Our link to the external reality is through
the senses – the windows of the outside
world. Through our senses or sensory
organs, we come to know our world and
what we sense often affects our behavior.
The process of accepting or receiving the
stimulus by the senses.
It is the experience of sensory stimulation
HOW DOES IT OCCURs?
Sensation – occurs when energy from an external or
internal source stimulates a receptor cell in one or
more sense organs.
Receptor Cell - a specialized cell that responds to a
particular type of energy.
Stimulus – any form of energy that can cause
awareness or change.
Receptors – responsible for the detection of
Transduction – the process by which the senses
by which the senses changes or transfer
stimulus into impulse which will be transmitted
to the brain for perception.
How much stimulus is necessary in order to
see, hear, taste, smell or feel something?
When is a stimulus said to be detected?
The reception of stimulus depends on five
Quality of the stimulus
Quantity or intensity of stimulus
Timing or distinctiveness
Location or source of the stimulus
Difference in perception
Absolute threshold is the minimum amount of
stimulus energy that an individual can
It is the smallest intensity of energy that can
be detected 50 percent of the time.
It is the lower limit of sensitivity.
When there is no sense of awareness of the
stimulus and therefore they escape
unnoticed, the stimulus is in the Subliminal
When there is an increase in intensity, the
stimulus produce pain and make the
individual uncomfortable, the stimulus is said
to be in the terminal threshold.
SENSES ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD
Light Sees a candlelight 30 miles away on a
clear, dark night
Sound Hears the tick of a watch 20 feet away
under silent situation
Smell Sells the scent of one drop of perfume
diffused in a three-room apartment
Taste Taste the sweetness of one teaspoon of
sugar in 2 gallons of water
Touch Feels wing of a fly 1 cm away from the
Senses that responsible for
Perception is the process of interpreting or
giving meaning to the stimulus received
by the senses.
Factors that influence
Intensity of the stimulus
Repetition of the stimulus
Contrast in the stimulus
Movement of the stimulus
Change in the stimulus
Factors that influence
Training of the Perceiver
Experience of the perceiver
Interest and attitude
Types of perception
Gestalt Law of Organization
It maintains that the basic perceptual process
operates on the basis of a series of principles
that describe how to organize bits and
pieces of information into a unified whole
which includes closure, proximity, similarity,
simplicity and continuity.
Law of closure
When a figure has a gap, one tends to
see it as closed or complete.
The figures are open or incomplete, Yet, they are
perceived as closed or complete. Perception of closure is
to close or complete the figures mentally.
Law of proximity
The tendency to group together those
elements that are close together.
One tends to see pairs of dots rather than a
row of single dots.
Law of similarity
The tendency to group together those
elements that are similar in appearance.
One sees the above figures as horizontal rows of circles and
squares instead of vertical mixed columns.
Law of continuity
The tendency not to break the continuous
flow of lines or design in one’s
perceptional awareness allows continuity.
Law of simplicity
The tendency to perceive pattern in most
basic, straightforward, organized manner
The figure above is seen as square joined by 2 lines
rather than letter “w” on top of letter “m”. Having
choice in interpretation, one usually prefer the simple
Other types of perception
1. Visual perception
2. Auditory perception – interpretation of
3. Depth perception – the ability to
perceive the world in 3 dimensions.
4. Haptic perception – the earliest sense to
develop in fetus( sense of touch).
5. Perception of time
Special kinds of perceptions
1. Telepathy – is the transfer of thought
from one person to another without the
regular use of the senses.
2. Clairvoyance – is the ability to see
without the use of the eyes and can
reveal information that may have not
been received by ordinary or regular
3. Precognition – the ability to foretell future
4. Psychokinesis – is the ability to make
object move by thought process alone.
Notes de l'éditeur
Stimulus: this wave can be in the form of light waves, sound waves, temperature, scent, physical touch.
To produce sensation, the stimulus in order to be detected must be strong enough and should be at least in the absolute threshold.
The stimulus energy is transmitted to the brain by the nerve impulses. Then the mind interprets the stimulus, thus, sensation is a prerequisite to perception. Sensation – sense organ Perception - brain
The more intense the object or sensation is, the more it is attended and perceived.(e.g. loud sound tend to be attended to than those which have low intensity. When the stimulus is repeated more often, it is most likely attended to, very much perceived and are less forgotten. A difference in color, shape, and size from those of the ordinary that is found in the environment may likely be attended to or very much percieve by the perciever. A moving object can get more attraction that non-moving pobjects Our attention is more focus to an object that is constantly changing in form, size, color, or shape as a result of lighting effect or movement characteristics of these objects.
Closure – we are inclined to overlook incompleteness in sensory information and to perceive a whole object even when none really exists.
Proximity – when objects are close to one another, we tend to perceive them together rather than separately.
“The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”
Similarity – objects that are of a similar color, size, or shape are usually perceived as part of a pattern.
The figures above shows dot in straight lines and not as separate dots. The dots appear together as two lines dividing each other at the middle and not as four lines meeting at the center.
Continuity – items that continue a pattern or direction tend to be grouped together as part of the pattern.
These are called Extrasensory perception (ESP) or sixth sense. Some psychologist believe that everybody has this ESP.
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