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NanoPt2016 Conference Book

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Now on its 4th edition, nanoPT will be organized in Braga at the INL (The International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory). The conference will be held with the purpose of strengthen ties nationally and internationally on Nanotechnology and will encourage industry and universities working on the Nanotechnology field to know each other and to present their research.
nanoPT2016 structure will keep the fundamental features of the previous editions, providing a unique opportunity for broad interaction. However, following the success of the past 3 editions nanoPT2016 is now a 4 days conference instead of the usual 3 days.
The conference will cover a broad range of topics on current research in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology from high level speakers and also an exhibition. nanoPT 2016 is an excellent platform to exchange ideas, networking, find new partners and understand the current state of the art in nanotechnology.

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NanoPt2016 Conference Book

  1. 1. Main Organisers
  2. 2. nanotechnology platform
  3. 3. Index Foreword / Organizers Page 5 Sponsors / Committees Page 7 Exhibitors Page 8 Speakers Page 13 Abstracts Page 18 Posters List Page 122
  4. 4. FEI.com | Explore. Discover. Resolve. Sample: Thermally aged stainless steel. (Left) Helios PFIB, slice thickness 46.6 μm. (Right) Ga PFIB, slice thickness 7.6 μm. Helios PFIB DualBeam Large 3D volumes with unprecedented surface resolution The Helios PFIB DualBeam provides serial sectioning volumes of 97 x 79 x 47 um after cropping, compared to typical volumes of 19 x 18 x 8 um for Ga FIB. And Helios is optimized for large cross-sections and high-throughput processing—20 to 100 times faster than traditional FIB—without causing the mechanical damage typical during polishing. Obtaining larger, high-resolution volumes faster enables: • Better statistical accuracy when processing data • Imaging and analysis of large-grained materials/metals in 3D • Biopsies or chunking of large regions of interest for further investigation with other techniques while keeping the bulk sample intact 10 μm
  5. 5. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 5 Foreword On behalf of the Steering, Programme and Organizing Committees we take great pleasure in welcoming you to Braga (Portugal) for the nanoPT International Conference (nanoPT2016), hosted at INL. The growing participation in the event (more than 200 attendees), now in its fourth edition, confirms the consolidation of nanoPT in the scientific panorama. The aim of nanoPT is to bring together the Portuguese and International Community (students, researchers, engineers and stakeholders from academia, national laboratories, industry and other organisations) to discuss the latest developments and innovations in the fields of Nanotechnology and Nanoscience. nanoPT Conference offers a multitude of renowned international keynote speakers, invited and contributed talks, posters and a commercial exhibition as well as an innovation activity fostering entrepreneurship and start-up activities. We are indebted to the following sponsors for their financial support: International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory (INL), FEI and Spinograph. We would also like to thank the following companies for their participation: Raith GmbH, PANalytical, micro resist technology GmbH, SOQUÍMICA/FRITSCH, ScienTec Ibérica, Paralab, Scienta Omicron, HORIBA Scientific and Dias de Sousa. In addition, thanks must be given to the staff of all the organising institutions whose hard work has helped planning this conference. We would like to thank all participants, speakers, sponsors and exhibitors that joined us this year. Hope to see you again in the next edition of nanoPT (2017). Organizers
  6. 6. INL - International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory Av Mestre José Veiga, s/n 4715-330 Braga - Portugal office@inl.int www.inl.int CUTTING EDGE RESEARCH FOR THE BENEFIT OF SOCIETY DEPLOYMENT & ARTICULATION OF NANOTECHNOLOGY STRATEGIC RESEARCH Food & Environment Health Energy Nanoelectronics YOUR WORLDWIDE SCIENCE & INNOVATION PARTNER
  7. 7. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 7 Sponsors Committees S t e e r i n g C o m m i t t e e Antonio Correia Phantoms Foundation (Spain) Braz Costa CeNTI (Portugal) António M. Cunha Minho University (Portugal) Lars Montelius INL (Portugal) P r o g r a m m e C o m m i t t e e Higino Correia Minho University (Portugal) Yolanda De Miguel Tecnalia (Spain) Joaquín Fernández-Rossier INL (Portugal) Paulo Freitas INL (Portugal) João Gomes CeNTI (Portugal) Rodrigo Martins Universidade Nova (Portugal) Jose Fernando Mendes Aveiro University (Portugal) Lars Montelius INL (Portugal) Rui Reis Minho University (Portugal) Jose Rivas Santiago de Compostela University (Spain) Stephan Roche ICN2 (Spain) Carla Silva CeNTI (Portugal) Vasco Teixeira University of Minho (Portugal) O r g a n i z i n g C o m m i t t e e Andrea Carneiro CeNTI (Portugal) Viviana Estêvão Phantoms Foundation (Spain) Paula Galvão INL (Portugal) Conchi Narros Phantoms Foundation (Spain) Cristina Padilha INL (Portugal) Ana Ribeiro CeNTI (Portugal) Jose Luis Roldán Phantoms Foundation (Spain)
  8. 8. 8 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) Exhibitors P A N a l y t i c a l Materials you use every day… PANalytical’s mission is to enable people to get valuable insight into their materials and processes. Our customers can be found in virtually every industry segment, from building materials to pharmaceuticals and from metals and mining to nanomaterials. The combination of our software and instrumentation, based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as well as pulsed fast thermal neutron activation (PFTNA), provides our customers with highly reliable and robust elemental and structural information on their materials and is applied in scientific research and industrial process and quality control. PANalytical employs over 1,000 people worldwide. The worldwide sales and service network ensures unrivalled levels of customer support. The company is certified in accordance with ISO 9001 and ISO 14001. PANalytical is part of Spectris plc, the productivity-enhancing instrumentation and controls company www.panalytical.com Luis.Vital@panalytical.com
  9. 9. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 9 R a i t h Raith offers innovative solutions for sub-10nm focused ion beam (FIB) nanofabrication, SEM- based electron beam lithography (EBL), large area SEM image capture, gas-assisted nanolithography, in situ nanomanipluation and nanoprofilometry. Raith’s proprietary FIB technology offers a wide range of ion species and elevates FIB based nanofabrication to a new level with highest selectivity and unsurpassed stability for automated wafer-scale patterning. www.raith.com sales@raith.com m i c r o r e s i s t t e c h n o l o g y G m b H , B e r l i n For 23 years, our company has been developing, manufacturing and selling innovative photoresists, special polymers and ancillary materials for micro- and nanolithography. Due to our highly specialized products we are a trusted supplier of global high-tech markets such as semiconductor industry, MEMS, optoelectronics, nanotechnology and other emerging technologies. Our distinctive competency is to offer our clients and partners tailor-made products and technological services and solutions. Furthermore, micro resist technology has become an esteemed partner for the international research community by developing novel photoresists and materials for latest lithography developments such as laser-direct writing, NIL or ink jet printing. www.microresist.com info@microresist.de D i a s d e S o u s a Dias de Sousa was founded in 1983 and become along 33 years the most important Portuguese distributor in the area of analytical and scientific instrumentation (sales, applications & services). We are a company certified according to the latest standards of ISO 9001. Our mission is be a serious partner, providing genuine solutions in our area in order to ensure full satisfaction of our customers' needs. ds@dias-de-sousa.pt www.dias-de-sousa.pt/sa
  10. 10. 10 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) P a r a l a b PARALAB was founded in 1992 with its primary goal set on the distribution of scientific equipment for laboratory and industry, for measurement and control in the world of characterization of materials. Today, Paralab is the reference company in this sector, additionally developing unique expertise in the area of design and development of projects. Paralab outstands by: − Offering the most complete range of laboratory equipment in Portugal; − Investing heavily in the best after-sales service, supported by a large team of professionals with deep knowledge of all analytical techniques we distribute; − Follow-up with customers from pre-sales to the final installation and operation of the equipment, providing global and integrated solutions. Our main strength is the technical and scientific background of our human resources. The team includes graduates and post-graduates in Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences and Electronic Engineering. This team, allows Paralab to successfully deal with all the projects in which is involved, and at the same time provide unequal customer training and after sales support. www.paralab.pt info@paralab.pt S c i e n t a O m i c r o n Scienta Omicron, brings together the two leading innovators in Surface Science – the former VG Scienta and Omicron NanoTechnology. We provide customized solutions and advanced technologies for fundamental research in surface science and nanotechnology in the fields of − scanning probe microscopy − electron spectroscopy, − thin film deposition and − tailored system and instrumentation solutions These capabilities are available in customized solutions from one source with worldwide sales and service groups. We work with leading researchers around the world and our products are known for their outstanding performance. Scienta Omicron is part of the Scienta Scientific Group. For more information please visit www.scientaomicron.com. www.ScientaOmicron.com info@ScientaOmicron.com
  11. 11. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 11 S O Q U I M I C A Since 1929, SOQUIMICA commercializes high quality laboratory equipment and provides highly specialized services to its customers. We offer our clients the expertise of a qualified and experienced team, which enables support for the development of tailor-made solutions. The equipment we sell and the services we provide allow our customers to enjoy the best solutions for various Applications (Chemical analyzes, Gas and liquid chromatography, Spectroscopy, Genomics, Life sciences, Laboratory Weighing, Industrial Weighing, Preparation of samples) and Industries (Environment, Forensics and Toxicology, Energy & Chemicals, Food Industry and Agriculture, Pharmaceuticals and Biotechnology Industry, Textile Industry, Inspection of products and materials testing, Clinical research, Refinery & Petrochemicals). www.soquimica.pt H O R I B A S c i e n t i f i c HORIBA Scientific, part of HORIBA Group, provides an extensive array of instruments and solutions for applications across a broad range of scientific R&D and QC measurements. HORIBA Scientific is a world leader in elemental analysis, fluorescence, forensics, GD-OES, ICP, particle characterization, Raman, spectroscopic ellipsometry, sulphur-in-oil, water quality and XRF. Our instruments are found in universities and industries around the world. Proven quality and trusted performance have established widespread confidence in the HORIBA Brand. HORIBA provides service, such as nano-level micro-area analysis to support a wide range of research activities, from leading-edge scientific research to RD in a variety of industries. www.horiba.com
