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  1. Last Updated: 03/01/2018 Team: M. W. (Team Leader) R. F. T. D. M.G. T. L. D. J. (Sponsor) DMAIC Project Objective: TITLE Lean Six Sigma DMAIC Improvement Story Copyright © 2018 ets, inc. - – (321) 636-2212 Roadmap 032018
  2. 1 Lean Six Sigma Problem Solving Process The team utilized the 5-Step DMAIC problem solving process. Process Step Description of Key Team Activities Number Name 1 DEFINE  Select Priority Issue / Process  Confirm Stakeholder Requirements  Display Theme Indicator and Performance “Gap”  Develop a SMART Theme Statement  Determine the Cost of Poor Quality  Establish a Method to Monitor Team Progress  Develop a DMAIC Project Schedule 2 MEASURE  Construct a Process Flow Chart  Perform 8 Wastes Analysis  Develop a Data Collection Plan  Stratify the Problem (i.e. “Gap”) and Select the Significant Problem  Develop a Target and a SMART Problem Statement 3 ANALYZE  Identify Potential Root Causes(s)  Verify Root Cause(s)  Assess Impact of Root Causes on the Problem in the Measure Step 4 IMPROVE  Identify and Select Countermeasures  Identify Barriers and Aids  Develop Action Plans  Confirm Pilot Plan Effectiveness and Document Lessons Learned  Determine the Expected Return on Investment 5 CONTROL  Confirm / Document Improvement Results  Determine the Actual Return on Investment  Standardize Improvements within Operations  Replicate Changes  Document Lessons Learned  Identify Future Plans for Continued Process Improvement Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Note: Keep sponsor informed and engaged.
  3. 2 The team and management used a Checklist to monitor team progress. Monitor Team Progress Define Measure Analyze Improve Control ets Six Sigma DMAIC Checklist Step DMAIC Steps – Objectives and Checkpoints  Key Tools / Techniques Step 1: Define Quantify the need for improvement in terms of performance and financial impact. 1. The stakeholders and needs were identified.  Selection Matrix  Line Graph  Theme Statement  Cost of Poor Quality Matrix  Action Plan  Project Charter  Project Planning Worksheet 2. An indicator measuring performance in meeting the need was developed. 3. A theme statement consistent with the indicator was developed, and the Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) were determined. 4. A schedule for completing the five DMAIC steps was developed. 5. The sponsor signed off on the project’s purpose, scope, and significance. Step 2: Measure Identify the significant problem and set a target for improvement. 6. Measurement and data collection systems were developed.  Process Flow Chart  8 Wastes  Checksheet, Spreadsheet, Survey  Histogram  Pareto Chart  Target Setting Worksheet  Problem Statement 7. The theme was stratified from various viewpoints and a significant problem was chosen. 8. A target for improvement was established based on the stakeholders’ needs. 9. The impact of the target on the theme indicator and the COPQ were determined. 10. A problem statement that addressed the gap between the actual and target values was developed. 11. The sponsor signed off on the project’s focus and target.
  4. 3 Monitor Team Progress Define Measure Analyze Improve Control ets Six Sigma DMAIC Checklist Step DMAIC Steps – Objectives and Checkpoints  Key Tools / Techniques Step 3: Analyze Identify and verify the root causes of the problem. 12. Cause and effect analysis was taken to the root level.  Cause and Effect Diagram (Fishbone)  5 Whys  Qualitative Analysis  Single Case Bore Analysis  Chi Square Test  Root Cause Verification Matrix 13. Potential causes most likely to have the greatest impact on the problem were selected. 14. A relationship between the root causes and the problem was verified with data. 15. The impact of each root cause on the gap and the COPQ were determined. 16. The sponsor signed off on the verified root causes and impact on the gap. Step 4: Improve Select and plan effective and feasible countermeasures and determine the expected Return on Investment. 17. Countermeasures were selected to address verified root causes.  Countermeasures Matrix  Work Breakdown Structure  Barriers and Aids Analysis  Cost Benefit Analysis  Action Plan  Pilot/Simulated Pilot  Lessons Learned  Return on Investment 18. The method for selecting the appropriate practical methods was clear and considered effectiveness and feasibility. 19. Barriers and Aids were determined for countermeasures worth implementing. 20. The action plan reflected accountability, schedule, and cost. 21. A test pilot plan was implemented and evaluated to determine the capability to achieve the target established in the Problem Statement. 22. Lessons learned from the pilot were incorporated into the full-scale action plan, and the project’s expected Return on Investment (ROI) was calculated. 23. The sponsor signed off on the action plan and expected results.
