR conditions that pose an immediate threat of severe exposure to contaminants such as carcinogens or neurotoxins which are likely to have adverse cumulative or delayed effects on health. All fumigant-confining structures shall be considered IDLH until proven safe by appropriate monitoring equipment. • Atmosphere-supplying respirator: A respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere. This includes supplied-air respirators (SAR) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units.
  35. 35. Definitions • Atmosphere-supplying respirator: A respirator that supplies the respirator user with breathing air from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere. This includes supplied-air respirators (SAR) and self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) units. • Confidential reader: A person chosen by an employee required to wear a respirator to read to him/her the Medical Evaluation Questionnaire required under 3 CCR Section 6739 in a language primarily understood by the employee. This includes, but is not limited to, a coworker, family member, friend, or an independent translator provided by the employer. The employer or the employer’s direct agent, such as a supervisor, manager, foreman, or secretary, are not included and are prohibited from being confidential readers.
  36. 36. Definitions • Filter or air purifying element: A component used in respirators to remove solid or liquid aerosols from the inspired air. • Filtering facepiece (dust mask): A negative pressure particulate respirator with a filter as an integral part of the facepiece or with the entire facepiece composed of the filtering medium. • Physician or other licensed health care professional (PLHCP): An individual whose legally permitted scope of practice allows him or her to independently provide, or be delegated the responsibility to provide, some or all of the health care services required by these regulations. This can include Physicians, (including Occupational Medicine Physicians), Doctors of Osteopathy, Physician Assistants, Registered Nurses, Nurse Practitioners and Occupational Health Nurses.
  37. 37. Definitions • Qualitative fit test (QLFT): A pass/fail fit test to assess the adequacy of respirator fit that relies on the individual's response to the test agent. • Quantitative fit test (QNFT): An assessment of the adequacy of respirator fit by numerically measuring the amount of leakage into the respirator.
  38. 38. Employees who are required to use respirators must be trained such that they can demonstrate knowledge of at least: Why the respirator is necessary and how improper fit, use, or maintenance can compromise its protective effect. Limitations and capabilities of the respirator Effective use in emergency situations How to inspect, put on and remove, use and check the seals Maintenance and storage Recognition of medical signs and symptoms that may limit or prevent effective use
  39. 39. Practice demonstrations should include • Inspecting, donning, wearing and removing the respirator. • Adjusting the respirator to minimize discomfort to the wearer. • Wearing during training for an adequate period time to ensure that the wearer is familiar with the operational characteristics of the respirator. • Each respirator user will be retrained at least annually. Record of training will be kept by the RPA.
  40. 40. Cleaning, Sanitizing and Storage •Individual respirator users are responsible for cleaning their own respirators. Respirators will be cleaned when appropriate. Cleaning will be done following manufacturer’s recommendations as described below. •Respirator Safety •Procedures for Cleaning Respirators. •A. Remove filters, cartridges, or canisters. Disassemble face pieces by removing speaking diaphragms, demand and pressure-demand valve assemblies, hoses, or any components recommended by the manufacturer. Discard or repair any defective parts.
  41. 41. Cleaning, Sanitizing and Storage • B. Wash components in warm (43 deg. C [110 deg. F] maximum) water with a mild detergent or with a cleaner recommended by the manufacturer. A stiff bristle (not wire) brush may be used to facilitate the removal of dirt. • C. Rinse components thoroughly in clean, warm (43 deg. C [110 deg. F] maximum), preferably running water. Drain. • D. When the cleaner used does not contain a disinfecting agent, respirator components should be immersed for two minutes in one of the following:
  42. 42. Cleaning, Sanitizing and Storage • 1. Hypochlorite solution (50 ppm of chlorine) made by adding approximately one milliliter of laundry bleach to one liter of water at 43 deg. C (110 deg. F); or, • 2. Aqueous solution of iodine (50 ppm iodine) made by adding approximately 0.8 milliliters of tincture of iodine (6-8 grams ammonium and/or potassium iodide/100 cc of 45% alcohol) to one liter of water at 43 deg. C (110 deg. F); or, • 3. Other commercially available cleansers of equivalent disinfectant quality when used as directed, if their use is recommended or approved by the respirator manufacturer.
