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French hitech - Looking at the past to understand the present

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In 2011, a French business school asked me a one day class to explain to international students what's specific about the French hitech industries. Why are we behind in this area while France is a WW leader in aerospace, nuclear or transport industries.

I look at the history of the country to explain why France is efficient at certain things and fails at other.

This file is the corresponding document. The class was given only once :-(

I will update the file at one point.

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French hitech - Looking at the past to understand the present

  1. 1. Studying the « dominance » of French business in the « aerospace, nuclear and rail » transport industries. Marketing French Excellence
  2. 2. Studying the « dominance » of French business in the « aerospace, nuclear and rail » transport industries. What about the hi-tech industries ? Pierre Métivier April 6th 2011
  3. 3. • www.net-7.fr/innovation • pierre.metivier@net-7.fr Pierre Métivier - NET-7 Innovation Conseil en innovation et marketing produit, Technologies sans contact et de l’Internet des objets
  4. 4. Past, Present, Future
  5. 5. • 3 French brands or products • 3 French celebrities from the past – Excluding current singers, actors, politicians,…. Make two lists ? ? ?
  6. 6. • Evariste Gallois • Louis Pasteur • Henri Poincaré
  7. 7. Where is France ?
  8. 8. Where
  9. 9. Past
  10. 10. • -51 BC • Administration • Architecture • Infrastructure • Barrel vs. amphora • Braie / braccae • « latin » country Roman Empire
  11. 11. Latin vs. Anglosphere « anglo-saxon » world • Latin – What’s not allowed is forbidden • Anglosphere – What’s not forbidden is allowed Roman Empire
  12. 12. • XIIth century • Abbé Suger – Saint Denis • Major project organization • « Compagnons » - Unesco - Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity Cathedrals and « Compagnons »
  13. 13. • XVth / XVIth century • Art & Humanism • Architecture • Finance – Cosme de Medicis • « Designo » • Patent • Leonardo da Vinci Renaissance / Quatrocento
  14. 14. • 1492 • Christopher Columbus • Amerigo Vespucci • Magellan • Vasco de Gama • Marco Polo • Jacques Cartier World discovery
  15. 15. • 1585 – 1642 • First « Prime minister » • 30-year religious war • Louis XIII • « Est maitre de lieux celui qui les organise » • Académie Française • Quebec / expansion Richelieu
  16. 16. • 1619 – 1683 • Intendant des finances under Louis XIV • Colbertism - State intervention is needed to secure the largest part of limited resources. • Favorable balance of trade • Colbert also intended to get rid of internal tariffs, and to tax the nobility • Academie des Sciences Colbert
  17. 17. • State owned companies – Les Gobelins – 1601  today – La manufacture de glaces et de miroirs  Saint Gobain – Compagnie des Indes – 1664-1795 • Infrastructure / roads, • « Canal des deux mers » Colbert
  18. 18. • Henri IV - Edit de Nantes – 1598 • Freedom of religion act • Louis XIV – Révocation / Cancellation – 1685 • Over 300 000 « huguenots » (protestants) left France • Industrial « entrepreneurs » – Cadillac – Dupont de Nemours Révocation de l’Edit de Nantes
  19. 19. • 1623 – 1662 • Mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer &philosopher. • 1642 – 1st Mechanical calculator Blaise Pascal
  20. 20. • 1647 – 1712 • Left France for England and « Germany » following the « Révocation de l’Edit de Nantes • In 1704, he constructed a ship powered by steam engine, mechanically linked to paddles • 1st steam-powered vehicle Denis Papin
  21. 21. • European XVIIIth century • Voltaire, Diderot, Rousseau, Montesquieu, D’Alembert, Beaumarchais • Lavoisier, Cugnot, Mongolfier • Grande Encyclopédie 1751 • Strong interest for science Siècle des Lumières
  22. 22. • 1743-1794 • The father of modern chemistry (and biology) • Oxygen, hydrogen • Metric system • List of elements • Matter may change its form or shape, its mass always remains the same. • « Rien ne se crée, rien ne se perd, tout se transforme » Lavoisier
