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Lecture 1. Introduction to Tourism Planning and Development(1).pptx

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Lecture 1. Introduction to Tourism Planning and Development(1).pptx

  1. 1. Introduction to Tourism Planning and Development Mrs C. Marikite marikitecc@cut.ac.zw
  2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Concepts and definitions of tourism planning • Identifying the factors that determine the success of a tourism destination • Relate tourism planning to tourism policy • Discover what the goals of tourism development should be • Recognize that some serious barriers to tourism development must be overcome if a desired growth is to occur
  3. 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES CONT’D • Learn the political and economic aspects of development including those related to developing countries • Appreciate the importance of architectural design and concern for heritage preservation, local handicrafts, and use of indigenous materials in creating tourist facilities
  4. 4. Defining Tourism - Recap • Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. • These activities need to be planned for so as to reap benefits from the billion-dollar industry.
  5. 5. Definition of Tourism • Tourism may be defined as the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors.
  6. 6. Tourism Planning and Development • Tourism as an opportunity for economic development: – Many governments see tourism as a major opportunity for economic development and a tool for creating a better community. • An engine of employment • Wealth redistribution • Potential in restoring blighted areas.
  7. 7. Tourism Planning and Development cont’d – Tourism becomes a potentially attractive replacement for businesses that have shut down or moved away. – Many communities have pursued tourism development either without planning or without considering larger planning or community economic development processes.
  8. 8. Tourism industry sectors:  Transportation  Accommodation  Attractions  Events  Commercial Outdoor Recreation  Commercial Visitor Service  Destination Management Organization (DMO)  Culture/Heritage Groups  Social/Health/Education Groups
  9. 9. Structure of the tourism industry
  10. 10. Tourism Industry Characteristics • Tourism as a means of wealth redistribution • Tourism as a labor - intensive industry • Protectionism • Multitude of industries • Price flexibility • Seasonality • High operating leverage/fixed costs
  11. 11. Advantages Of Tourism • Provide employment opportunities • Generates foreign exchange • Increases incomes • Increases GNP • Development of tourism infrastructure • helps to stimulate local commerce and industry – how? • Justifies environmental protection and improvement
  12. 12. • Increase governmental revenues • Diversifies the economy • Creates a favorable worldwide image for the destination • Facilitates the process of modernization • Provides tourist and recreational facilities for the local population • Provides foreigners opportunities to be impressed by little-known nations or regions
  13. 13. Disadvantages Of Tourism 1.Develops excess demand 2.Creates leakages so great that economic benefits do not accrue 3.Diverts funds from more promising forms of economic development 4.Creates social problems from income differences, social differences, introduction of prostitution, gambling, crime, and so on???? How true is this? Is tourism poison in a luxury bag?
  14. 14. 5. Degrades the natural physical environment 6.Degrades the cultural environment 7.Poses the difficulties of seasonality 8.Increases vulnerability to economic and political changes 9.Adds to inflation of land values and the price of local goods and services
  15. 15. WHAT IS PLANNING?  Planning is a management function - PLOCCC  Planning is the process of identifying objectives and defining and evaluating methods of achieving them.  In its simplest form, planning is about identifying appropriate steps to achieve some predetermined goal  Planning is concerned with the future. • Most simply - planning is the implementation of policy???? • brings in the elements of economic feasibility and social acceptance.
  16. 16. WHAT IS PLANNING?... Cont’d • Planning is concerned with anticipating and regulating change in a system to promote orderly development so as to increase the social, economic and environmental benefits of the development process. • To do this, planning becomes ‘an ordered sequence of operations, designed to lead to the achievement of either a single goal or to a balance between several goals’
  17. 17. Definition of Tourism Planning • Gunn(1992)pointed out that tourism industry originates from tourists’ desire to travel, and ends with the satisfaction of the desire. • Therefore planning should make meeting tourists’ desire its initial target. • Tourism planning is a course to determine an appropriate prospective action after a series of choices. –The course is dynamic and interactive. –The prospective action is the achievement of goals as well as the formulation of policies.