  43. 43. Cleaning, Sanitizing and Storage • Rinse components thoroughly in clean, warm (43 deg. C [110 deg. F] maximum), preferably running water. Drain. The importance of thorough rinsing cannot be overemphasized. Detergents or disinfectants that dry on face pieces may result in dermatitis. In addition, some disinfectants may cause deterioration of rubber or corrosion of metal parts if not completely removed. • Components should be hand-dried with a clean lint-free cloth or air- dried.
  44. 44. Cleaning, Sanitizing and Storage • Reassemble face piece, replacing filters, cartridges, and canisters where necessary. • Test the respirator to ensure that all components work properly. • These procedures shall be performed after each use or when the device becomes contaminated. • Respirators with changeable filters must be worn in any confined spaces or when applying pesticides in confined spaces. Respirators must be worn in attics during rodent inspections or decontamination. Respirators must be worn when working with or applying dusts. Use the correct filter for the requirements of the job.
  45. 45. Cleaning, Sanitizing and Storage • Cleaning of respirator daily: • Wash in mild soap solution (face piece only) • Immerse in sanitary solution for two minutes, usually a chlorine solution. • Rinse thoroughly in clean, warm water • Air dry • Do Not wash filters or cartridges
  46. 46. Cleaning, Sanitizing and Storage Repair and Maintenance of respirators: Pre-filters should be replaced when breathing becomes more difficult, per manufacturer's instructions. Cartridges should be replaced when wearer begins to taste or smell chemical being used Only those filters and cartridges designed for the specific respirator will be used.
  47. 47. Cleaning, Sanitizing and Storage Single-use respirators will be properly disposed of in a company trash container After cleaning (and, if required, sanitizing), respirators will be stored in disposable, resealable plastic bags. Respirators and their filters/cartridges will be stored so that they are protected from sunlight, dust, chemical contamination, moisture, and temperature extremes. Maintenance, Inspection and Repair (Policy on maintenance, inspection and repair of respirators can be either or both of the following)
  48. 48. Cleaning, Sanitizing and Storage • Individual respirator users are directed to perform routine maintenance and inspection of respirators issued to them. The respirator user is directed to identify and deliver to the RPA any respirator in need of repair/replacement. Damaged or defective respirators will be properly disposed according to company policy. The RPA will also make random inspections of the respirators. For SCBA type, there will be a minimum inspection period of one month. Respirator inspections will cover the following items: • General condition of mask, straps, valves, air hoses (no cracks, tears, holes, deformations, loss of elasticity). • Filter elements (proper filter or cartridge), air tanks (full tanks), regulators, low- pressure warning device. • Hose clamps, gaskets (in place and properly seated) • Mask cleanliness (no debris, especially on sealing surfaces)
  49. 49. Cleaning, Sanitizing and Storage & Use • Employees with facial hair (heavy stubble, drooping mustache, long sideburns, beards) that prevent a gas-tight seal shall not wear respiratory protective equipment that requires a tight face to face-piece seal for proper operation. Other types of non-face- sealing respirators, if adequate for mitigating the hazard, may be chosen. • Cartridges, filters and filtering face-pieces will be discarded daily, absent other information on the end-of-service-life indication from the respiratory protection equipment manufacturer or specific end-of-service-life information on the pesticide label. • Air-purifying respirators shall not be worn when an oxygen- deficient atmosphere (less than 19.5% oxygen) is known or suspected, or in environments where high concentrations of air contaminant may be present.
  50. 50. Qualitative Fit Testing Quantitative Fit Testing Positive/Negative Pressure User Seal-Check In all cases, the respirator wearer should select a respirator that feels comfortable. If there are any doubts about the condition or integrity of the respirator or filters, the respirator should be rejected. As required by 3 CCR Section 6739(e)(4), all fit testing is done in accordance with the requirements found in Department of Industrial Relations Title 8 CCR Section 5144, Appendix A.