  23. 23. • 1725 – 1804 • First self-propelled mechanical vehicle • He experimented with working models of steam-engine- powered vehicles for the French Army, intended for transporting cannon, starting in 1765. It seated four passengers and moved at a speed of 2.25 miles per hour • Project was cancelled Cugnot
  24. 24. • (1740-1800) • Inventors of the hot air balloon • 1st manned ascent – 1783, 25 minutes, over 900 m altitude, 9 km Mongolfier brothers
  25. 25. • 1789-1799 • 1790-1795 Metric system – Kilogramme – Mètre – Seconde • « Départements » • Monge, Berthollet, Lavoisier French revolution
  26. 26. • Egyptian campaign - 1799 • 167 scientists and scholars ("savants") • Rosetta stone – Champollion 1822 • 1st idea of the Suez canal Bonaparte
  27. 27. • 1769-1821 • Most of France current laws and administrative foundation are dated 1799-1810 • Banque de France, préfectures, Ministry of education, « lycées », baccalauréat, Chambre de Commerce, Cour d’Appel, Code Civil, Cour des Comptes, Prud’hommes, Université, le Franc • Many roads and their trees Napoléon 1er
  28. 28. • 1799-1850 • « Hélas, faire comme faisait nos pères, ne pas innover, telle est la loi du pays » HdB • A writer, entrepreneur, editer, publisher, news, silver mines,… • Failing and starting again Balzac
  29. 29. • 1765-1836 • Physicist, mathematician • Electromagnetism • Relation between electricity and magnetism Ampère
  30. 30. • 1765-1833 • World's first internal combustion engine – 1807 • « Velocipède » - 1817 • 1st photograph – 1825 Nicephore Niepce
  31. 31. • 1787-1851 • Industrializing photography • Invention vs. Innovation • Free « Patent » Louis Daguerre
  32. 32. • 1805-1894 • Developer of the Suez canal, which joined the Mediterranean and Red Seas in 1869 • Started a sea-level Panama canal during the 1880s (finished by the US in 1914) Ferdinand de Lesseps
  33. 33. La Belle Epoque • 1870-1914 • Innovation / progress • « Expositions Universelles » • Planes, Cars, Bicycle  Travel • Photography, cinematography • Telephony, electricity • Medicine • « Art nouveau » – Hector Guimard, Emile Gallé, Lalique
  34. 34. • « 1860-1950 » • Cinematography and 1st movie show - 1895 • « The cinema is an invention without any future » • They declined to sell their camera to other filmmakers • Colour photography – Invented in 1903 – Commercially available in 1907 Louis et Auguste Lumière
  35. 35. • 1872 – 1936 • Aviator, inventor and engineer. • 1909, 1st flight across the English channel in a heavier-than-air craft • 1st monoplace Louis Blériot
  36. 36. • 1877 – 1944 • Industrialist, automobile industry pioneer • 1st car 1898 • 1899 Renault Car company • In 1900, de Dion-Bouton was the largest auto-mobile manufacturer in the world, producing 400 cars & 3200 engines Louis Renault
  37. 37. • 1859-1940 • Born in Clermond Ferrand • Improved greatly on the design of the pneumatic tyre for bicycles, making them easier to repair. • Incorporated 1888 • Radial tyres • World #1 tyre company Edouard (et André) Michelin
  38. 38. • 1842-1888 • Inventor and poet • « Paleophone » 1877 • « The man who almost, but not quite, invented the phonograph » • Also improved telegraph and photography Charles Cros
  39. 39. • Charles Cros – "Il y a tout lieu de croire qu'on voudrait m'évincer de la question et j'ai eu bon nez de faire ouvrir mon pli cacheté. La justice se fera peut-être à la longue mais, en attendant, il y a dans ces choses un exemple de la tyrannie scientifique du capital. On exprime cette tyrannie en disant : les théories sont choses en l'air et n'ont aucune valeur, montrez-nous des expériences, des faits. Et de l'argent pour faire ces expériences ? Et de l'argent pour aller voir ces faits ? Tirez-vous-en comme vous pourrez ! C'est ainsi que bien des choses ne se font pas en France. » • Edison répondit indirectement par cette déclaration en 1889 : – "Il est très aisé d'inventer des choses étonnantes, mais la difficulté consiste à les perfectionner pour leur donner une valeur commerciale. Ce sont celles-là dont je m'occupe. » Charles Cros and Thomas Edison
  40. 40. • 1832-1923 • Architect, entrepreneur, engineer • Ecole Centrale • Eiffel tower – 1899 • Statue of Liberty, NY, 1886 • And many buildings and bridges over the world • Eiffage Eiffel