  12. 12. 12 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) S c i e n T e c ScienTec, specialized in the distribution of rigorously selected scientific equipments (AFM microscope, Vacuum technology, NanoIndentation systems, Profilometers), has for mission to serve and assist French, Iberian and Nordic markets. With more than 15 years experience in Nanotechnology, our sales engineers will help you to define the right tool and configuration, our application group will teach and help you run the machines and our after sales team will preventively maintain or repair your systems. By characterization at ScienTec we mean: − Atomic Fore Microscopy from CSInstruments − Vacuum Technology from PREVAC − NanoIndentation from Nanomechanics − SNOM and AFM+RAMAN from Nanonics − Digital Holography Microscopy from Lyncée Tec − Mechanical Profilometry from KLA Tencor − Optical profilometry − Thin Film thickness from Filmetrics − Accesories and SPM consumables with AppNano www.scientec.fr info@scientec.fr A d v e r t i s i n g
  13. 13. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 13 Alphabetical order index K: Keynote Speakers I: Invited Speakers O: Orals (Plenary Session) OP: Orals (Parallel Sessions) Speakers Page Albuquerque, João (ICETA/UCIBIO/REQUIMTE/FFUP, Portugal) “Multifunctional Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: a targeted approach for Rheumatoid Arthritis with theranostic applications” OP 43 Amorim, Bruno (University of Minho, Portugal) “Vertical current in graphene - insulator/semiconductor - graphene structures” OP 44 Ashokkumar, Anumol (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Advanced Electron Microscopy Study of GdX3@WS2 Nanotubes” O 45 Bjöörn, Patrik (Insplorion AB, Sweden) “Plasmonic Sensing Technology for Nanomaterial Studies” O 46 Caldeira, F. Jorge (CiiEM ISCSEM, Portugal) “Inhibitors Design for matrix metalloproteinase’s A molecular view for Dental Restoration” O 47 Capasso, Federico (Harvard Paulson School, USA) “Metasurfaces: New Frontiers in Structured light and Surface Waves” K 19 Cardoso, Ana R. (BioMark/CINTESIS-ISEP, Portugal) “Immune response for Malaria detected by novel and a simple biosensing approach” OP 49 Carneiro, Liliana (BioMark/CINTESIS/ISEP, Portugal) “Functionalization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanohorns for Biosensor Applications” OP 50 Castellanos-Gomez, Andres (IMDEA, Spain) “2D Semiconductors for Optoelectronics Applications” K 19 Castro, Eduardo (IST, Portugal) “Phases with non-trivial topology in graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides” I 35 Chen, Yong (Ecole Normale Supérieure, France & Kyoto University, Japan) “Nanobioengineering of cellular microenvironment: From culture dish to culture patch” K 20 Chiorcea-Paquim, Ana-Maria (University of Coimbra, Portugal) “Quadruplex formation between a triazole-acridine conjugate and guanine-containing repeat DNA sequences. Atomic force microscopy and voltammetric characterisation” O 51 Choi, Choon-Gi (Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Korea) “Extraordinary optical properties of visible and terahertz metamaterials” I 36 Costa, Pedro M. F. J. (King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Saudi Arabia) “Quantifying impurities in Nanocarbons using ICP-OES” O 53 Costa Lima, Sofia A. (UCIBIO-REQUIMTE, University of Porto, Portugal) “Nanostructured Lipid Carriers: a new approach for Psoriasis topical therapy” O 54 Cunha, Eunice (University of Minho, Portugal) “Non-covalent exfoliation of graphite in aqueous suspension for nanocomposite production with waterborne polyurethane” OP 55 De Beule, Pieter A. A (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Novel imaging devices for optical and mechanical characterization of supported lipid bilayers at the nanoscale” O 57 Despont, Michel (CSEM SA, Switzerland) “MEMS are a watch´s best friend” K 20 Falko, Vladimir (National Graphene Institute, the University of Manchester, UK) “Bright, dark and semi-dark trions in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides” K 22
  14. 14. 14 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) Page Ferreira, Ricardo (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Magnetoresistive Sensors aiming room temperature detection of biomagnetic fields” I 37 Ferreira, Nádia S. (BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Portugal) “Carbon Black modification for polymer anchoring targeting fuel cell powered biosensors” OP 58 Gallo, Juan (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Tuning the relaxation rates of dual mode T1/T2 nanoparticle contrast agents: a study into the ideal system” O 59 García-Martínez, Noel A. (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Hyperfine interaction in hydrogenated graphene” OP 60 Garcia-Martin, Jose Miguel (IMM / CNM - CSIC, Spain) “Nanostructured biocompatible coatings to prevent implant infections” O 61 Gerber, Christoph (Basel University, Switzerland) “Pushing the boundaries in personalized healthcare with AFM technology” K 22 Gimzewski, Jim (California Nanosystems Institute and UCLA, USA) “Development of a "Brain-like" Computation system using Atomic Switch Networks” K 23 Goldblum, Amiram (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel) “Computational Discovery of Liposomal Drugs: From in silico predictions to in vivo validation” O 62 Gomes, João (CeNTI, Portugal) “Development of fully bioresponsive printed sensors: exploring the electronic tongue concept for specific analytes” O 63 Grützner, Gabi (micro resist technology GmbH, Germany) “Material Innovations Enabling Advanced Nanofabrication for Lab to Fab Application” K 23 Guan, Nan (Institut d´Electronique Fondamentale,Université Paris-Saclay, France) “Flexible White Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Vertical Nitride Nanowires and micro-size phosphors” OP 64 Guldris, Noelia (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Ultrasmall Doped Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Dual T1-T2 Contrast Agents for MRI” OP 66 Hora, Carolina (Biomark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Portugal) “Development of an autonomous electrical biosensing device for a colon-rectal cancer protein marker” OP 67 Ibarlucea, Bergoi (TU Dresden/Institute for Material Science, Germany) “Honeycomb-nanowire field-effect transistors for bacterial activity determination in non- diluted growth media” O 68 Karasulu, Bora (Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e), The Netherlands) “Atomic-Scale Simulations of High-κ Dielectrics Deposition on Graphene” O 69 Kavan, Ladislav (J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, Czech Republic) “Advanced Nanocarbons (Graphene, Nanodiamond and Beyond) as the Electrode Materials in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells” O 70 Korgel, Brian A. (UT Austin, USA) “Silicon and Germanium Nanowires for Lithium and Sodium Ion Batteries” K 24 Lado, Jose L. (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Large scale calculations of electronic structure of 2D Crystals” OP 72 Laurell, Thomas (Lund University, Sweden) “Acoustic seed-trapping enables rapid enrichment and purification of nanovesicles involved extracellular signalling” K 25 Lemma, Enrico Domenico (Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia & Università del Salento, Italy) “Static and Dynamic Mechanical Characterization of Two-photon Lithography Photoresists” OP 73
  15. 15. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 15 Page Li, Chen-zhong (Florida International University, USA) “Nanoparticle Enhanced Electromagnetic Control of Cancer Cell Development for Nanotheranostics” I 38 Li, Wei (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Cobalt nickel phosphide nanowires on the nickel foam as an highly efficient and ultrastable bifunctional catalyst for overall water splitting” O 74 Liddle, J. Alexander (NIST, USA) “Nanofabrication: From DNA-Directed Assembly to Volume Nanomanufacturing” K 26 López Fanarraga, Mónica (Universidad de Cantabria, Spain) “Anti-tumoral effects of MWCNTs in solid melanoma tumor models” O 76 Loureiro, Joana (UNINOVA, Portugal) “Thermoelectric properties optimization of nc-Si:H thin films deposited by PECVD” O 77 Machado Jr. , George Luiz (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “A comparison of graphene electrochemical sensors and electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors as label-free immunosensors” OP 78 Madureira, Ana Raquel (Universidade Católica do Porto, Portugal) “NanoDairy Project: delivery systems of bioactive polyphenolic compounds to dairy matrices. Evaluation of stability, bioavailability and toxicity” O 80 Makarova, Tatyana (LUT, Finland) “Tabby graphene: realization of zigzag edge states at the interfaces” I 39 Marques, Catarina B. (Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal) “V2O5 thin film for high sensitivity flexible and transparent thermal sensors” OP 81 Marques, Juliana (Universy of Minho, Portugal) “Advanced Photocatalytic Heterostructered Materials for the Controlled Release of Active Compounds upon Solar Activation” OP 82 Martins, Gabriela V. (Biomark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Portugal) “Chip-on-Paper for sensoring 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) oxidative stress biomarker in point-of-care” OP 83 Miranda, Rodolfo (IMDEA Nanociencia, Spain) “Tailoring graphene for spintronics” K 26 Moles, Ernest (InstituteforBioengineeringofCatalonia,BarcelonaInstituteforGlobalHealth,Spain) “Immunoliposome-mediated drug delivery to Plasmodium-infected and non-infected red blood cells as a dual therapeutic/prophylactic antimalarial strategy” OP 85 Müllen, Klaus (Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany) “How to Make and how to Use Carbon Nanostructures” K 27 Paltiel, Yossi (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel) “Chiral-molecules based simple spin devices” O 86 Pang, Stella W.(City University Hong Kong, China) “Nanofabricated Platforms for Biosensing and Cell Control” K 28 Pascual i Vidal, Lluís (Universitat Politécnica de València - IDM, Spain) “DNA-gated material as simultaneous drug delivery and radioimaging tool” OP 87 Pastrana, Lorenzo (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Nanostructures for food applications” I 39 Pavlov, Valery (CIC BiomaGUNE, Spain) “Teaching enzymes to generate and etch semiconductor nanoparticles” O 89 Pellegrin, Eric (CELLS-ALBA / Experiments Division, Spain) “The ALBA Synchrotron Licht Source: A Tool for Nanoscience” O 91 Peres, Nuno (University of Minho, Portugal) “Basic Notions in Graphene Plasmonics” K 28
  16. 16. 16 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) Page Pérez-Murano, Francesc (IMB-CNM/CSIC, Spain) “Directed self-assembly of block co-polymers: chemical guiding patterns and advanced nanometer-scale characterization” K 29 Pernia Leal, Manuel (Andalusian Centre for Nanomedicine and Biotechnology, Spain) “Optimization of blood circulating times of magnetic nanoparticles based on the effect of PEG molecular weight coating and nanoparticle size followed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging” O 92 Petrovykh, Dmitri Y. (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Design and Characterization of DNA and Peptide Biointerfaces” I 40 Pettersson, Carmen (JPK Instruments AG, Germany) “Easy-to-Use High-Spatial and High-Temporal Atomic Force Microscopy Simultaneous to Advanced Optical Microscopy” O 93 Pinto, Inês (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Cell Dynamics: nanocharacterization of actomyosin-based force generating systems” I 42 Pinto, Tânia V. (REQUIMTE/LAQV, Universidade do Porto, Portugal) “Photoswitchable silica nanoparticles for the production of light responsive smart textiles: from fabrication to coating technology” OP 94 Pires, A. Filipa S. (FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal) “Catechins: a powerful weapon against oxidative stress and DNA lesions” OP 96 Pires, Bernardo (INESC-MN, Portugal) “High Precision Methodology Control for Nano MTJ Fabrication Process up to 150 mm Wafers” O 97 Prazeres, Duarte Miguel (iBB, Instituto Superior Técnico, Univ. de Lisboa, Portugal) “Carbohydrate binding modules as a generic tool to anchor biomolecules and metal nanoparticles on the surface of paper-based biosensors” O 98 Ribeiro, Daniela (ICETA/UCIBIO/REQUIMTE/FFUP, Portugal) “Biophysical Properties of Model Membranes under the Effect of Daunorubicin” O 100 Ribeiro, Miguel (CeNTI - Centre for Nanotechnology and Smart Materials, Portugal) “Large area, flexible electrochromic displays based on novel electroactive polymers” O 101 Rivadulla Fernández, Francisco (University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain) “Fabrication of high-quality epitaxial thin-films of functional oxides by a chemical solution method” K 30 Rodrigues, Ana Rita O. (University of Minho, Portugal) “Magnetoliposomes based on manganese ferrite nanoparticles as nanocarriers for antitumor drugs” OP 101 Rodríguez Méndez, María Luz (Universidad de Valladolid, Spain) “Antioxidants detection with nanostructured electrochemical sensors” O 103 Sá, Maria H. M. (Biomark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Portugal) “Carbon Black modification towards electrochemical biosensors” O 104 Sadewasser, Sascha (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Growth of CuInSe2 nanowires by molecular beam epitaxy without external catalyst” O 105 Salomon, Adi (Bar-Ilan University, Israel) “Strong Coupling in Plasmonic systems and their Interaction with Molecules” O 106 Salonen, Laura M. (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Covalent Organic Frameworks for the Capture of Waterborne Toxins” O 107 Samuelson, Lars (Lund University, Sweden) “From basic Nanowire research to real-world applications” K 30 San José, Pablo (ICMM-CSIC, Spain) “Majorana Zero Modes in Graphene” I 41