  51. 51. Respirator Fit Test • Qualitative Fit Testing: The following protocols are cited in regulation 3 CCR Section 6739(e)(4) as authorized to fit test respirators: • For testing against organic vapors cartridges: • Isoamyl acetate test (“Banana oil”) • For testing against particulate filters: • Saccharin test • Bitrex® test • Irritant smoke test
  52. 52. Respirator Fit Test • Positive Pressure User Seal-Check: This test will be conducted by blocking the exhalation valve with the palm of the hand to prevent air escaping from the mask. Do not press so hard on the exhalation valve that the mask is moved from its proper face-fit position. A slight positive pressure is then created in the mask by gently exhaling until the facepiece starts to pull away from the face. If the mask does not “balloon” up or otherwise pull away, there may be a leak in the mask or in the face seal. However, if there is neither loss of pressure nor outward leakage of air, the wearer and the respirator have passed the positive pressure fit-check.
  53. 53. Respirator Fit Test • Negative Pressure User Seal-Check: This test will be conducted by blocking the air purifying element(s) with either the palm of each hand or covering it with a plastic wrap. A negative pressure will be created inside the facepiece by gently inhaling and holding the breath for several seconds. The mask should collapse against the face and remain in that position during the test. If the mask does not collapse or otherwise tighten against the face, there may be a leak in the mask or in the face seal. If there is no loss of vacuum or inward movement of air, the wearer and the respirator have passed the negative pressure fit-check.
  54. 54. Respirator Fit Test •Caution! • The positive/negative pressure user seal-checks are not considered “fit-testing”. A qualitative or quantitative fit test must be performed before a respirator can be assigned to a worker. Persons with facial hair that interferes with the sealing surfaces of the respirator will be recorded as unsatisfactory for respirator use without further testing.
  55. 55. IPM BASICS • In recent years, the term "Integrated Pest Management" and its acronym "IPM" have received much press in the pest control arena. There have been dozens of articles written on the subject during the past decade. It has been heralded as the "new approach" to pest control. Those who have been less than encouraging have generally cited its lack of acceptance by the pest control industry. Neither view is correct. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is neither a "new approach" to pest control, nor is it practiced by only a limited number of pest management companies. It predates recorded history and is practiced universally.
  56. 56. The original IPM
  57. 57. IPM BASICS • The IPM approach to pest management differs in several ways from "conventional" or "traditional" urban pest control that relies primarily upon pesticide use. First, it is not merely a reaction to a pest problem. It is a process which when followed, provides effective control. Second, it considers threshold levels of pest presence. The Third difference between conventional pest control and the IPM approach is the application of two or more pest management procedures to reduce or limit population levels. A fourth difference is that pest management involves a truly integrated approach where all pests are considered in the development of the pest management process.
  58. 58. IPM BASICS INSPECTION The first step in any IPM program is thorough inspection. There are several reasons for inspecting the premises including: Determine the location of the infestation Determine the extent of the infestation Note damage to the structure or commodities Determine conditions conducive to the infestation Identify harborage areas Identify sanitation deficiencies Identify avenues of possible entry Identify items or factors which would impact program development
  59. 59. IPM BASICS INSPECTION • The inspection should be an orderly, organized procedure to determine the above information. It should include all areas of the premises - both indoors and outdoors. All levels of the structure should be inspected including attics, living or public floors, basements, crawl spaces, etc. No area should be overlooked because an infestation may have its beginnings in such an area or may, because of favorable conditions, move into this area.
  60. 60. IPM BASICS Identification •Before an effective integrated pest management program can be developed and implemented, it is necessary to know the pest or pests with which we are dealing. Identification is an integral part of any IPM program. This knowledge enables us to determine what control measures to employ and when, where and how to employ them. •Without a thorough understanding of the pest and its habits, habitat, life cycle and biology, we cannot be effective. In addition, several states require that any chemical applications performed be for a specific pest and that this pest be listed on the treatment record.
  61. 61. IPM BASICS Identification While the customer can often identify many pests by general categories such as cockroach, fly, beetle or rodent; they are seldom able to make more specific identification. Such specific information is necessary so that the proper management program can be developed. The reason for this is simple: even though two pests may be of the same group or family (cockroach, fly, etc.) their food, shelter and habitat requirements may be quite different. In addition, the damage they may cause can vary greatly. Similar looking beetles, for example, may damage wood members, stored products, carpets and houseplants. Each would require a different control method. It is important, therefore, to assure that proper identification is made.