  5. 4 Monitor Team Progress Define Measure Analyze Improve Control ets Six Sigma DMAIC Checklist Step DMAIC Steps – Objectives and Checkpoints  Key Tools / Techniques Step 5: Control Confirm the results including the actual Return on Investment, standardize the changes, and develop future plans. Results Phase Evaluate the results by confirming that the countermeasures implemented impacted the root causes, the problem, and the Theme Indicator, and determine the actual Return on Investment.  Before and After Results Graphs  Process Control System  Radar chart  Action Plan (for Future Plans / Next Steps)  Management Presentation 24. The effects of countermeasures on the root causes were demonstrated. 25. The effects of countermeasures on the problem were demonstrated. 26. The improvement target was achieved and causes of significant variation were addressed. 27. The effects of countermeasures on the theme indicator representing the stakeholders’ needs were demonstrated, and the project’s actual ROI was calculated. Standardization Phase Ensure process revisions are incorporated into standard work, including replication in all applicable areas. 28. A method was established to document, permanently change, and communicate the revised process or standard. 29. Responsibility was assigned and periodic checks scheduled to ensure compliance with the revised process or standard. 30. Specific areas for replication were identified. Future Plans Phase Document lessons learned and develop plans for the next process improvement cycle. 31. Any remaining problems of the theme were addressed. 32. Lessons learned, P-D-C-A of the ets DMAIC Method, and team growth were assessed and documented. 33. The sponsor signed off on the results and next steps.
  6. 5 Define Measure Analyze Improve Control 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The team …  Identified Stakeholders and their Needs.  Confirmed alignment to organization’s KPIs. (Scorecard and/or Strategic Plan).  Created a Theme Indicator (Line Graph) for performance.  Developed a SMART Theme Statement consistent with the Theme Indicator (Line Graph).  Determined the Cost of Poor Quality of the “gap”.  Developed a Project Charter and DMAIC Schedule.  Achieved Sponsor Sign-off. Essential Tools
  7. 6 Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Define Step Roadmap Theme Statement Sponsor Sign-off Background Stakeholders 2 Th eme Prob l e m State ment (Summ arize ) Te am Wor k Loca tion Te am Na me Dura tion (mm/yy) thr ough (mm/yy) Sponso r(s) : Te am L eade r Te am Inf o Alt. Te am Lea der Te am M emb er Te am M emb er Te am M emb er Te am M emb er Te am M emb er T e a m M e m b e Te am M emb er # Date Tim e Att % . 1 M e e ti n g s = Prop osed =Actual 20xx 20xx Step J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M Comment s / Exceptions Defi ne Me asure Ana lyze Improve O u tl i n e o f A c t i v i t i e s Control Te am M emb er 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 17 25 10 18 26 11 19 27 12 20 28 13 21 29 14 22 30 15 23 31 16 24 32 To tal Mo nths: Project Planning Worksheet Cost of Poor Quality Matrix  Project Planning Worksheet & DMAIC Schedule  Project Charter 1 3 5 A Theme Statement tells specifically what your DMAIC project is attempting to do. In practice, theme statements serve as the "title" of a DMAIC project, and should be clear and concise. 4  Represents Line Graph  SMART Criteria Applied  KPI Linkage  Strategic Plan Linkage  Selection Matrix  Bar Chart Needs  Situation Appraisal  Consultant Process Tree  Lean vs. Six Sigma  7 Tracks  Value-added Matrix  Benefit vs. Effort Analysis  Stakeholder and Needs Analysis  COPQ Analysis of the gap  Sponsor Review Data Collection Tool Line Graph GAP Outcome Indicator GOOD Q1  Project Indicator Selection  3 Types of Spreadsheets (Spreadsheet design is included in this section and is part of checkpoints 2, 6 and 14)  Checksheets  Spreadsheets  Surveys
  8. 7 The team … 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Define Measure Analyze Improve Control  Constructed a Process Flow Chart and applied the 8 Wastes.  Developed a Checksheet / Spreadsheet or Survey to collect data.  Created a Histogram (if measurable data).  Developed a Pareto Chart to prioritize problems.  Selected the significant problem.  Set a target for the problem (big bar on the Pareto Chart).  Determined how much achieving the target on the problem (big bar) will impact the Theme Indicator.  Developed a SMART Problem Statement.  Achieved Sponsor Sign-off. Essential Tools 6.
