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Sensation and Perception

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Sensation and Perception

  1. 1. Sensation and Perception
  2. 2.  Our link to the external reality is through the senses – the windows of the outside world. Through our senses or sensory organs, we come to know our world and what we sense often affects our behavior.
  3. 3. Sensation  The process of accepting or receiving the stimulus by the senses.  It is the experience of sensory stimulation HOW DOES IT OCCURs?
  4. 4.  Sensation – occurs when energy from an external or internal source stimulates a receptor cell in one or more sense organs.  Receptor Cell - a specialized cell that responds to a particular type of energy.  Elements:  Stimulus – any form of energy that can cause awareness or change.  Receptors – responsible for the detection of stimulus.  Transduction – the process by which the senses by which the senses changes or transfer stimulus into impulse which will be transmitted to the brain for perception.
  5. 5. Absolute Threshold  How much stimulus is necessary in order to see, hear, taste, smell or feel something? When is a stimulus said to be detected?  The reception of stimulus depends on five factor:  Quality of the stimulus  Quantity or intensity of stimulus  Timing or distinctiveness  Location or source of the stimulus  Difference in perception
  6. 6. Absolute threshold  Absolute threshold is the minimum amount of stimulus energy that an individual can detect.  It is the smallest intensity of energy that can be detected 50 percent of the time.  It is the lower limit of sensitivity.
  7. 7.  When there is no sense of awareness of the stimulus and therefore they escape unnoticed, the stimulus is in the Subliminal threshold.  When there is an increase in intensity, the stimulus produce pain and make the individual uncomfortable, the stimulus is said to be in the terminal threshold.
  8. 8. SENSES ABSOLUTE THRESHOLD Light Sees a candlelight 30 miles away on a clear, dark night Sound Hears the tick of a watch 20 feet away under silent situation Smell Sells the scent of one drop of perfume diffused in a three-room apartment Taste Taste the sweetness of one teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water Touch Feels wing of a fly 1 cm away from the cheek
  9. 9. Senses that responsible for Sensation  Eyes (Sight)  Ears (Sound)  Tongue (Taste)  Skin (Touch)  Nose (Smell)
  10. 10. Perception  Perception is the process of interpreting or giving meaning to the stimulus received by the senses.
  11. 11. Factors that influence perception  EXTERNAL FACTORS  Intensity of the stimulus  Repetition of the stimulus  Contrast in the stimulus  Movement of the stimulus  Change in the stimulus
  12. 12. Factors that influence perception  Internal Factors  Motivation  Training of the Perceiver  Experience of the perceiver  Mental set  Interest and attitude
  13. 13. Types of perception  Gestalt Law of Organization  It maintains that the basic perceptual process operates on the basis of a series of principles that describe how to organize bits and pieces of information into a unified whole which includes closure, proximity, similarity, simplicity and continuity.
  14. 14. Law of closure  When a figure has a gap, one tends to see it as closed or complete. The figures are open or incomplete, Yet, they are perceived as closed or complete. Perception of closure is to close or complete the figures mentally.
  15. 15. Law of proximity  The tendency to group together those elements that are close together. One tends to see pairs of dots rather than a row of single dots.
  16. 16. Law of similarity  The tendency to group together those elements that are similar in appearance. One sees the above figures as horizontal rows of circles and squares instead of vertical mixed columns.
  17. 17. Law of continuity  The tendency not to break the continuous flow of lines or design in one’s perceptional awareness allows continuity.
  18. 18. Law of simplicity  The tendency to perceive pattern in most basic, straightforward, organized manner possible. The figure above is seen as square joined by 2 lines rather than letter “w” on top of letter “m”. Having choice in interpretation, one usually prefer the simple one.
  19. 19. Other types of perception 1. Visual perception 2. Auditory perception – interpretation of sound 3. Depth perception – the ability to perceive the world in 3 dimensions. 4. Haptic perception – the earliest sense to develop in fetus( sense of touch). 5. Perception of time
  20. 20. Special kinds of perceptions 1. Telepathy – is the transfer of thought from one person to another without the regular use of the senses. 2. Clairvoyance – is the ability to see without the use of the eyes and can reveal information that may have not been received by ordinary or regular sensation. 3. Precognition – the ability to foretell future events. 4. Psychokinesis – is the ability to make object move by thought process alone.

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Stimulus: this wave can be in the form of light waves, sound waves, temperature, scent, physical touch.
  • To produce sensation, the stimulus in order to be detected must be strong enough and should be at least in the absolute threshold.
  • The stimulus energy is transmitted to the brain by the nerve impulses. Then the mind interprets the stimulus, thus, sensation is a prerequisite to perception.
    Sensation – sense organ
    Perception - brain
  • The more intense the object or sensation is, the more it is attended and perceived.(e.g. loud sound tend to be attended to than those which have low intensity.
    When the stimulus is repeated more often, it is most likely attended to, very much perceived and are less forgotten.
    A difference in color, shape, and size from those of the ordinary that is found in the environment may likely be attended to or very much percieve by the perciever.
    A moving object can get more attraction that non-moving pobjects
    Our attention is more focus to an object that is constantly changing in form, size, color, or shape as a result of lighting effect or movement characteristics of these objects.
  • Closure – we are inclined to overlook incompleteness in sensory information and to perceive a whole object even when none really exists.
  • Proximity – when objects are close to one another, we tend to perceive them together rather than separately.


    “The whole is greater than the sum of its parts”
  • Similarity – objects that are of a similar color, size, or shape are usually perceived as part of a pattern.
  • The figures above shows dot in straight lines and not as separate dots. The dots appear together as two lines dividing each other at the middle and not as four lines meeting at the center.
  • Continuity – items that continue a pattern or direction tend to be grouped together as part of the pattern.
  • These are called Extrasensory perception (ESP) or sixth sense.
    Some psychologist believe that everybody has this ESP.

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