  62. 62. IPM BASICS Identification • Once a pest has been correctly identified, its food preferences, harborage sites, behavioral patterns, biology, habits, potential for damage the options for control measures may be determined.
  63. 63. Establishment of Thresholds • The concept of threshold levels originated in the area of agricultural pest control. The pest population levels at which control measures are undertaken are called "economic thresholds" and are based upon the value of the commodity (or its anticipated market value), the amount of damage the pest population could cause, and the cost associated with implementing particular control measures.
  64. 64. Establishment of Thresholds • Although the cost of potential control measures in an urban setting can be determined, it is difficult to assign a value to the economic consequences of an infestation. For example, while the presence of cockroaches in some locations within a facility may be tolerated, their presence in the food preparation or consumption areas would not. Consequently, in this case, the threshold level would be zero. Occasionally, a pest management decision may depend upon the cost of potential control measures as weighed against the benefits received.
  65. 65. Establishment of Thresholds • As a result of the above, urban pest management decisions are generally influenced by three factors: • health and safety danger created by the pest • legal restrictions on pest infestation • the levels of pest tolerance exhibited by the customer
  66. 66. Employment Of Two Or More Control Measures • It is at this stage of the pest management process that we see the true integrated approach come into play. The primary objective of an IPM approach is to design a program that uses more than one strategy or control measures. • The strategies chosen should be ones that are:
  67. 67. Employment Of Two Or More Control Measures • least disruptive of natural controls • least hazardous to human health • least toxic to non-target organisms • least damaging to the general environment • most likely to produce a permanent reduction of the pest population • easiest to carry out effectively • most cost-effective over the short and long term
  68. 68. Employment Of Two Or More Control Measures • To qualify as a truly integrated program, at least two types of control measures must be employed. There are many types of control measures available to the pest management professional. These measures fall into several general categories based upon how pest population suppression is approached and include habitat modification, changing human behavior, employment of traps, caulks, etc. and pesticide applications. They may be grouped into five major pest control types:
  69. 69. SANITATION • No other non-chemical control measure can have a more beneficial effect than sanitation. It is the elimination of pest harborages, water and food sources so as to inhibit the survival of pests and requires the cooperation of the customer who is normally the one who provides the sanitary measures. To be effective in the use of other pest management procedures (i.e.: mechanical, cultural, biological and chemical), it is first necessary to ensure sanitation is addressed.
  70. 70. MECHANICAL • Mechanical, or physical control involves the use of traps, caulks, seals or barriers to prevent pests from entering, establishing and living in an undesired location. It may include any or all of the measures listed next: • excluding (pest proofing) pests using barriers, including screens, seals, nets and caulking • manually removing pests using hands, snares or by vacuuming • setting traps, including sticky, electric, light, multiple catch and snap types • the use of heat or cold to destroy pests
  71. 71. CULTURAL • Cultural control involves manipulation of the pest's environment to make it less favorable for the pest to exist. It may also be referred to as habitat modification or environmental alteration. To accomplish this, the customer may have to change some of their normal practices or habits and thus make it harder for the pest populations to become established or to spread.
  72. 72. BIOLOGICAL • Biological control is the use of parasites, predators, or pathogens to control or manage pests. When available or sufficiently developed, biological control strategies tend to be among the least environmentally disruptive pest control measures. Nematodes, fungus, parasitic wasps, and even IGR's are all examples of biological control agents in the urban arena.
  73. 73. CHEMICAL • The final type of control measure is chemical. It should be the last control measure to be considered when developing an integrated pest management program although there may be times when pesticides will have to be the first control strategy used because of the immediate need to significantly reduce or eliminate a pest population. This in no way implies that pesticides may not be an important part of your program. It does imply, however, that they should be thought of as one of several control measures available.
  74. 74. Evaluation of Effectiveness • The final step in the Integrated Pest Management process is the evaluation of effectiveness. Follow-up inspections enable the pest management professional to assess and adjust the control measures that have been employed. There are several reasons for reinspecting the account: • Determine effectiveness of previous procedures • Identify areas overlooked • Eliminate entry points • Enhance program effectiveness • Reapply or revise any pest management procedures as appropriate • Maintain good customer relations and satisfaction
  75. 75. THE IPM TEMPLATE The IPM template is a formula with which the pest management professional can determine the appropriate control measures to use. It may be expressed using the following formula: Account Type + Pest(s) - Restrictions = Control Measures The key components of the formula are the account type, the pest or pests for which control is desired, and any restrictions imposed by various factors including the customer, environmental and legal restrictions. The result is the appropriate control measure or measures to be employed.