  9. 8 Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Measure Step Roadmap 8 Wastes Impact Statement (on Theme) Target Setting Worksheet 11 9 NO YES NO YES Process Flow Chart Histogram 7 Problem Statement During school year 2013/2014 (when), 40.7% of students with disabilities (who) were at Level 3 and above in reading (what).This is 19.3 percentage points belowthe district s target (gap) and contributes to 7 schools (where) not achieving AYP and $2.5 million in potential funding restrictions and penalties (pain). 8 Wastes Examples in my Area …... …... …... …... …... …... …... …... DOWNTIME 8 10 …. …. …. …. Indicator: Process: Organization: The target is set based on the desired improvement on the problem but a check must be made to ensure that the impact of that improvementon the theme indicator is understood. The impact should be explained quantitatively A statement should be made to indicate the impact that meeting the target will have on the theme indicator shown in STEP 1. Data Collection Tool 6  Central Tendency  Variation  DPMO/Sigma Level  Sampling  Mini-tab Pareto Chart 7  MSA / Gage R&R  Stratification Techniques  Benchmarking  Value Added Matrix  Sponsor Review Sponsor Sign-off  SMART Criteria  Significant Problem Selection
  10. 9 The team … 13. 14. 15. Define Measure Analyze Improve Control 12. 16.  Developed a Cause & Effect Diagram (Fishbone) to identify potential causes and applied 5 Whys.  Selected most likely potential causes.  Performed Qualitative Analysis for potential “Quick Wins”.  Conducted Root Cause Verification using Statistical Tools.  Assessed the impact of verified root causes on the Problem (big bar on Pareto Chart) target in the MEASURE step.  Achieved Sponsor Sign-off. Essential Tools
  11. 10 Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Analyze Step Roadmap Impact on Problem Sponsor Sign-off Potential Causes Probable Causes 12 15 16 13 14 14 Root Causes  Cause & Effect Diagram (Fishbone)  Brainstorm  Affinity Process  5 Whys  Qualitative Analysis  Multi-voting  Scatter Diagram  Single Case Bore Analysis  Contingency Table  Chi Square Test  Verification through Observation  Root Cause Verification Matrix  Impact of Root Causes Relative to Problem Target in Measure Step Determined
  12. 11 The team … 17. 18. 19. 21. 22. 23. Define Measure Analyze Improve Control  Developed a Countermeasures Matrix and Selected Countermeasures to Address Root Causes.  Evaluated Practical Methods for effectiveness and feasibility.  Applied Work Breakdown Structure and Performed Barriers and Aids Analysis.  Conducted Cost Benefit Analysis.  Reviewed and updated COQP from DEFINE step.  Developed Action Plan.  Conducted a Pilot Project (An actual pilot or simulation).  Documented lessons learned from the Pilot.  Documented lessons learned from the Project.  Calculated Expected Return on Investment (ROI).  Achieved Sponsor Sign-off. Essential Tools 20.