  17. 17. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 17 Page Sandre, Olivier (LCPO (Univ. Bordeaux / CNRS / Bordeaux-INP), France) “Iron oxide nanoparticles grafted with thermosensitive polymers and diblock elastin-like peptides studied by in situ dynamic light backscattering under magnetic hyperthermia” O 108 Schift, Helmut (Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Switzerland) “Patterning of DLC leaky waveguide sensors using nanoimprint lithography” K 31 Shukla, Alok (Indian Institute of Technology, India) “Theory of Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Graphene Nanodisks” O 110 Silva, Carla (CeNTI - Centre for Nanotechnology and Smart Materials, Portugal) “Development of fibers and textiles structures for energy harvesting and storage” O 111 Silva, Cláudia G. (Laboratório Assocado LSRE-LCM, Portugal) “Au/ZnO nanostructures for photocatalytic applications” O 112 Silva, João Pedro (Center for Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Portugal) “Antimicrobial peptide delivery from self-assembling Hyaluronic acid Nanoparticles for tuberculosis treatment” O 114 Teixeira, Bruno M. S. (University of Aveiro, Portugal) “Effect of spin reorientation transition in NdCo5/Fe bilayers” OP 115 Teixeira, Jennifer P. (I3N, University of Aveiro, Portugal) “Evaluation of CdS and ZnxSnyOz buffer layers in CIGS solar cells” OP 117 Truta, Liliana A.A.N.A. (BioMark-CINTESIS/ISEP, Portugal) “The potential of artificial antibodies as biosensing devices for monitoring the Interleukin 2 cancer biomarker” OP 118 van Hulst, Niek (ICFO, Spain) “NanoPhotonics: ultrafast control of nanoparticles, nanoantennas and single quantum emitters” K 32 Vieu, Christophe (LAAS-CNRS, France) “Investigation of cell mechanics using nanodevices and nano-instruments: some examples” K 33 Wang, Xiaoguang (International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal) “Facile construction of 3D integrated nickel phosphide composite as wide pH-tolerant electrode for hydrogen evolution reaction” O 120 Zukalova, Marketa (J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry, ASCR, Czech Republic) “Li (Na) insertion in TiO2 polymorphs and their composites with graphene for battery applications” O 121
  18. 18. Abstracts
  19. 19. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 19 FedericoCapasso School of Engineering and Applied Sciences Harvard University, Cambridge, UK capasso@seas.harvard.edu M e t a s u r f a c e s : N e w F r o n t i e r s i n S t r u c t u r e d l i g h t a n d S u r f a c e W a v e s Patterning surfaces with subwavelength spaced metallo-dielectric features (metasurfaces) allows one to locally control the amplitude, phase and polarization of the scattered light, allowing one to generate complex wavefronts such as optical vortices of different topological charge and dislocated wavefronts [1,2]. Recent results on achromatic metasurfaces will be presented including lenses and collimators. Metasurfaces have also become a powerful tool to shape surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and more generally surface waves. I will present new experiments on imaging SPP that have revealed the formation of Cherenkov SPP wakes and demonstrated polarization sensitive light couplers that control the directionality of SPP and lenses which demultiplex focused SPP beams depending on their wavelength and polarization. R e f e r e n c e s [1] N. Yu and F. Capasso Nature Materials 13, 139 (2014) [2] P. Genevet and F. Capasso Reports on Progress in Physics 78, 24401 (2015) Andres Castellanos-Gomez 2D Materials & Devices group. IMDEA Nanoscience. Madrid, Spain andres.castellanos@imdea.org 2 D S e m i c o n d u c t o r s f o r O p t o e l e c t r o n i c s A p p l i c a t i o n s In this talk I will review the recent progress on the application of atomically thin crystals different than graphene on optoelectronic devices. The current research of 2D semiconducting materials has already demonstrated the potential of this family of materials in optoelectronic applications [1-4]. Nonetheless, it has been almost limited to the study of molybdenum- and tungsten- based dichalcogenides (a very small fraction of the 2D semiconductors family). Single layer molybdenum and tungsten chalcogenides present large direct bandgaps (~1.8 eV). Alternative 2D semiconducting materials with smaller direct bandgap would be excellent complements to the molybdenum and tungsten chalcogenides as they could be used for photodetection applications in the near infrared. Furthermore, for applications requiring a large optical absorption it would be desirable to find a family of semiconducting layered materials with direct bandgap even in their multilayer form. Here I will summarize the recent results on the exploration of novel 2D semiconducting materials for optoelectronic applications: black phosphorus [5-7], TiS3 [8, 9]. Recent efforts towards tuning the optoelectronic properties of 2D semiconductors by strain engineering will be also discussed [10, 11]. R e f e r e n c e s [1] Yin Z. et al, Single-layer MoS2 phototransistors, ACS Nano (2011) [2] Lopez-Sanchez, O., et al., Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2, Nature Nanotech. (2013) [3] Buscema M., et al., Large and tunable photo- thermoelectric effect in single-layer MoS2, Nano Letters (2013) [4] Groenendijk D.J., et al., Photovoltaic and photothermoelectric effect in a doubly-gated WSe2 device, Nano Letters (2014) [5] Castellanos-Gomez, A., et al., Isolation and Characterization of few-layer black phosphorus. 2D Materials (2014) [6] Buscema M., et al., Fast and broadband photoresponse of few-layer black phosphorus field-effect transistors. Nano Letters (2014) [7] Buscema M., et al., Photovoltaic effect in few- layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating. Nature Communications (2014). K E Y N O T E c o n t r i b u t i o n s
  20. 20. 20 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) [8] Island J.O., et al., Ultrahigh photoresponse of atomically thin TiS3 nanoribbon transistors. Adv. Opt. Mater. (2014) [9] Island J.O., et al., TiS3 transistors with tailored morphology and electrical properties. Adv. Mater. (2015) [10] Castellanos-Gomez, A., et al., Local strain engineering in atomically thin MoS2. Nano Letters (2013) [11] Quereda, J., et al., Quantum confinement in black phosphorus through strain-engineered rippling. arXiv:1509.01182 (2015) F i g u r e s Yong Chen Department of Chemistry, Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS), Paris, France Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto University, Japan Centre for Quantitative Biology (CQB), Peking University, China yong.chen@ens.fr N a n o b i o e n g i n e e r i n g o f c e l l u l a r m i c r o e n v i r o n m e n t : F r o m c u l t u r e d i s h t o c u l t u r e p a t c h Nature does nothing uselessly (Aristotle: I.1253a8). This point of view is particularly helpful when we develop new tools and methods for cell biology and biomedical studies. By mimicking the in vivo cellular microenvironment and tissue organization, we designed a new patch form device for off-ground culture and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells which showed numerous advantages over conventional culture dish methods. We will illustrate the high application potential of such a culture patch method in regenerative medicine, drug screening and cancer diagnosis. We will also discuss, among many others, issues related to the organs on a chip and body on a chip, taking into account the advantage of the human induced pluripotent stem cells and the culture patch methods as well as the tremendous needs of such an approach in coming years. M. Despont Department of Chemistry, Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS), CSEM SA, Neuchâtel, Switzerland mdespont@csem.ch M E M S a r e a w a t c h ´ s b e s t f r i e n d Besides the breakthrough of MEMS devices in automotive and consumer markets during the last decade (pressure sensors, accelerometers, gyroscopes,..), micro-machining allowed to develop innovative devices in niche markets like for example the watch industry. Swiss watch makers quickly understood the advantages like the manufacturing accuracy and design freedom offered by the combination of the micro- machining techniques and the mechanical properties of materials like for example silicon. The mechanical properties of Si make it a material of choice to realize a spring. It has a high Young modulus, a low CTE and is a-magnetic. Deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) was the key enabling technology that allowed the realization of silicon watch parts. One of the first components developed for watches is the silicon hairspring. This part can be
  21. 21. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 21 considered as the hearth of the watch. Conventional hairsprings are fabricated from a roll- laminated wire wound in the form of a spiral. Only a few companies in the world master this technique. There are extremely stringent requirements on the alloy used to shape the spring in order to get a good thermal compensation. Proper oxidation of the silicon springs allows getting a fully thermally compensated spring with properties exceeding the performance of conventional hairsprings. This material is called the “Silinvar” (see Fig. 1). These devices are now manufactured in large volumes by Swiss watch makers. Since then many components like wheels and anchors have been realized in silicon. The design freedom given by the use of photolithography allowed for the integration of complex mathematic considerations in order to improve the performance of the spiral hairsprings. Another example is the company Girard Perregaux who developed a totally new escapement mechanism based on a bi-stable spring element (figure 2). Silicon has outstanding mechanical properties. It is however brittle which makes it more challenging to integrate in conventional mechanisms in a watch. It is for example not possible to press-fit an axis in the center of silicon part. Recent advances allowed us realizing an hybridation of metallic parts on silicon either by bonding or direct electro-deposition (Figs 3 and 4). This marriage of booth the advanced mechanical properties of silicon with wafer level metallic parts (UV LIGA) allowed us to produce complex assemblies on wafer level. The obtained components can be worked like traditional parts by the watch makers, the interfacing with the other components of the watch being done on the metallic part. Future trends in the MEMS developments for mechanical watches are the use of new materials like for example Silicon carbide, the development of innovative surface treatments reducing the friction (Fig. 5) as well as the fabrication of complex modules using wafer level assembly (WLA) techniques. F i g u r e s Figure 1: “Silinvar” hairspring. Lateral dimensions are controlled down to below +/- 200 nm. Figure 2: Constant escapement spring structure by Girard Perregaux. The width of the bi-stable spring is 14 microns for a thickness of 120 microns and a length of 2 cm. Figure 3: Hybride assembly of a metallic gear on a silicon wheel. Figure 4: Electrodeposited gold in a Silicon balance wheel in order to get the required inertia. Courtesy of Patek Philippe SA.