  76. 76. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • The applicator should know how to choose the correct equipment for the job at hand. • Selection criteria should include: • Knowing the target pest • Knowing his surroundings • Knowing what equipment will do the job with the least amount of chemical at the lowest toxicity to control the target pest.
  77. 77. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • DUSTERS • Dust formulations are pesticides in which the active ingredient is mixed with a substance which is usually light in weight (talc or clay). However, heavier weighted carriers are also essential for the proper distribution in certain situations. Many lightweight dusts are not acceptable in many areas since they may be a hazard to the applicator or vicinity in which the application is made. Ultimate drift of dispersed dust must be of considerable concern to the applicator. Precautionary measures in the use of dust equipment consist of the following:
  78. 78. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT Because dusts are usually exerted under some degrees of pressure, all working parts of the equipment should be carefully examined. All literature provided by the manufacturer should be carefully read. Goggles and respirators should be included in the safety equipment. The operator should be acquainted with operations and limitations of each piece of equipment he uses. Complete removal of dust remaining in the hopper and any extensions of the duster should be accomplished after the completion of each job.
  79. 79. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT Hand Operated Dusters • Getz Applicator This is a very simple device in which a spring is surrounded by a rubber sleeve sealed at one end by a filler plug and the other by a small release tube. Contracting the 2 ends compresses the spring and releases a limited quantity of dust through the tube orifice. Releasing the grip on the spring forces the sleeve to resume its original position. The capacity of this device is very small (6 ounces) and usually it is only used for crack and crevice treatment. Small void areas can be expertly treated with this device.
  80. 80. • Bulb Duster • This is similar to the Getz applicator but does not depend upon a spring to re-establish its flexibility. Instead, by the nature of its construction, it resumes its original shape and upon compressing releases dust through a small orifice . Depending upon the weight of the dust used, it may hold slightly more than the Getz applicator. Its uses are identical as for the Getz applicator. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT Hand Operated Dusters
  81. 81. • Plunger Tube Dusters • This is a device in which a plunger forces air through a cylinder into a small tube of varying length. Retraction of the plunger allows air and dust to mix in the cylinder and upon depression of the cylinder, repeats the above process. This device is suitable for crack, crevice, or void applications. Its capacity is usually greater than both of the previously mentioned dusters. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT Hand Operated Dusters
  82. 82. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • Power Dusters • As their name implies, the following equipment either uses electric motors, gasoline engines, or compressed air as the power to run the mechanism which propels the dust. Where the hand type units usually are for small applications, power dusters obviously are used where large quantities of dust are to be dispersed. In the structural pest control industry, this type duster is usually restricted for use in large enclosed areas such as attics or sub-areas.
  83. 83. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • Electric Motor Powered Dusters This equipment, as indicated by the name, uses an electric motor which powers the propeller that creates the air to force the dust through an applicator tube. Power must be accessible for use of the duster.
  84. 84. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • SPRAYERS • There are many ways to classify equipment in this category. The present system is based on the method by which the pressure is originated to force the liquid from any designated holding container.
  85. 85. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • Compressed Air Sprayers This is probably the most commonly used sprayer in our industry. It is composed of a tank (usually holding from one- half gallon to 3 gallons of liquid), a pump to compress air, and a discharge hose with a valve to control the discharge through a nozzle.
  86. 86. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • Its operation is relatively simple. An airtight tank, preferably stainless steel, is filled approximately three-fourths of its capacity with a pesticide. The remaining space is utilized for the compressed air to be generated by the hand-powered plunger type cylinder within the tank.
  87. 87. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • A check valve is located at the bottom of the cylinder to allow the air to enter the tank but closes to prevent the liquid from entering the cylinder. A tube within the tank is located so that its source originates near the bottom of the tank but closes to prevent the liquid from entering the cylinder. Somewhere prior to the nozzle is a hand- controlled shut-off valve.