  13. 12 Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Improve Step Roadmap Work Breakdown Structure $ Cost How Who When Action Plan What: Cost-Benefit Analysis Countermeasures Matrix 17 20 23 19 PS VRC CM 2 CM 3 CM 1 PM 1 PM 2 PM 3 PM 4 PM 5 PM 6 O V E R FEAS EF F 6 2 3 4 5 8 2 4 16 4 4 9 3 3 16 4 4 Yes Yes Yes 20 18 21 Pilot Project Lessons Learned  Lessons learned from Pilot (if applicable)  Lessons Learned from Project  Expected ROI (Return on Investment) Calculated Sponsor Sign-off 22  COPQ Matrix in Define Step Reviewed  Actual or Simulated Pilot  Applied Work Breakdown Structure  Performed Barriers & Aids Barriers & Aids Analysis
  14. 13 The team … 24. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. Define Measure Analyze Improve Control  Developed Before and After Graphs (using graphs shown in the Analyze, Measure, and Define steps in reverse order).  Determined Actual Project Return on Investment (ROI).  Updated the Process Flow Chart and revised procedures.  Provided training in new procedures.  Updated and implemented the Process Control System.  Monitored compliance with new methods.  Identified Replication Opportunities.  Developed an Action Plan for Future Plans / Next Steps.  Documented overall project lessons learned / team growth.  Achieved Sponsor Sign-off.  Team made its Management Presentation, received Recognition. Essential Tools 25. 26. 27. & &
  15. 14 Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Control Step Roadmap Team Presentation Results Standardization 24 33 28 14 31 Future Plans  Before and After Graphs  Reverse Order: - Root Causes (Analyze) - Pareto (Measure) - Histogram (Measure) - Line Graph (Define)  Actual Project ROI Calculated  Procedures Revised  Training Conducted  Process Control System Revised and Monitored for Compliance  Replication Planned  Other Opportunities (Pareto in Results Identified  Overall Lessons Learned from Project Documented  Team Growth Determined  Celebration  Recognition 25 Sponsor Sign-off 26 27 29 30 14 32
  16. 15 Use the Appendix for:  Back up data and analysis documentation.  Meeting minutes.  Source documents and reports.  Organization’s Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), Scorecard, and/or Strategic Plan. Notes: • The “Essential Tools” will be used in most DMAIC project stories. Some projects may require additional tools. • Remember: Fact-based conclusions; consistency in terminology; continuity of data; and logical story flow. Appendix
  17. 16 Vấn đề Tác động Kế hoạch hành động Sản phẩm bị lỗi, mất chip • Vị trí PCB trên Jig không chính xác • Tọa độ in kem hàn bị lệch • Vị trí tiếp xúc của PCB so với vị trí Pusher và các cạnh tạo ra lực ma sát lớn, độ bám kém , trong quá trình di chuyển độ rung cao có thể dẫn đến rơi sản phẩm và Chip • Tọa độ PCB không chính xác dẫn đến sai tọa độ Mount  Tính toán Size kích thước , xác định dung sai cho phép đôi với những Jig NG tối đã cho phép , ảnh hưởng Sản phẩm bị lỗi, mất chip • Độ sáng đèn Led cung cấp ánh sáng nhận diện cho Cam có thể không đủ dẫn đến lỗi nhận diện trong quá trình Pickup và Mount • Thiết bị không nhận diện được Size linh kiện dẫn đến Mount nhầm , Mount lệch tọa độ  Kiểm tra lại hệ thống tầm nhìn, sửa chữa và bảo trì định kỳ để đảm bảo hệ thống hoạt động hiệu quả Sản phẩm bị lỗi, mất chip • Bảo trì máy NPM, Feeder, Nozzel kém làm thiết bị làm việc không hết năng suất , tiềm ẩn nguy cơ đẫn đến lỗi mất Chip trong quá trình sản xuất  Đảm bảo bảo trì và kiểm tra định kỳ cho thiết bị và hệ thống máy móc để giảm thiểu rủi ro hỏng hóc mạch) Sản phẩm bị lỗi, mất chip • Hệ thông hỗ trợ trong quá trình Mount cần kịp thời và chính xác , giảm thiểu độ rung và giữ cho Board đúng vị trí Mount  Đảm bảo sự hỗ trợ của bo mạch cho sản phẩm, đối chiếu với thông số kỹ thuật và sửa chữa khi cần thiết linh kiện sai) Sản phẩm bị lỗi, mất chip • Dữ liệu khai báo linh kiện bị sai dẫn đến Lỗi Pickup và Mount  Kiểm tra lại thông tin linh kiện, đảm bảo đúng thông số kỹ thuật và sửa chữa khi cần thiết g) Sản phẩm bị lỗi, mất chip • Vaccum lỗi hút làm rơi linh kiện trong quá trình Mount  Kiểm tra và sửa chữa kịp thời các lỗi liên quan đến hệ thống hút chân không Sản phẩm bị lỗi, mất chip • Chất lượng in kem hàn kém , các spec không đạt • Chiều cao kem hàn không đủ làm cho độ bám dính giữa Chip và kem hàn kém dẫn đến rơi linh kiện trong quá trình di chuyẻn • Vị trí kem hàn chưa chínhh xác , lệch tâm quá nhiều dẫn đến không thể đưa chip về Pad khi qua Reflow và bị rơi tại đây  Đảm bảo in ấn đúng quy trình, in ấn chính xác trên