  22. 22. 22 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) Vladimir Falko National Graphene Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK Vladimir.Falko@manchester.ac.uk B r i g h t , d a r k a n d s e m i - d a r k t r i o n s i n t w o - d i m e n s i o n a l t r a n s i t i o n m e t a l d i c h a l c o g e n i d e s We analyse dark and bright states of charged and neutral excitons in two-dimensional (2D) metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) MoX2 and WX2 (X = S, Se) and analyse their appearance in the optical spectra affected by the inverted sign of spin-orbit splitting of conduction band states in MoX2 and WX2. We use diffusion Monte Carlo approach to evaluate the trion binding energy and we determine interpolation formulae for the exciton and trion binding energies to describe their dependence on the 2D lattice screening parameter, the electron/hole band masses, and electron-hole exchange. Finally, we analyse the speed of energy relaxation of photoexcited carriers in TMDCs. Christoph Gerber Swiss Nanoscience Institute SNI, Institute of Physics Univ. of Basel, Basel, Switzerland christoph.gerber@unibas.ch P u s h i n g t h e b o u n d a r i e s i n p e r s o n a l i z e d h e a l t h c a r e w i t h A F M t e c h n o l o g y There are more than 200 different types of cancers, but they all have the same cause: a random change, or mutation, in a cell's genetic code that trigger cells in the body to grow and divide uncontrollably So far some of these mutations are known and targeted therapies or drugs have been developed for cancer treatments that made the difference in survival for many people. However since the sequencing of the entire human genome it turns out that we know now what we are made of but we still don't know to a large extent how we work that is that epigenetical changes can eventually alter cancerogenesis and produce different mutations which means that the therapy stops working. Including immunotherapie eliminating cancer by stimulating the immune system treating the malignant tumors as an infection and thereby keeping the system from being 'switched off' could be a powerful combination in future cancer therapies. However fast new diagnostic tools are therefore required. Recently Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) technologies have come of age in various biological applications. Moreover these developments has started to enter the clinic. From this toolkit we use a micro-fabricated silicon cantilevers array platform as a novel biochemical highly sensitive sensor that offers a label-free approach for point of care fast diagnostics where ligand-receptor binding interactions occurring on the sensor generating nanomechanical signals like bending or a change in mass which is optically detected in-situ. It enables the detection of multiple unlabelled biomolecules simultaneously down to picomolar concentrations within minutes in differential measurements including reference cantilevers on an array of eight sensors. The sequence-specific detection of unlabelled DNA in specific gene fragments within a complete genome is shown. In particular the expression of the inducible gene interferon- a within total RNA fragments and unspecific back ground. This gives rise that the method allows monitoring gene regulation, an intrinsic step in shining light on disease progression on a genetic level. Moreover two types of cancer have been investigated on a genetic level: malignant melanoma BRAF, the deadliest form of skin cancer as well as invasive ductal carcinoma HER2 the most common Breast cancer can be detected with this technology on a single point mutation without amplification and labeling in the background of the total RNA.
  23. 23. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 23 James K. Gimzewski Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, USA WPI Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Japan; California Nanosystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, USA gimzewski@cnsi.ucla.edu D e v e l o p m e n t o f a " B r a i n - l i k e " C o m p u t a t i o n s y s t e m u s i n g A t o m i c S w i t c h N e t w o r k s The self-organization of dynamical structures in complex natural systems is associated with an intrinsic capacity for computation. Based on new approaches for neuromorphic engineering, we discuss the construction of purpose-built dynamical systems based on atomic switch networks (ASN). These systems consist of highly interconnected, physically recurrent networks of inorganic synapses (atomic switches). By combining the advantages of controlled design with those of self-organization, the functional topology of ASNs has been shown to produce emergent system-wide dynamics and a diverse set of complex behaviors with striking similarity to those observed in many natural systems including biological neural networks and assemblies. Numerical modeling and experimental investigations of their operational characteristics and intrinsic dynamical properties have facilitated progress toward implementation in neuromorphic reservoir computing. We discuss the utility of ASNs as a uniquely scalable physical platform capable of exploring the dynamical interface of complexity, neuroscience, and engineering. R e f e r e n c e s [1] A.Z. Stieg, A.V. Avizienis, H.O. Sillin, C. Martin- Olmos, M. Aono and J.K Gimzewski. Advanced Materials 24(2), 286-293 (2012) [2] H.O. Sillin,H-. H. Hsieh, R. Aguilera, A.V. Avizienis, M. Aono, A.Z. Stieg and J.K. Gimzewski, Nanotechnology 38(24), 384004 (2013). [3] A.V. Avizienis, H.O. Sillin, C. Martin-Olmos, M. Aono, A.Z. Stieg and J.K Gimzewski. PLoS ONE 7(8): e42772 (2012). [4] A.Z. Stieg, A.V. Avizienis, H.O. Sillin, H-.H. Shieh, C. Martin-Olmos, R. Aguilera, E.J. Sandouk, M. Aono and J.K. Gimzewski. In: Memristor Networks, Eds. Adamatzky & Chua, Springer- Verlag (2014). [5] E.C. Demis, R. Aguilera, H.O Sillin, K. Scharnhorst, E.J Sandouk1, M. Aono3, A.Z Stieg & J.K Gimzewski, Nanotechnology, 26 (10) 204003 (2015) [6] V. Vesna, A.Z. Stieg in Handbook of Science and Technology Convergence, Eds, W. Bainbridge, M.C Roco, Springer (2016) Gabi Grützner micro resist technology GmbH, Germany g.gruetzner@microresist.de M a t e r i a l I n n o v a t i o n s E n a b l i n g A d v a n c e d N a n o f a b r i c a t i o n f o r L a b t o F a b A p p l i c a t i o n For more than 20 years, micro resist technology GmbH (mrt) has been developing and providing innovative photoresists, special polymers and ancillary materials for a variety of micro- and nanolithography applications. Due to these highly specialized products, mrt is a trusted supplier of global high-tech markets such as semiconductor industry, MEMS, optoelectronics, nanotechnology and other emerging technologies. Beside photoresists for UV / DUV-applications and e-beam lithography mrt has focused on the development and fabrication of resist materials for the next generation of lithography applications. Beside improved versions of positive and negative tone photoresists the innovation for nanofabrication is mainly set on nanoimprinting materials and hybrid polymer materials. A broad material portfolio for nanoimprint lithography has been developed including resists for
  24. 24. 24 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) thermal NIL (T-NIL), in which a thermoplastic polymer is used, and photo-NIL, in which a liquid photo-curable formulation is applied. Furthermore, suitable materials with low viscosity and the fast photo-curing reaction enable continuous roll-to-roll NIL processes. The NIL resists are mostly applied as etch mask for pattern transfer into various substrates, like Si, SiO2, Al or sapphire. Furthermore, bilayer approaches for the realization of very high aspect ratios have been developed. In addition, mrt offers a broad portfolio of UV- curable hybrid polymer products for micro- and nano-optical applications. Their excellent optical transparency and high thermal stability makes them perfectly suitable for the production of polymer- based optical components and waveguides by means of various micro- and nanofabrication techniques. Main fields of application are micro lenses, diffractive optical elements (DOE), gratings, and single-mode or multi-mode waveguides. New developments in NIL- and hybrid polymers will be demonstrated, discussed, and application results will be given representing different lab and fab manufacturing schemes. F i g u r e s Figure 1: Resist pattern generated by photo-NIL. Figure 2: Microlens array made from OrmoComp®by Ink Jet Printing Brian A. Korgel 1 , Xiaotang Lu 1 , Aaron Chockla 1 , Taizhi Jiang1 , Emily Adkins1 , Chongmin Wang 2 , Meng Gu 2 1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas Materials Institute, Center for Nano- and Molecular Science and Technology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA 2 Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwestern National Laboratory, Richland, USA korgel@che.utexas.edu S i l i c o n a n d G e r m a n i u m N a n o w i r e s f o r L i t h i u m a n d S o d i u m I o n B a t t e r i e s Silicon (Si) and Germanium (Ge) have both been explored as high storage capacity negative electrodes (or anodes) in lithium ion batteries as a replacement for graphite. Si has very high lithium storage capacity (of about an order of magnitude greater than graphite); however, Si-based electrodes usually require the addition of carbon because of the low electrical conductivity of Si. We have recently shown that carbon addition can be minimized by using Si nanowires with a thin layer of carbon coating [1,2], or completely avoided using Si nanowires containing high concentrations of tin (Sn, 8-10 mol%) [3]. The Sn-containing Si nanowires can be cycled in LIBs with very high capacity (~1,000 mA h g -1 for more than 100 cycles at a current density of 2.8 A g -1 (1 C). Capacities exceeding graphite (of 373 mA h g -1 ) could be reached at rates as high as 2 C. Ge nanowire LIB electrodes have lower charge capacity (1,624 mA h g -1 ) than Si, but perform better than Si at high cycle rates (without the addition of carbon). One approach that we have been exploring for achieving high capacity and high rate capability in batteries is to combine Si and Ge nanowires into one electrode. Using this approach, a capacity of 900 mA h g -1 could be obtained at extremely fast delithiation rates of