  41. 41. • 1859-1906 • Both Nobel prize 1903 (and Beckerel) • Research in radioactivity, magnetism and piezzoelectricty Pierre (et Marie) Curie
  42. 42. • 1945-1973 – TGV – Fast train – 1974 – 1981 – – Ariane – space – 1973- 1979- – Caravelle – plane – 1955 - 2005 – Concorde – plane – 1969-2003 – « France » - ship - 1960 – CEA – nuclear program - 1945 Les trente glorieuses
  43. 43. • The three major worldwide sport events (re)invented by French citizens – Olympic Games – Pierre de Coubertin - 1894 – Tour de France – Louis Desgranges -1903 – FIFA World Cup – Jules Rimet - 1928 Rimet, Coubertin, Desgranges
  44. 44. • Nobel price – US 326 UK 116 DE 102 FR 57 • French Nobel price – Physics – 12 – Chemistry - 7 – Medecine – 12 • Fields medal – US 13 FR 10 Russia 9 UK 5 Nobel Price / Fields medal
  45. 45. Patents
  46. 46. Norms and standards
  47. 47. • Standard vs. norm • Important • ISO • Secam, PAL, NSTC • HD DVD, Blue Ray • Microsoft - standard Norms and standards
  48. 48. French approach • Strengths –Invention –Research • Weaknesses –Innovation –Application
  49. 49. Strengths Weaknesses Curie, Renault, Michelin, Eiffel, Cugnot,… Automobiles Aerospace Plane, space Nuclear Construction … (Turing, Bell, Shockey, Steve Jobs, Bill Gates, (Nokia)) Electronics, Radio, TV, computer, Phones Fields
  50. 50. Present
  51. 51. • Education • Companies (size) • State / Etat / Government – Research – OSEO – Pôles de compétitivité / Clusters • Industries – Aerospace, Nuclear, Railway – Utilities – Hi-tech Present
  52. 52. • Top « elite » schools – Engineering – Business – Political • Universities – state funded • Other business schools – stated, regionally funded (CCI) • Other engineering schools – state and private funding • « Professional » schools Education
  53. 53. • Top « elite » Engineering school – Ecole polytechnique – ‘X’ - 1794 – Ecole Centrale - 1829 – Ecole des Arts et Métiers ParisTech - 1780 – Ecoles des Mines ParisTech - 1783 – Ecoles des Ponts et Chaussées ParisTech - 1747 – Télécom ParisTech - 1878 • X-Mines or X-Telecom • A cast system • Strong network • Limited diversity • « Les Grands Corps » Education
  54. 54. • Corps des Ponts et Chaussées (1704 , reorganized in 1804) • Corps du Génie Maritime (1741 , reorganized in 1811) • Corps des Mines (1794 , reorganized in 1810) • Corps des Télécommunications • Inspection générale de l'administration (1781) • Conseil d'État (1799) • Cour des comptes (1807) • Inspection générale des finances (1816) Les Grand Corps – Fonction publique
  55. 55. • Top « Elite » Business school – HEC - 1881 – Essec - 1907 – ESC Paris - 1819 – EM Lyon - 1872 • Strong network • Limited diversity Education
  56. 56. • Political school – Sciences Po - 1872/1945 – ENA - 1945 • Most French politicians have done these two schools, mainly disconnected from the business world Education
  57. 57. • 1794 • An elite institution • A platform for many of France's brightest young people to pursue high-level careers in government and academia. • Its alumni have provided France with scores of philosophers, writers, scientists, statesmen and even churchmen. • 12 Nobel Prize laureates, 10 Fields Medalists, 1 Gauss Prize laureate, and 2 recipients of the John Bates Clark Medal in Economics. Ecole Normale Supérieure
  58. 58. • Top « elite » schools – Engineering – Business – Political • Ecole Normale Supérieure • Totally independant systems • Silos Education
  59. 59. • Companies – Very small - Artisanat – Small – PME - Petite et Moyenne Entreprise – Medium – ETI - Entreprise de Taille Intermédiaire – Large – CAC 40 Present
  60. 60. • One of the highest WW R+D % L’état / state
  61. 61. • One of the highest WW R+D % • Distributed through many organisations – State, Region, Départements – CCI, Clusters, OSEO, ARN • Research institute and financing • OSEO / A.N.R. • Clusters / Pôles de compétitivité L’état / state
  62. 62. • State-funded research organization – CNRS - 1939 • Centre National de Recherche Scientifique • 30,000 employees • 3,3 billion € • Over 4000 active patents – INRIA – 1947 • Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique • 3,900 employees • 190 million € Research
  63. 63. • 2005 (Anvar) • To help PMEs finance their innovation projects • ANR – Agence Nationale de Recherche • 2005 • 955 Millions € OSEO & A.N.R.