  88. 88. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • There is usually a pressure valve where the pipe emerges from the tank and the hose connection. The sprayer should not be used with pressures exceeding 50 psi nor less than 25 psi. The nozzle can be either a multi-purpose type (pin stream to fan or hollow cone) or a fixed pattern.
  89. 89. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • This type of application is usually confined to inside work • and sometimes outside in monthly service calls. These are • excellent for performing crack and crevice treatments inside a structure.
  90. 90. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT Electric or Gasoline- Operated Sprayers (Powered Spraying) • For the most part power spray usually refers to the typical 30 to 100 gallon spray rigs owned by most structural pest control firms. Most will have some form of agitation, either jet agitation or blades mounted inside the tank.
  91. 91. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • When spraying either a yard or sub-area, a moderately low pressure with a relatively high volume will aid in a safe even distribution. Where grass or weeds are thick it may be necessary to adjust the pressure upwards to be sure and drive the pesticide down into the soil or turf. However, the spray pattern should be kept coarse to ensure wetness.
  92. 92. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • Low pressure-high volume is particularly valuable when spraying a dry, dusty sub-area. High pressure tends to ball up the top layer of dust or soft soil and move it around in a sweeping motion, without ever getting the soaking action that is desirable. Needless to say, but some servicemen will use higher pressures to speed up a job. A conscientious applicator will move about with a low pressure-high volume type of application and reach all areas.
  93. 93. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • With power spraying the source of power is either an electric or gasoline engine. This power can be transmitted to the pump by belts and pulleys, chains and sprockets, power take-off assemblies, or direct drive. In all cases, the liquid is ejected by the action of a pump through hoses or wands and finally through a nozzle or groups of nozzles. In this industry, the most commonly used type of pumps are the centrifugal, gear, and piston pumps. The selection of a sprayer must obviously be governed by the magnitude of the job.
  94. 94. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT • Various types of formulations also play an important part in deciding the tank, pump, hose, regulator or nozzle to be used. The following section indicates the various ramifications of this selection by pointing out the various components of some of the systems now in use.
  95. 95. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT PUMPS • A pump is the most important part of the spraying system. It is imperative that it be chosen to satisfy the widest range of applications unless its use is for a single purpose. In most instances, the pump comes as an integral part of a complete unit in which the engineering requirements have all been satisfied. In other words, it has been specifically designed and manufactured by a company in this field. As one can imagine, there are many styles of pumps, some specifically for high gallon delivery with little pressure, while others are styled for both small and large delivered quantities and high pressure. The most common type of pumps are discussed in the following section.
  96. 96. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT PUMPS • Piston Pump This is one of the most common pumps in existence. It has the ability to produce large volumes at high pressures; for example, 55 gallons per minute at 800 psi. However, it can also be regulated to deliver 2 gallons per minute at 150 psi. The only feature which makes this type pump undesirable is its pulsating action on hoses and regulators which causes them to wear at a rate faster than that with other type pumps.
  98. 98. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS • Centrifugal Pumps • This type of pump is best noted for its ability to deliver high volumes of liquid at low pressures. These are constructed to handle corrosive and abrasive materials.
  100. 100. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT ROLLER PUMPS • Roller Pumps This is a very popular pump in the industry because of its wide variety of uses. It has either nylon or rubber rollers and can produce a wide range of volumes and pressures.
  102. 102. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT HOSES This Photo by Unknown author is licensed under CC BY-SA. • Naturally, such things as capacity of delivery (interior dimension size and friction loss) and material composition of the hose are important to know what the specific gallon delivery is required at the nozzle or group of nozzles. Much of this information is available from the manufacturer, but it should be verified by experimenting with the equipment before it is used. One method of experimentation is to attach the hose to the pump outlet, set the pressure regulator to a specific pressure and attach a nozzle which in turn can be directed into a container. The quantity delivered per minute will determine the gallons produced by the pump.