  25. 25. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 25 20 C (37.16 A g -1 ). Using in situ TEM, we have been studying the lithiation/delithiation mechanisms of Si and Ge nanowires and observe that fast rates lead to pore formation in both Si and Ge, which should be considered when designing electrolytes and electrode formulations [4]. We have also been studying nanowire materials for energy storage concepts beyond the lithium ion battery that use alternatives like Na, Ca or Mg. We have found that Ge nanowires are a very good electrode material for Na-ion batteries (NIBs). Crystalline Ge does not sodiate; however, a pretreatment process of lithiation to amorphize the nanowires then leads to very efficient sodiation. We have performed in situ TEM studies of the sodiation and desodiation of Ge nanowires and find that sodiation rates are actually quite fast, similar to the typical rates observed for lithiation of Ge nanowires. The current state-of-the- art of Si and Ge nanowire materials for LIB and NIBs will be discussed. R e f e r e n c e s [1] A. M. Chockla, J. T. Harris, V. A. Akhavan, T. D. Bogart, V. C. Holmberg, C. Steinhagen, C. B. Mullins, K. J. Stevenson, B. A. Korgel, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133 (2011) 20914. [2] T. D. Bogart, D. Oka, X. Lu, M. Gu, C. Wang, B. A. Korgel, ACS Nano 8 (2014) 915. [3] T. D. Bogart, X. Lu, M. Gu, C. Wang, B. A. Korgel, RSC Adv. 4 (2014) 42022. [4] X. Lu, T. D. Bogart, M. Gu, C. Wang, B. A. Korgel, J. Phys. Chem. C 119 (2015) 21889. F i g u r e s Figure 1: TEM images of an Si nanowire after several lithiation/delithiation cycles. The nanowire shrinks in diameter and develops pores after each delithiation event. Relithiation causes the nanowire to swell and the pores are filled in. Thomas Laurell Dept. Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden thomas.laurell@bme.lth.se A c o u s t i c s e e d - t r a p p i n g e n a b l e s r a p i d e n r i c h m e n t a n d p u r i f i c a t i o n o f n a n o v e s i c l e s i n v o l v e d e x t r a c e l l u l a r s i g n a l l i n g Extracellular vesicles (EV) encompass several different cell-derived nanometer scale vesicles, which all play important roles in intercellular communication, e.g. through membrane integrated proteins that target cells and trigger intracellular signalling pathways or fuses with the target cell delivering gene-regulating components such as mRNA or microRNA (miRNA). Exosomes are small intraluminal vesicles (50-100 nm) secreted via so called multivesicular endosomes and are recognized as an important mode of cell-independent communication and immune system regulation. Exosomes are present in all biofluids and contain a wide range of proteins and RNAs that reflect their tissue of origin. Microvesicles (microparticles) are larger in size, 100-1000 nm, and are disseminated from cells by budding from the plasma membrane into the extracellular space, having similar function in extracellular communication. The study of extra cellular vesicles involves extensive ultracentrifugation protocols to isolate exosomes and microvesicles. In order for ultracentrifugation to be functional, sufficient material must be available to allow the formation of a visible pellet after the centrifugation. This usually requires several 2-5 mL of biofluid and is a major bottle neck in advancing research in this area due to the limited access to such large sample volumes. Our group has recently reported that bacteria as well as nanoparticles (110 nm) can be enriched by means of capillary based acoustic trapping configured in the so called seed-trapping mode. Acoustic seed-trapping utilises inter particle forces, occurring as ultrasound waves are scattered between two particles. By seeding the acoustic trap
  26. 26. 26 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) with larger particles (≈10 um) that can easily be retained against flow by the primary acoustic radiation force, when exciting a capillary with a local ultrasonic vibration, nanometer sized particles in a sample that is exposed to the larger seed particles in the acoustic trap will be attracted to the seed particles, aggregate and be retained against flow. This mechanism enables rapid enrichment of nanometersized solid particles as well as biological nanoparticles, i.e. bacteria, exosomes and microvesicles. The basics of acoustic trapping will be discussed and the application of acoustic seed- trapping to realise a rapid microfluidic system for detection of bacteria in blood will be described and the first tests of this in a clinical setting on 57 patient samples will be discussed. The seed-trapping platform has also been investigated for the enrichment and enumeration of platelet derived microvesicles in blood plasma from patients with myocardial infarction, demonstrating analogous data to what was obtained by ultracentrifugation based sample preparation. Initial data on exosome and micro vesicle enrichment from cell cultures, cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma will also be presented, showing our first data on protein content in these vesicles using LC MS/MS analysis and detection of short RNA and microRNA by qRT-PCR. The development of acoustic seed-trapping for nanoparticle preparation now opens up a Holy Grail for biomarker research and diagnostics in small sample volumes (50-200 uL) which are not accessible for ultra centrifugation and hence extensive studies of extracellular vesicles in cryopreserved biobank samples based on large population-based cohorts may now be possible. J. Alexander Liddle Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA james.liddle@nist.gov N a n o f a b r i c a t i o n : F r o m D N A - D i r e c t e d A s s e m b l y t o V o l u m e N a n o m a n u f a c t u r i n g The term “nanofabrication” encompasses the myriad of techniques that can be used to make nanostructures, but only a small subset can make the transition to economic viability that defines “nanomanufacturing”. I will discuss some of the process-related criteria, such as speed, yield, precision, defectivity, and flexibility, as well as economic criteria, such as market size and cost margin, which must be considered when determining whether or not a fabrication process might be suited to manufacturing. I will illustrate these concepts through examples taken from the semiconductor industry and our own work on DNA- directed assembly [1 – 4]. R e f e r e n c e s [1] S. H. Ko, et al., Adv. Func. Mater., 22 1015 (2012) [2] S. H. Ko, et al., Angew. Chemie, 52, 1193 (2013) [3] K. Du, et al., Chem. Commun., 49, 907 (2013) [4] S. H. Ko, et al., Soft Matter, 10, 7370 (2014) R. Miranda Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia (IMDEA-Nanociencia), Madrid, Spain Dep. Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. rodolfo.miranda@imdea.org T a i l o r i n g G r a p h e n e f o r S p i n t r o n i c s The development of graphene spintronic devices requires that, in addition to its capability to passively transmit spins over long distances, new magnetic functionalities are incorporated to graphene. By growing epitaxially graphene on single crystal metal surfaces under UHV conditions [1] and either adsorbing molecules on it or intercalating heavy atoms below it, long range magnetic order or giant spin-orbit coupling, respectively, can be added to graphene.
  27. 27. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 27 i) Achieving long range magnetic order by a monolayer of electron acceptor molecules adsorbed on graphene /Ru(0001). Epitaxial graphene is spontaneously nanostructured forming an hexagonal array of 100 pm high nanodomes with a periodicity of 3 nm [2]. Cryogenic Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) and Spectroscopy and DFT simulations show that TCNQ molecules deposited on gr/Ru(0001) acquire charge from the (doped) substrate and develop a sizeable magnetic moment revealed by a prominent Kondo resonance. The molecular monolayer self-assembled on graphene develops spatially-extended spin-split electronic bands. The predicted spin alignment in the ground state is visualized by spin-polarized STM at 4.6 K [3]. The system shows promising perspectives to become an effective graphene- based spin filter device. ii) Introducing a giant spin-orbit interaction on graphene/Ir(111) by intercalation of Pb. The intercalation of an ordered array of Pb atoms below graphene results in a series of sharp pseudo-Landau levels in the differential conductance revealed by STS at 4.6 K. The vicinity of Pb enhances by four orders of magnitude the, usually negligible, spin- orbit interaction of graphene. The spatial variation of the spin-orbit coupling creates a pseudo-magnetic field that originates the observed pseudo-Landau levels [4]. This may allow the processing and controlled manipulation of spins in graphene. R e f e r e n c e s [1] A.L. Vázquez de Parga et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 056807 (2008) [2] B. Borca et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 036804 (2010) [3] M. Garnica et al, Nature Physics 9, 368 (2013) [4] F. Calleja et al, Nature Physics 11, 43 (2015) F i g u r e s Figure 1: Differential conductance for Pb-intercalated graphene. Klaus Müllen MaxPlanckInstituteforPolymerResearch,Mainz,Germany muellen@mpip-mainz.mpg.de H o w t o M a k e a n d h o w t o U s e C a r b o n N a n o s t r u c t u r e s Graphene is praised as multifunctional wonder material and rich playground for physics. Above all, it is a two-dimensional polymer and thus a true challenge for materials synthesis. Herein I present, both, “bottom-up” precision synthesis and “top- down” fabrication protocols toward graphene. The resulting materials properties cover an enormous breadth ranging from batteries, supercapacitors, oxygen reduction catalysts, photodetectors and sensors to semiconductors. Another question is whether graphene holds promise for robust technologies. An attempt will be made at providing answers. R e f e r e n c e s Nature 2010, 466, 470; Nature Chem. 2011, 3, 61; Nature Nanotech. 2011, 6, 226; Nature Chem. 2012, 4, 699; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 7640; Nature Commun. 2013, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3646; Nature Commun. 2013, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3487; Adv. Polym. Sci. 2013, 262, 61; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 1570; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 6083; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 1538; Nature Nanotech. 2014, 9, 182; Nature Nanotech. 2014, 9, 131; Nature Chem. 2014, 6, 126; Nature Commun. 2014, DOI:10.1038/ncomms5973; Nature Nanotech. 2014, 9, 896; Nature Commun. 2014, DOI:10.1038/ncomms5253; Adv. Mater. 2015, 27, 669; ACS Nano 2015, 9, 1360; Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 2927; J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137, 6097; Nature Commun. 2015, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8992; Nature Commun. 2015, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms8655.
  28. 28. 28 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) Stella W. Pang DepartmentofElectronicEngineering,CenterforBiosystems, Neuroscience,andNanotechnology,CityUniversityofHong Kong,Kowloon,HongKong pang@cityu.edu.hk N a n o f a b r i c a t e d P l a t f o r m s f o r B i o s e n s i n g a n d C e l l C o n t r o l Biosensing using neural probes and cell migration control using patterned topography will be reviewed. Neural probes are used in vivo to study neural activities of the central nervous system and retinal responses. We have developed low impedance neural probes with integrated temperature sensors to monitor neural activities in the brain and retina. By controlling the dimension, distribution, and morphology of the electrode sites on the probes, neural signals with high signal to noise ratio were obtained. Improved neural activity detection was achieved by lowering the electrode impedance using plasma treatment of the electrode surface. Position of the implanted neural probes could be monitored using the integrated temperature sensors. These temperature sensors were useful to detect the temperature rise during neural stimulation at different current levels. Controlling cell movement and cell screening are crucial for biosystems. Cell switches based on patterned topography with different bending angles, segment lengths, and pattern densities have been designed to control unidirectional cell migration with better than 85% probability of passing the switches. To improve the unidirectional passing probability, sealed channels with guidance topography, a height of 15 μm, and a width of 10 μm were used to confine the cells and move them through the channels in the designated direction without external force, chemical gradient, or fluidic flow. This will be the basis for “smart” platform, which is capable of sorting adherent cells to the predesigned locations. Natural killer (NK) cells serve an important role in immune system by recognizing and killing potentially malign cells without antigen sensitization, and could be important in cancer therapy. We have designed and fabricated microwell arrays with microchannel connections to study the interaction dynamics of NK-92MI cells with MCF7 breast cancer cells using time-lapse imaging. NK cell cytotoxicity was found to be stronger in larger microwells with shorter triggering time of first target lysis. Microchannel connection between adjacent microwell of the same size increased the overall target death ratio by >10%, while connection between microwells of different sizes led to significantly increased target death ratio and delayed first target lysis in smaller microwells. Our findings reveal unique cell interaction dynamics such as initiation and stimulation of NK cell cytotoxicity in a confined microenvironment. N. M. R. Peres UniversityofMinho,DepartmentandCenterofPhysics, Braga,Portugal peres@fisica.uminho.pt B a s i c N o t i o n s i n G r a p h e n e P l a s m o n i c s In this talk we discuss basic notions of graphene plasmonics in the mid- and far-infrared spectral regions. We first compare some elementary properties of metal plasmonics versus graphene plasmonics in those spectral regions. We then move to the physics of surface plasmon-polaritons in a continuous graphene sheet. It follows a discussion of the methods for exciting SPP's in graphene. Subsequently, the properties of a periodic micro- ribbons grid and its potential application in biosensing is discussed. The case of graphene nano- structures is also briefly considered. The coupling of SPP's to phonons is analysed. R e f e r e n c e s [1] P. A. D. Gonçalves and N. M. R. Peres, An Introduction to Graphene Plasmonics, (World Scientific, 2016)