  64. 64. • Administration – State, Region, Département,Cities, CCI • Research – CNRS, INRIA, ONR • Education – Business, Engineer, Politics, Universities • Companies – Small to Large From independant organisation…
  65. 65. … to a real ecosystem
  66. 66. • 1970 – Technopole – Sophia Antipolis – Saclay – Innovallée, Grenoble • 2002 – Pôles de compétitivité – State funded 1,5 billion € – Labellisation – PME, large companies, universities, research lab – Project based Pôles de compétitivité / Clusters
  67. 67. Pôles de compétitivité / Clusters
  68. 68. Pôles de compétitivité / Clusters
  69. 69. • Education • Companies (size) • State / Etat / Government – Research – OSEO – Pôles de compétitivité / Clusters • Industries – Aerospace, Nuclear, Railway – Other – Hi-tech Present
  70. 70. Company Activity Company Activity Company Activity Company Activity Accor hotels Air Liquide chemicals Alcatel-Lucent telecommunications Alstom industrial machinery ArcelorMittal steel AXA insurance BNP Paribas banks Bouygues heavy construction Capgemini computer services Carrefour food retailers Crédit Agricole banks EADS aerospace EDF electricity Essilor medical supplies France Télécom telecommu nications GDF Suez gas Groupe Danone food products L'Oréal personal products Lafarge building materials and fixtures LVMH clothing Michelin tires Natixis banks Pernod Ricard distillers PSA Peugeot Citroën automobiles PPR broadline retailers Publicis media agencies Renault automobiles Saint-Gobain building materials Sanofi-Aventis pharmaceuticals Schneider Electric electrical component Société Générale bank STMicroelectronics semiconductors Suez Environnement water Technip oil equipment Total oil and gas Unibail-Rodamco real estate Vallourec industrial machinery Veolia water Vinci heavy construction Vivendi entertainment CAC 40
  71. 71. Pioneer Products Companies Mongolfier, Ader, Santos-Dumont, Blériot, Saint Exupéry, Mermoz Blériot Caravelle Mirage Concorde Airbus Ariane Blériot Sud Aviation EADS Arianespace Thalès Dassault Aerospace
  72. 72. • EADS • Thales • Dassault • CFM International – FR/US Aerospace Industry
  73. 73. • Astrium / EADS • Thales • Alcatel Espace • Ariane • Kourou Space Industry
  74. 74. • Pierre et Marie Curie • AREVA – world leader • 80% stated owned • 2008 - €13.16 billion • EPR – ‘new generation’ – European Pressurized Reactor Nuclear Industry
  75. 75. • SNCF • Alsthom • TGV Rail transport
  76. 76. • Water - 2 largest water suppliers WW – Suez Environment, Véolia • Oil – Total • Electricity – EDF • Gaz – GDF-Suez • Construction / BTP – Bouygues, Eiffage Other industries
  77. 77. • Smart Card • Games • Animation studio Technology industries • Consumer Electronics • Telephony • Computers – Hardware – Software – Services • Minitel • Internet
  78. 78. • Alcaltel Lucent (Bell Labs) • Orange / France Telecom • Schneider Electric • ST Microelectronics • Thales • Dassault system Hi-tech Large Companies
  79. 79. • Wavecom • Devoteam • HighCo • Ilog • Archos • LaCie • Parrot Hi-tech Smaller Companies
  80. 80. • None of the twenty top selling electronic devices in France has been designed, not built in France. Consumer electronics
  81. 81. • 1999 • 2008 – 206 mm € • Hands free technologies • Voice recognition and signal processing for embedded products • Drone - Wifi quadricopter • Bluetooth, Wifi Parrot
  82. 82. • 2005, Henri Crohas • Tablets • Wireless, MP3, video • Archos 7, an iPad-like in 2008 • Chinese market • 22% marketshare for tablets under 400€ last two months of 2010 Archos
  83. 83. • Read 2010 Annual Result presentation • SWOT analysis • Your analysis – Would you invest in Archos • ONE HOUR and PRESENT Archos Group Case
  84. 84. • Components – ST Microelectronics – Gemalto – Inside Secure – Morpho (Safran) – Oberthur – Thales – Ingenico Electronics
  85. 85. • Hardware – Terminal • Sagem Wireless / MobiWire – Components • ST Micro • Inside Secure – SIM • Gemalto • Oberthur – Application • Gameloft Telephony
  86. 86. • 1966 De Gaulle • 1968-1974 • To get France independant in the large computer industry • CII – Compagnie Internationale pour l’Informatique • Unidata – Philips, Siemens, CII • Bull « Plan Calcul »
  87. 87. • 1985 • To get 11 million French student to learn about computers • 120 000 computers, for 110 000 professors • 1,8 billion FF / 270 million € • French computers « Plan Informatique pour tous »