  103. 103. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT NOZZLES There are many types of nozzles. Of primary concern is that the specific type provide the pattern desired. In most cases, the pattern is confined to a solid or pin stream, to a fan, or to a hollow or solid cone nozzle. Many of the above combinations are available in adjustable brass but can also be made of stainless steel, aluminum, or some wearable parts of plastic. Except for nozzles used on small equipment, the gallons delivered by a specific nozzle, regardless of design, should be clearly known by the applicator. The capacity of the pump, the pressure on the liquid, the friction loss and size of the hose, and the size of the orifice in the nozzle will all govern the ultimate gallons delivered from the nozzle.
  104. 104. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT STRAINERS • These are screens made of various materials, preferably stainless steel, which usually are 50 mesh or coarser. They are located at the filling opening, suction line to the pump and at the nozzle tip. Their presence is to prevent any foreign substance access to the spraying system.
  105. 105. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT STRAINERS • Should they become clogged, they can make a serious negative impact on the performance and precision of your treatment. Routine cleaning is imperative not only for the sprayers to function properly, but is extremely important if the calibrated delivery system is to be accurate.
  106. 106. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT Pressure Regulators Pressure Regulators As the name implies, this unit controls the pressure of the liquid being delivered to the nozzle. As with many other parts, there are numerous types of regulators. Spring tension which is controlled by a hand-adjusted screw mechanism exerts pressure on the liquid as it flows through the regulator on its way to the nozzle.
  107. 107. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT Pressure Regulators • They can be operated from zero pressure to as high as 800 psi. The indicator or gauge for pressure is located adjacent to or is a component part of the regulator and, as indicated, records the pressure as pounds per square inch. In addition to establishing the pressure, a provision exists for the excess or overflow to bypass the regulator and return to the tank. In many sprayers this return line is located near the bottom of the tank and can be either the primary or secondary measure in the agitation of the spray material in the tank.
  108. 108. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT AGITATORS • This is a means by which the contents of a spray tank is mixed and agitated. The object is to keep the pesticide in continuous suspension so that it results in an even distribution of the material. In some formulations (wettable powders), mechanical is the only type of agitation that maintains suspension. In this method, a set of paddles is attached to a horizontally located shaft at the lower portion of the tank. • Exteriorly, the shaft is connected to the power source. Bypass agitators are a frequently used method of agitation. This technique utilizes the overflow from the regulator to stir the contents of a tank. Obviously, if the nozzle or nozzles are shut off, this system is quite effective. However, if one is utilizing the full output of the pump, very little fluid is bypassing the regulator; consequently, there is very little agitation.
  109. 109. • Jet agitators are connected to the pressure side of the pump and a supply pipe placed horizontally at the bottom of the tank. • The orifice size must be commensurate with the capacity of the pump so that the supply is adequate for it and the nozzle. In all forms of agitators, problems may arise due to the type of the formation used. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT AGITATORS
  110. 110. Mechanical Agitators. Mechanical agitators are propellers or paddles mounted on a shaft that is positioned near the bottom of a spray tank. The shaft passes through the tank wall and connects to the drive line by belts or chains. Mechanical agitators provide constant mixing in the tank as long as the sprayer is running. They are usually effective in suspending settled formulations.
  111. 111. Wood injection systems. Typically used for local or spot treatments for wood destroying insects. There are several manufactures of wood injection systems. Some are small and used for localized treatments for wood injection. Others are larger and can be used for sub-slab foaming, wall void injection, including foaming.
  112. 112. •Rodding Equipment for subterranean termite treatments. Two different examples are shown. Both are similar in use. Both have cone seals for slab injection and treatments for directing chemical in the direction you need it to go under a slab.
  113. 113. • HOSES • The material the hose is constructed of is important. •The center core or lining of a spray hose must be able to convey liquid pesticides which contain base material capable of deteriorating some hose linings. Most manufacturers who make hose for the pesticide applicator take this into consideration. •They also rate their hoses as to operating pressure and bursting pressure. •The exterior surface of a spray hose is important to the structural applicator since the hose may have to be dragged over finished surfaces. • The wrong hose could leave ugly black marks on objects. • It is important that the correct size hose is selected.
  114. 114. APPLICATION EQUIPMENT •Aerosol can dispersal of pesticides, although not new, has been very popular both with the public and pest control operators. The small sizes have push type release nozzles. Aerosol applications can be used as a confined space spray or a directed spray or a crack and crevice treatment.