  29. 29. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 29 F i g u r e s Figure 1: Spectrum of surface phonon-plasmon-polaritons of graphene on SiO2 Francesc Pérez-Murano MicroelectronicsInstituteofBarcelona(IMB-CNM,CSIC) Bellaterra,Spain Francesc.Perez@csic.es D i r e c t e d s e l f - a s s e m b l y o f b l o c k c o - p o l y m e r s : c h e m i c a l g u i d i n g p a t t e r n s a n d a d v a n c e d n a n o m e t e r - s c a l e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n Directed self-assembly (DSA) of block co- polymers allows the generation of high-resolution patterns at wafer scale level [1]. The characteristic feature size of the final pattern is dictated by the molecular weight of the block co-polymer, while its orientation is prompted by the predefinition of guiding patterns on the surface. DSA is considered by the semiconductor industry as one of the best candidates as lithography method for the next technological nodes, as it combines high resolution (< 10 nm half pitch) and high throughput, together with more simplicity and lower cost in comparison with extreme UV optical lithography. In chemical epitaxy DSA, the guiding patterns that fix the orientation and position of the block co- polymer self-assembled features are defined as areas of the surface of varied chemical strength (affinity) with the blocks forming the co-polymer. In the first part of the talk, we will show different examples of creating high resolution chemical guiding patterns for chemical epitaxy DSA: functionalization by selective oxygen plasma exposure [2], direct chemical modification by atomic force nanolithography [3]; and electron beam exposure [4]. By properly tuning of the interface energies, it is possible to generate patterns of dense arrays of line/spaces using wide guiding stripes, relaxing the requirements of the lithography method for the guiding pattern generation. In addition, we will show our recent advances in the characterization of thin polymer layers of self- assembled block co-polymers by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). There is an increasing need for new metrology approaches when the critical dimension of the patterns approaches or it is below 10 nm. We use peak force tapping to probe the nanomechanical properties of the block co- polymers, including the change in elasticity of the block copolymer phases, allowing to determine the optimal conditions for their imaging [5]. The work has been developed in the framework of several EU-funded collaborative projects: SNM FP7-ICT-2011-8-318804 , CoLiSa FP7-ICT-2011-8- 318804, PLACYD (FP7-ICT-2011-8-318804 and PCIN- 2013-033 MINECO. R e f e r e n c e s [1] R. Ruiz et al. Density multiplication and improved lithography by directed block copolymer assembly. Science 321 (2008) 936-939 [2] L. Oria et al. Polystyrene as a Brush Layer for Directed Self-Assembly of Block Co-Polymers. Microelectron.Eng. 110 (2013) 234-240 [3] M. Fernández-Regúlez et al. Sub-10 Nm Resistless Nanolithography for Directed Self- Assembly of Block Copolymers. Appl.Matter.Interfaces 6 (2014) 21596-21602 [4] L. Evangelio et al. Creation of guiding patterns for directed self-assembly of block copolymers by resistless direct e-beam exposure. J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 14 (2015) 033511
  30. 30. 30 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) [5] M. Lorenzoni et al. Nanomechanical Properties of Solvent Cast PS and PMMA Polymer Blends and Block Co-Polymers. J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS. 14 (2015) 033509 Francisco Rivadulla CIQUS-CentrodeInvestigaciónenQuímicaBiológicay MaterialesMoleculares,UniversidaddeSantiagode Compostela,SantiagodeCompostela,Spain f.rivadulla@usc.es F a b r i c a t i o n o f h i g h - q u a l i t y e p i t a x i a l t h i n - f i l m s o f f u n c t i o n a l o x i d e s b y a c h e m i c a l s o l u t i o n m e t h o d In this talk I will review our most important results about the physical properties of high-quality epitaxial oxide thin-films prepared by a chemical solution method. In the first part of the talk I will describe our efforts for identifying the most relevant chemical aspects of the synthesis, and the strategies we followed for optimizing them. After that, I will discuss several examples to demonstrate that an excellent control over the thickness, chemical, structural, electronic and magnetic homogeneity can be achieved on multicationic oxides, over areas of several cm 2 by this simple method. I will show that epitaxial oxide-heterostructures can be also prepared in this way, which constitutes an important step forward in the competitiveness of the chemical solution methods, compared with traditional physical deposition techniques. Finally, I will describe our attempts to combine this chemical solution technique with physical deposition methods (in this case MBE) for the synthesis of complex heterostructures on Silicon. Particularly, I will show how a large piezoelectric response can be obtained in relatively thick layers of BaTiO3, deposited over porous chemically- synthesized layers of LSMO, on STO/Si. R e f e r e n c e s [1] Quanxi Jia et al. Nature Materials 3, 529 - 532 (2004) [2] F. Rivadulla et al. Chem. Mat. 25, 55 (2013) [3] Lucas et al. ACS Appl. Mat. Interf. 6, 21279 (2014) [4] J. M. Vila-Fungueiriño et al.Chem. Mater. 26, 1480 (2014). [5] J. M. Vila-Fungueiriño et al., ACS Appl. Mat. Interf. (2015) [6] B. Rivas-Murias et al. Scientific Reports 5, 11889 (2015) [7] J. M. Vila-Fungueiriño et al. Frontiers in physics. 3, 38 (2015) Lars Samuelson LundUniversity,NanoLund/SolidStatePhysics,Lund,Sweden lars.samuelson@ftf.lth.se F r o m b a s i c N a n o w i r e r e s e a r c h t o r e a l - w o r l d a p p l i c a t i o n s Semiconductor nanowires are ‘needle’-like structures with unique materials, electronic and optical properties that renders them promising for next-generation applications in fields like opto/electronics, energy systems and life sciences. An intensive and world-wide research effort in the field of nanowires was launched in the late 1990s, about ten years after the pioneering work by Dr. Hiruma at Hitachi, Japan. In my research group we spent the first five years on fundamental studies of the materials growth and the materials physics of nanowires, especially heterostructure systems [1], while in parallel also developing novel methods that combined top-down patterning with bottom-up self- assembly, to enable the reproducible fabrication of perfectly ordered nanowire arrays [2], [3]. From around 2005 it became evident that this blue-sky materials research [4], [5] offered significant advantages and opportunities for various applications, primarily in enabling high-speed [6] and optoelectronics devices by monolithic integration of III-V nanowires with silicon [7]. We have also explored ways in which these nanostructures can be used for energy scavenging [8] and in applications that enable energy conservation [9].
  31. 31. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 31 In this talk I will also present my perspective of broader materials research considerations related to semiconductor nanowires, what the state-of-the-art is, what the key challenges are and focus particularly on the opportunities that these nanostructures present in terms of realizing the next-generation of high-performance optoelectronics devices such as solar cells and light-emitting diodes, at a low cost and with low materials consumption [10]. R e f e r e n c e s [1] M.T. Björk et al., “One-dimensional steeple-chase for electrons…”, Nano Lett 2 (2002) 87. [2] T. Mårtensson et al., “Fabrication of individually seeded NW…”, Nanotechn. 14 (2003) 1255. [3] T. Mårtensson et al., “Nanowire arrays defined by nanoimprint litho..”, Nano Lett 4 (2004) 699. [4] A.I. Persson et al., “Solid-phase diffusion mechanisms for…”, Nature Materials 3 (2004) 677. [5] K.A. Dick et al., “Synthesis of branched ‘nanotrees’ by…”, Nature Materials 3 (2004) 380. [6] C. Thelander et al., “Nanowire-based one-dim. electronics”, Materials Today 9 (2006) 28. [7] T. Mårtensson et al., “Epitaxial III-V nanowires on silicon”, Nano Lett 4 (2004) 1987 [8] J. Wallentin et al., “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8%...”, Science 339 (2013) 1057. [9] B. Monemar et al., “NW-based visible LEDs..”, Semicond. & Semimet Acad. Press/Elsevier (2015). [10] M. Heurlin et al., “Continuous gas-phase synthesis of nanowires…”, Nature 492 (2012) 90. H. Schift, D. Virganavicius, V.J. Cadarso PaulScherrerInstitut(PSI),LaboratoryforMicro-and Nanotechnology,VilligenPSI,Switzerland helmut.schift@psi.ch P a t t e r n i n g o f D L C l e a k y w a v e g u i d e s e n s o r s u s i n g n a n o i m p r i n t l i t h o g r a p h y Patterning of materials such as diamond is of interest for a number of application, such as stamps in NIL or hard X-rays optics, due to their unique properties (i.e. high hardness, chemical inertness). Particularly diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have become attractive because of their cost-efficient fabrication and room temperature deposition. During the growth of the DLC film it is possible to dope it with nanometer scale clusters of metals (i.e. silver, copper, etc.). This is an additional advantage since it further broadens their application spectrum [1]. In this work we present a method capable of pattern DLC films in a straightforward way by using thermal nanoimprint lithography (T-NIL) and a simplified process for pattern transfer using hard masks [2]. We used the SiPol resist (micro resist technology GmbH), a thermoplastic resist with a 10% content of covalently bonded silicon that makes it highly resistant to oxygen plasma [3]. Initially Sipol was developed to be used in bilayer system with an organic transfer layer like (UL1) (Fig. a, b, e). Here, SiPol is used directly on DLC (c+d). An “incomplete filling” strategy was employed by using stamps with 250 nm deep patterns. T-NIL was optimized at low temperature (90°C) to avoid other issues such as lack of adhesion, capillary effects or dewetting. This allowed “zero” residual layer imprint and etching the DLC films (f). We develop periodic structures based on DLC which enables to manufacture leaky waveguide sensors. As a result, it is possible to obtain a sensor based on a grating structure that is highly sensitive to the change of the refractive index of surrounding media. R e f e r e n c e s [1] T. Tamulevičius, A. Tamulevičiene, D. Virganavičius et al., Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 341 (2014) 1-6. [2] H. Schift, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), (2008) 458-480. [3] M. Messerschmidt et al., Microelectron. Eng. 98 (2012) 107-111.