  88. 88. André Truong Trong Thi / François Gernelle
  89. 89. • Jan. 1973, officially, the Micral N is the earliest commercial, non-kit personal computer based on an Intel microprocessor • 1750 $ • 90,000 units • R2E André Truong Trong Thi / François Gernelle - Micral
  90. 90. • Past – R2E – Micral N – Thomson – MO5 / TO7 – SMT Goupil – Bull / Zenith / Micral >1988 • Present – None Computer hardware
  91. 91. • Dassault Systèmes – Katia – 3D PLM – Product Lifecycle Management – Worlwide leader – 5700 employees – 2010 revenue growth - 20% to €1.56 billion – Over 16,000 new customers in 2010 Computer Software
  92. 92. • Cap Gemini – 50 000 employees, 30 countries • Steria • ATOS • 3 worldwide consulting companies Computer Services
  93. 93. • 1980 - Sept 2011 ? • The Internet before the Internet • « One of the world's most successful pre-WWW online services. » • 15 million users • Browse services with a screen and a keyboard • News, mail, professional & personal services Minitel
  94. 94. • (almost) free • A real business model • France only • France Telecom • Free terminals • Pay per use • Professionnal services – 3617 really expensive • « Minitel rose » Minitel
  95. 95. • Global telecom company • 1898 – CGE, 1869 – Western Electric • Provides telecom solutions to service providers, enterprises, and governments, • Delivers voice, data, and video services. • The company focuses on fixed, mobile, and converged networking hardware, IP technologies, software, and services. • Bell Labs, one of the largest innovation and R&D houses in the communications industry. • 130 countries. Internet - Hardware
  96. 96. • French ISP – Iliad • 1999–2001: Network building and voiceband • 2002-2003: ADSL at a disruptive price • 2004-2006: Unbundled ADSL and "triple play » • 2007-present: Fiber to the home • Orange / Free /SFR Internet - Free
  97. 97. • Vente-privée.com – Private online retailing – 2001 – 970 million € 2010 • Meetic – Online dating services – 2001 – Over 30 million subscribers • Kelkoo – Price comparison site – 1999 – Acquired by Yahoo for € 450 million Internet - Applications
  98. 98. • 1974 - Smart Card – Phone card – SIM Card – Moneo – Parking card – Transportation card – Credit card Roland Moreno
  99. 99. – POS terminals – SIM cards – chips Smart Cards – GemPlus – ST Micro – Gemalto – Inside Secure – Morpho (Safran) – Oberthur – Ingenico
  100. 100. Pioneer Products Companies Roland Moreno POS terminals SIM cards Navigo Credit Card chips GemPlus ST Micro Gemalto Inside Secure Morpho (Safran) Oberthur Ingenico Smart Cards
  101. 101. • Vivendi – Activision – World of Wordcraft, Call of Duty • Ubisoft - 870 MM € – WW 3rd video game editor • Rayman • Splinter Cell • Prince of Persia • Assassin's Creed • Gameloft – 122 MM € – Mobile Games
  102. 102. Animation studios Action Synthèse Alphanim Ankama BUF Compagnie Caribara Animation Caribara Annecy Def2shoot DIC Entertainment Ellipse Animation Folimage Jean Image Je suis bien content La Fabrique La Ménagerie Mac Guff Line Partizan Pipangaï Procidis
  103. 103. Future
  104. 104. • Robotics • Contactless technologies • Internet of things Tomorrow
  105. 105. • Nao d’Aldebaran • Jazz de Gostai • Karotz / Nabaztag Robotics
  106. 106. - 109 - Contactless as pictures
  107. 107. - 110 - RFID – Supply Chain L’étiquette RFID est sur un colis. L’information de l’étiquette est lue par le lecteur Le colis passe devant un lecteur RFID et transmise vers le SI pour traitement Graph- O’Reilly
  108. 108. RFID - Transport - 111 - L’étiquette est sur une carte Navigo. L’information de l’étiquette est lue par le lecteur La carte passe devant un lecteur RFID et transmise vers le SI pour traitement Graph- O’Reilly Photo. – RATP
  109. 109. Contactless technologies - 112 - An NFC phone will replace many daily objects Step 1 Usual objects Step 2 - Multi services contacless cards Step 3 NFC Mobile phone Graph. - Nokia
  110. 110. Internet of things - 113 -
  111. 111. Internet of things - 114 -
  112. 112. Studying the dominance of French business in the « aerospace, nuclear and rail » transport industries. What about the hi-tech industries ? Pierre Métivier April 6th 2011

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