  18. 18. Tourism Planning • Planning for such a diverse industry is difficult – why? • Decisions that need to be made in tourism planning –Timing of development –Allocation of resources –Size of infrastructure and superstructure –Targeting of promotional efforts –Enhancement and preservation of resources, natural and man-made
  19. 19. • a tourism plan is a document that has been the focus of political debate and is publicly available.
  20. 20. Purposes Of Tourism Planning • Five basic purposes –Identifying alternative approaches; –Adapting to the unexpected; –Maintaining uniqueness; –Creating the desirable; –Avoiding the undesirable.
  21. 21. Goals of Tourism Development 1. Provide a framework for raising the living standard of the people through the economic benefits of tourism 2. Develop an infrastructure and provide recreation facilities for visitors and residents alike 3. Ensure development within visitor center and resorts is appropriate to those areas 4. Establish a development program consistent with the cultural, social, and economic philosophy of the government and people of that region 5. Optimize visitor satisfaction
  22. 22. Forms of Tourism Planning • Comprehensive planning considers economic, environmental, social, and institutional aspects of tourism development. Many different forms of planning include: – Economic development planning – Land use planning/ Safety planning – Infrastructure planning (roads, airports, utilities) – Social Service planning (education, employment, public health)
  23. 23. The Need for Tourism Planning  The need to have a common vision, direction and commitment for tourism.  Tourism’s socio-cultural and environmental impacts, and the need for a long-term perspective in planning in assessing those impacts.  Destination survival in an increasingly competitive market and the need to respond to change in the travel market.  Provide investment funds to private sector with a certain stability
  24. 24. Tourism and Economic Development  Tourism planning include: A plan to increase the foreign exchange earnings of a nation by encouraging the growth of tourism. A plan to designate specific areas for the development of resorts A plan to improve local employment through the tourism industry.
  25. 25. Forms of Tourism Planning Cont’d  Public and Private Planning Public planning generally involves public resources and objectives, such as creation of land, construction of highways, and other infrastructure. Private sector planning consists of product development, building, finance, marketing, management and operations etc,.
  26. 26. Tourism and Economic Development  Tourism Master Planning  Master plan defines a strategic plan that integrates all aspects of tourism, including human resources, environmental impacts, and social and cultural impacts.  .
  27. 27. Tourism Development Planning • Tourism development planning is a series of systems of goals and overall arrangements based on regional tourism, history, current situation and market factors. • Tourism development plan by the planning scope and level of government is divided into the national tourism development planning, regional tourism development planning and local tourism development planning.
  28. 28. • Tourism area planning is an overall co- ordination arrangements for the rational exploitation of tourism areas. • Tourism area planning by planning levels is divided into the overall planning, detailed plan, site plan, etc.
  29. 29. Barriers to tourism planning • The objections to the principle of tourism planning; – Cost of this process is high; – The complexity (ownership) of tourism and the large number of government agencies involved; – The diversity of tourism business (sector, size); – The seasonality – The high ownership turnover in tourism businesses – e.g. Monomotapa – Crowne Plaza - Legacy
  30. 30. The Destination Area Without Tourism Planning Consequences of unplanned development: –Physical –Human –Marketing –Organizational –Other
  31. 31. Main Forms of Tourism Development • Low-impact to high-impact tourism • Ecologically sustainable tourism development (ESTD) • Alternative tourism • Mass tourism • Resort tourism
  32. 32. Sustainable Tourism Development “Tourism which is developed and maintained in an area in such a manner and at such a scale that it remains viable over an indefinite period and does not degrade or alter the environment (human and physical) in which it exists to such a degree that it prohibits the successful development and well-being of other activities and processes.” Butler, R. W. (1993)
  33. 33. Principles of Sustainable Tourism Development 1. To improve the quality of life of the host community 2. To provide a high quality experience for visitors 3. To maintain the quality of the environment on which both the host community and the visitors depend Ding, P., & Pigram, J. (1995)