  32. 32. 32 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) F i g u r e s Niek F. van Hulst ICFO–theInstituteofPhotonicSciences,theBarcelonaInst. ofScience&Technology,Barcelona,Spain ICREA–InstitucióCatalanadeRecercaiEstudisAvançats, Barcelona,Spain Niek.vanHulst@ICFO.eu N a n o P h o t o n i c s : U l t r a f a s t C o n t r o l o f N a n o p a r t i c l e s , N a n o a n t e n n a s a n d S i n g l e Q u a n t u m E m i t t e r s In my group, we aim to squeeze light down to the smallest nanoscale and fastest femtosecond scale; with these nano-femto-tools we can talk to individual molecules, Q-dots, proteins & plasmonic antennas. Here I will focus on the concepts to control interactions with quantum emitters both in space and time, specifically using optical nanoantennas and phase shaped fs pulses. For spatial control, single photon emitters are brought in the near field of optical resonant antennas for nanoscale excitation and enhancement of the emission into multipolar radiation patterns, with full command of symmetry, multipole parity, rates and polarization. With state-of-the-art antenna fabrication the excitation can be confined to 10 nm scale, while the emission can be enhanced up to 1000 times, reaching towards strong coupling in the weak cavity limit. For temporal control, phase shaped fs pulses are exploited to drive single quantum systems and resonant antennas to dynamically control both their fs response and nanoscale fields. As examples we tackle vibrational response and Rabi-oscillations in individual molecules at ambient conditions; and closed loop control of two-photon excitation of single quantum dots. Finally, as an application of the spatio-temporal control, I will address the role of quantum effects in photosynthesis. Surprisingly within individual antenna complexes (LH2) of a purple bacterium it is observed that ultrafast quantum coherent energy transfer occurs under physiological conditions. Quantum coherences between electronically coupled energy eigen-states persist at least 400 fs, and distinct, time-varying energy transfer pathways can be identified in each complex. Interestingly the single molecule approach allows tracking coherent phase jumps between different pathways, which suggest that long-lived quantum coherence renders energy transfer robust in the presence of disorder. In conclusion I hope to apprise the NanoPT2016 audience as to the potential of nano-femto tools This work is supported by ERC-Advanced Grant 247330; FP7-NanoVista 288263; Marie-Curie International COFUND Fellowships; MICINN Grants CSD2007-046 NanoLight, FIS2009-08203; MINECO Grant FIS2012-35527; Catalan AGAUR 2014 SGR01540; Severo Ochoa grant SEV2015-0522; Fundació CELLEX Barcelona. R e f e r e n c e s [1] Lukasz Piatkowski, Esther Gellings, Niek van Hulst, Nature Commun. 7 (2016). [2] K.J.Tielrooij, L.Piatkowski, M.Massicotte, A.Woessner, Q.Ma, Y.Lee, C.N.Lau, P.Jarillo- Herrero, N.F. van Hulst, F.H.L.Koppens, Nature NanoTechnology 10 (5), 437-443 (2015) [3] Emilie Wientjes, Jan Renger, Alberto G. Curto, Richard Cogdell, Niek F. van Hulst, Nature Commun. 5: 4236 (2014) e) f)
  33. 33. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 33 [4] Anshuman Singh, Gaëtan Calbris, Niek F. van Hulst. NanoLett. 14, 4715-4723 (2014) [5] Nicolò Accanto, Lukasz Piatkowski, Jan Renger, Niek F. van Hulst, NanoLett. 14, 4078-4082 (2014) [6] Nicolò Accanto, Jana B Nieder, Lukasz Piatkowski, Marta Castro, Francesco Pastorelli, Daan Brinks, Niek F van Hulst, Light: Science & Applications 3, e143 (2014) [7] Ion Hancu, Alberto Curto, Marta Castro-López, Martin Kuttge, Niek F. van Hulst, NanoLett. 14, 166-171 (2014) [8] Richard Hildner, Daan Brinks, Jana B Nieder, Richard Cogdell, Niek F. van Hulst, Science 340, 1448-1451 (2013) [9] Daan Brinks, Marta Castro-Lopez, Richard Hildner, Niek F. van Hulst, PNAS 110, 18386– 18390 (2013) [10] Alberto Curto, Tim Taminiau, G. Volpe, M. Kreuzer, Romain Quidant, Niek F. van Hulst, Nature Commun. 4: 1750 (2013) [11] Lukas Novotny and Niek F. van Hulst, Nature Photonics. 5, 83-90 (2011) F i g u r e s Figure 1: Nano-femto- photonics, combining optical nanoantennas with phase controlled femtosecond pulses C. Vieu CNRS,LAAS,7avenueducolonelRoche,Toulouse,France, UnivdeToulouse,INSA,LAAS,Toulouse,France cvieu@laas.fr I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c e l l m e c h a n i c s u s i n g N a n o d e v i c e s a n d N a n o - i n s t r u m e n t s : s o m e e x a m p l e s It is now well established that to perform their various functions, cells undergo a large range of intra and extracellular events, which involve mechanical phenomena at both the micro and nanoscale. Cells are able to sense forces and stiffness (mechanosensing) and to transduce them into a cascade of biochemical signals leading to a context specific cell response (mechanotransduction). At the core of the mechanical activity of cells are the components of their cytoskeleton acting as contractile cables actuated by proteic nanomotors. The nanoscale is thus the appropriate one for investigating the organisation of the active mechanical components and also for the measurement of the exerted forces at a subcellular level. On the other hand the microscale is adapted for upscaling these investigations to cell aggregates and tissues. The nanomechanics of cells is today a flourishing domain of activity in which new methods derived from micro/nanotechnologies have been developed for shedding some light and quantitative values in the mechanosensing properties of cells. This fundamental activity in cell biology meets some medical perspectives as mechanical properties of cancer cells and tumours turned out to differ significantly from normal cells or tissues. After a short presentation of the biological knowledge related to cell mechanics, I will present some elegant methods coming form the micro/nano community that starts to become standard methods. In particular at the nanoscale, the use of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to sense the rigidity of cells [1] or to measure the force exerted by living cells [2] will be exemplified through the investigation of human macrophages. At the microscale, I will show how the forces generated by adherent cells can be investigated using flexible micrometric pillars of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and how this method can be upscaled to measure the forces generated by growing aggregates of cells in the context of tumor growth and metastasis nucleation [3]. R e f e r e n c e s [1] Dynamics of podosome stiffness revealed by atomic force microscopy, A. Labernadie, C. Thibault, C. Vieu, I. Maridonneau-Parini, GM Charrière, Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences 107 (49), 21016-21021 (2010) [2] Protusion force Microscopy reveals oscillatory force generation and mechanosensing activity
  34. 34. 34 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) of human macrophage podosomes, A. Labernadie, A. Bouissou, P. Delobelle, S. Balor, R. Voituriez, A. Proag, I ; Fourquaux, C. Thibault, C. Vieu, R. Poincloux, GM Charrière and I. Maridonneau-Parini, Nat. Comm. (5) 2014 [3] Microdevice arrays of high aspect ratio polydimethylsiloxane pillars for the investigation of multicellular tumour spheroid mechanical properties, L. Aoun, P. Weiss, B ; Ducommun, V. Lobjois and C. Vieu, Lab on Chip 14(3) 2344-2353 (2014) F i g u r e s c) Figure 1: a,b) AFM images of the adhesive structures of living human macrophages (podosomes) and extraction of the quantitative measurment of the time oscillating force of an individual podosome. c) A Micro-device of high aspect ratio PDMS pillars for sensing the force of a growing tumoral spheroid 30 nm 0 nm 0 s 36 s 72 s 108 s 144 s 180 s ba c e Height(nm) d 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Force(nN) Time (s)
  35. 35. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 35 EduardoV.Castro1,2 ,JoãoH.Braz1 ,AiresFerreira3 , MaríaP.López-Sancho4 andMaríaA.H. Vozmediano 4 1 CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal 2 Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing, China 3 Department of Physics, University of York, UK 4 Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Madrid, Spain eduardo.castro@tecnico.ulisboa.pt P h a s e s w i t h n o n - t r i v i a l t o p o l o g y i n g r a p h e n e a n d t r a n s i t i o n m e t a l d i c h a l c o g e n i d e s Topological phases of matter are new quantum states which do not fit into Landau's paradigm of spontaneous symmetry breaking. A topological insulator may have exactly the same symmetries of a non-topological insulator or semiconductor, yet we cannot adiabatically transform one into the other. While both have a finite energy gap in the bulk, only the topological insulator is metallic at the edge/surface due to the presence of a protected edge/surface states. Two dimensional materials have many attributes, but experimental evidence for topological phases has not been reported yet. Curiously enough, one of the first proposals for a two-dimensional topological insulator was made for graphene. The key ingredient is the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling which, unfortunately, is extremely low in graphene, making this phase undetectable. It has been suggested that randomly depositing certain heavy adatoms can amplify the effect by many orders, and that a dilute concentration should be enough to open a detectable topological gap. Here we analyze this problem taken into account the random position of the adatoms, which makes the problem intrinsically disordered, using a realistic adatom parametrization. We show that: (i) for the widely used model where adatoms locally enhance graphene's intrinsic spin-orbit interaction, and additionally induce a local shift of the chemical potential, a low adatom density (coverage <<1% ) makes the system topologically non-trivial; (ii) for a realistic model where, apart from intrinsic spin orbit, extra terms are also induced, the critical adatom density is larger by at least one order of magnitude (coverage >>1%). Using realistic parameter values we show that recent experiments are still deep in the topologically trivial side of the transition. Fortunately, nature provides other two- dimensional materials where the subject of topology is pertinent. In particular, transition metal dichalcogenides are semiconducting materials which, contrary to graphene, have non- negligible spin-orbit coupling. Even though the system is topologically trivial, the sizable spin-orbit coupling induces an appreciable spin-splitting of the valence band, where a finite anomalous spin- valley-Hall response develops due to the non- trivial topology of the Fermi surface. Taking into account the moderate to high local electron- electron interactions due to the presence of transition metal atoms, we show that the system is unstable to an itinerant ferromagnetic phase where all charge carriers are spin and valley polarized. The spontaneous breaking of time reversal symmetry originates an anomalous charge Hall response which should be detected experimentally. I N V I T E D c o n t r i b u t i o n s
  36. 36. 36 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) Choon-Gi Choi, Yoonsik Yi, Chi-Young Hwang Creative Research Center for Graphene Electronics, Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI), Daejeon, Korea cgchoi@etri.re.kr E x t r a o r d i n a r y o p t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f v i s i b l e a n d t e r a h e r t z m e t a m a t e r i a l s Metamaterials and metasurfaces are artificially fabricated materials and surfaces with periodic wavelength structures that exhibit exotic properties such as negative refraction, superlens imaging, invisibility cloaking, extraordinary transmission and near-perfect absorption. In this work, we report a flexible and freestanding fishnet structured negative refractive index media working at visible wavelength. The metamaterial has basically a multilayer fishnet structure with circular hole instead of the rectangular one to reduce the pitch size of the metamaterial. The metamaterial shows negative refractive index in optical regime between 570nm and 615nm. In addition, we introduce a flexible multi- layered THz metamaterial designed by using the Babinet’s principle with functionality of narrow band-pass filter. The metamaterial give us systematic ways to design frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) working on the intended frequency and band (width). It shows an extraordinary transmission at the THz working frequency due to the strong coupling of the two layers of metamaterial complementary to each other Finally, we propose a design of metamaterial absorber structures and its numerical analysis for the use of reflection type spatial light modulation in the visible regime. Since the size of each metamaterial element is subwavelength scale, neighboring metamaterial elements of the same type can be grouped into a single pixel of a hologram or a spatial light modulator. The modification of the structure allows the control of each pixel's reflectivity from near-zero to a pre- designed level. Each metamaterial hologram pixel consists of 20×20 absorbers of the same structure (pixel size of 4×4μm 2 , 500×500 pixels). F i g u r e s Figure 1: (a) Negative index media flexible metamaterial. The lengths of a unit cell along the incident electric field (l1) and magnetic field (l1) are set to 160nm and 224 respectively, the thicknesses of both metal (t) and polyimide layer (s) are 50 nm, and the hole diameter (d) is 100nm. (b) Top-view of the SEM image of the fabricated metamaterial. (c) The image the metamaterial on the flexible substrate. Figure 2: Thin square-fishnet-square flexible terahertz metamaterial. Unit cell period is 40 um and gap is 5 um. Figure 3: Simulations for metamaterial hologram generation and reconstruction. Accommodation effect can be observed from the reconstruction results (d: reconstruction distance)
  37. 37. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 37 R. Ferreira, E. Paz, J. Crocco and P. P. Freitas INL – International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal ricardo.ferreira@inl.int M a g n e t o r e s i s t i v e S e n s o r s a i m i n g r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e d e t e c t i o n o f b i o m a g n e t i c f i e l d s Magnetoresistive devices and magnetic nanostructures are key building blocks in a large number of commercial electronic products across a wide range of applications [1-4] covering industrial positioning sensors, automotive sensors, hard disk drive read heads and embedded memories. This presentation will focus on the key developments carried out at INL during the last 4 years concerning the development of state-of-the- art magnetoresistive devices using CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB Magnetic Tunnel Junctions. Key challenges include the development of a high yield process able to provide sensors with well controlled dispersion of key specifications and linear transfer curves [5,6]. Despite the large sensitivities of MgO based sensors, the detection of low frequency weak magnetic fields at room temperature remains challenging due to the large 1/f noise noise present in the devices. This capability is required to address applications such as Magneto- Cardiography (MCG), a non-invasive and non- contact technique used to monitor the transient activity of the human heart which generates magnetic fields in the range of 1pT-100pT at frequencies in the range of 1Hz. MCG is currently performed with SQUID magnetometers requiring cryogenic setups and with limited spatial resolution. The solution developed at INL to address MCG applications with MTJ sensors is described, including the device stack, geometry and acquisition setup used to minimize the 1/f noise in MTJ sensors down to levels of 30pT/Hz @ 4 Hz. The current low frequency detection limits [7-10] are already small enough to pick up the magnetic field of the heart but still require an improvement of about one order of magnitude in order to resolve the field in the time domain. R e f e r e n c e s [1] "2-axis Magnetometers Based on Full Wheatstone Bridges Incorporating Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Connected in Series”, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, P. P. Freitas, J. Ribeiro, J. Germano and L. Sousa, IEEE Trans. Magn., 48(11), p 4107 (2012) [2] "Electrical Characterization of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction Current Sensor for Industrial Applications”, J. Sanchez, D. Ramirez, S. Ravelo, A. Lopes, S. Cardoso, R. Ferreira and P. P. Freitas, IEEE Trans. Magn., 48(11), p2823 (2012) [3] "Improved Magnetic Tunnel Junctions Design for the Detection of Superficial Defects by Eddy Currents Testing", F. A. Cardoso, L. S. Rosado, F. Franco, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, S. Cardoso, P. M. Ramos, M. Piedade and P. P. Freitas, IEEE Trans. Magn., 50(11), p6201304, (2014) [4] "Integration of TMR Sensors in Silicon Microneedles for Magnetic Measurements of Neurons", J. Amaral, V. Pinto, T. Costa, J. Gaspar, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, S. Cardoso and P. P. Freitas, IEEE Trans. Magn., 49(7), p3512-3515, (2013) [5] "Large Area and Low Aspect Ratio Linear Magnetic Tunnel Junctions with a Soft-Pinned Sensing Layer”, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, P. P. Freitas, J. Wang and S. Xue, IEEE Trans. Magn., vol 48, issue 11, p 3719 (2012) [6] "Linearization of Magnetic Sensors with a Weakly Pinned Free Layer MTJ Stack Using a Three-Step Annealing Process”, R. Ferreira, E. Paz and P. P. Freitas, in press (2016) [7] "Strategies for pTesla Field Detection Using Magnetoresistive Sensors With a Soft Pinned Sensing Layer", J. Valadeiro, J. Amaral, D. C. Leitao, R. Ferreira, S. Cardoso and P. P. Freitas, IEEE Trans. Magn., 51(1), p4400204, (2015) [8] "Magnetic tunnel junction sensors with pTesla sensitivity", S. Cardoso, D. C. Leitao, L. Gameiro, F. Cardoso, R. Ferreira, E. Paz and P. P. Freitas, Microsyst. Technol., 20, p793-802, (2014) [9] "Room temperature direct detection of low frequency magnetic fields in the 100 pT/Hz(0.5) range using large arrays of magnetic tunnel junctions", E. Paz, S. Serrano-Guisan, R. Ferreira and P. P. Freitas, J. App. Phys., 115(17), p17E501, (2014) [10] "Magnetic tunnel junction sensors with pTesla sensitivity for biomedical imaging", S. Cardoso, L. Gameiro, D. C. Leitao, F. Cardoso, R. Ferreira, E. Paz, P. P. Freitas, U. Schmid, J. Aldavero and M. LeesterSchaedel, Smart Sensors, Actuators, and Mems, 8763, (2013)
  38. 38. 38 | n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) Chen-zhong Li1,2 , Evangelia Hondroulis2 , Ming Hong 1 , Xia Li 1 1 College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Shandong, China 2 Nanobioengineering/Bioelectronics lab, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Florida, USA licz@fiu.edu N a n o p a r t i c l e E n h a n c e d E l e c t r o m a g n e t i c C o n t r o l o f C a n c e r C e l l D e v e l o p m e n t f o r N a n o t h e r a n o s t i c s Nanomaterials are being considered in the development of new drugs and new therapies and have been used in tissue engineering and medical imaging, leading to improved diagnostics and new therapeutic treatments. Nanotheranostics is referred to as a treatment strategy that integrates nanotechnology and therapeutics to diagnostics, aiming to monitor the response to treatment, which would be a key part of personalized medicine and require considerable advances in predictive medicine. A major limitation in the current treatments such as chemotherapy, radio therapy for cancer is the negative side effects that occur. Recently non-invasive therapy including electrical therapy and magnetic therapy recently has made significant progress based on the deep understanding of biophysical and bioelectrical properties of biomolecules and the development of nanotechnology and fabrication technology. Recently we demonstrated a whole cell-based array-formatted electrical impedance sensing system to monitor the effects of external alternating electric fields on the behavior of ovarian cancer cells HTB-77™ (SKOV3) compared to normal human umbilical vascular endothelial cells CRL-1730™ (HUVEC). The biosensor employed will measure in real-time the electrode surface impedance changes [2] produced by growing cell monolayers over the electrodes and detecting any changes in resistance associated with changes in the cell layer after electric field exposure [3]. A significant effect on slowing down proliferation rate was observed in the cancer cells through the lower resistance curves of the electrical impedance sensing system in real-time as the external field was applied compared to a control with no applied field. Upon further investigation of this technique, our group has found that the therapeutic effects of the electric therapy technique can be significantly increased by functionalizing the surface of cancer cell membranes with gold nanoparticles, this is specifically true for breast cancer tissue [2]. The binding of charged nanoparticles to the cell surface plasma membrane will change the zeta potential value of the cells, a feature of the cell that has been used in cell biology to study cell adhesion, activation, and agglutination based on cell-surface-charge properties. We determined that an enhanced electric field strength can be induced via the application of nanoparticles, consequently leading to the killing of the cancerous cells limited effects on non-cancerous cells. This discovery will be helpful for developing an electronic therapeutic platform for non-invasive cancer treatment without limited harmful side effects. R e f e r e n c e s [1] E. Hondroulis, S. J. Melnick, X. Zhang, Z-Z. Wu, C.-Z. Li, Electrical Field Manipulation of Cancer Cell Behavior Monitored by Whole Cell Biosensing Device, Biomedical Microdevices, 2013. 15(4), 657-663. [2] E. Hondroulis, C.Z Li. Whole cell impedance biosensoring devices. Methods Mol. Biol. 2012;926:177-87 [3] E. Hondroulis, C. Chen, C. Zhang, K. Ino, T. Matsue, C.-Z. Li, “Immuno Nanoparticles Integrated Electrical Control of Targeted Cancer Cell Development Using Whole Cell Bioelectronic Device”, Theranostics, 2014; 4(9):919-930.
  39. 39. n a n o P T 2 0 1 6 B r a g a ( P o r t u g a l ) | 39 Tatiana Makarova Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland Tatyana.Makarova@lut.fi T a b b y g r a p h e n e : r e a l i z a t i o n o f z i g z a g e d g e s t a t e s a t t h e i n t e r f a c e s Tabby is a pattern of kitty's coat featuring distinctive stripes, dots, or swirling patterns. Ideally, the stripes are non-broken lines; evenly spaced. Decoration of the graphene basal plane with the stripes of attached atoms along the zigzag crystallographic directions creates the edge states at the sp 2 /sp 3 interfaces. “Zigzag" is a magic word in the graphene world: it is expected that zigzag edges qualitatively change the electronic properties, including spin magnetism. Theories predict an extended spin polarization along the graphene edges in the ground state, with opposite spin directions at opposite edges. We have recently synthesized a novel graphene derivative decorated by monoatomic fluorine chains running in the crystallographic directions and measured strong one-dimensional magnetism in this two- dimensional material [1]. Tabbies have been realized on bilayer graphenes where the bipartite lattice creates a discriminating mechanism leading to the formation of regular stripy patterns whereas crossing and branching are suppressed. R e f e r e n c e s [1] Makarova, T. L. et al., Scientific Reports 5, 13382 (2015). Lorenzo Pastrana INL – International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, Portugal lorenzo.pastrana@inl.int N a n o s t r u c t u r e s f o r f o o d a p p l i c a t i o n s There are three primary structures at nanoscale suitable to be used in foods, namely: nanoparticles/nanocapsules, nanolaminates and nanofibres /nanotubes. All these structures can be obtained using food grade biopolymers such as carbohydrates, lipids or proteins. As the consequence of their properties, each structure can be used for different applications. Thus, nanoparticles/nanocapsules are useful for controlled delivery of bioactive and functional compounds or to protect against degradation during processing or storage of labile food components. The main application for nanolaminates is to develop edible coatings for active packaging of fresh and perishable foods. Finally, nanofibres and self-assembling nanotubes can be used for nanoencapsulation but also to modify or create new macroscopic rheological properties. Several examples of these applications will be discussed: On demand and smart delivery of encapsulated antimicrobials on temperature and pH sensitive pNIPA nanohydrogels will be showed [1]. In the same way, casein nanocapsules are suitable for calcium and iron fortification of biscuits without modification of their organoleptic properties. Nanoemulsions of candelilla wax incorporating a polyphenol extract can be used to obtain an edible nanocoating able to prevent apple spoilage and extend their shelf life [2]. Finally, self-assembling nanotubes can be used to encapsulate caffeine and also to modify the rheological properties of α-lactoglobulin solutions [3]. R e f e r e n c e s [1] Clara Fuciños, Miguel Cerqueira, Maria J. Costa, António Vicente, María Luisa Rúa, Lorenzo M. Pastrana. (2015) Functional Characterisation and Antimicrobial Efficiency Assessment of Smart Nanohydrogels Containing Natamycin Incorporated into Polysaccharide-Based Films. Food and Bioprocess Technology 8: 1430-1441. [2] Miguel A. De León-Zapata, Lorenzo Pastrana- Castro, María Luisa Rua-Rodríguez, Olga Berenice Alvarez-Pérez, Raul Rodríguez-Herrera, Cristóbal N. Aguilar. (2015) Experimental